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Artif Organs ; 46(5): 932-952, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612843


BACKGROUND: During extracorporeal life support (ECLS), bleeding is one of the most frequent complications, associated with high morbidity and increased mortality, despite continuous improvements in devices and patient care. Risk factors for bleeding complications in veno-venous (V-V) ECLS applied for respiratory support have been poorly investigated. We aim to develop and internally validate a prediction model to calculate the risk for bleeding complications in adult patients receiving V-V ECLS support. METHODS: Data from adult patients reported to the extracorporeal life support organization (ELSO) registry between the years 2010 and 2020 were analyzed. The primary outcome was bleeding complications recorded during V-V ECLS. Multivariable logistic regression with backward stepwise elimination was used to develop the predictive model. The performance of the model was tested by discriminative ability and calibration with receiver operating characteristic curves and visual inspection of the calibration plot. RESULTS: In total, 18 658 adult patients were included, of which 3 933 (21.1%) developed bleeding complications. The prediction model showed a prediction of bleeding complications with an AUC of 0.63. Pre-ECLS arrest, surgical cannulation, lactate, pO2 , HCO3 , ventilation rate, mean airway pressure, pre-ECLS cardiopulmonary bypass or renal replacement therapy, pre-ECLS surgical interventions, and different types of diagnosis were included in the prediction model. CONCLUSIONS: The model is based on the largest cohort of V-V ECLS patients and reveals the most favorable predictive value addressing bleeding events given the predictors that are feasible and when compared to the current literature. This model will help identify patients at risk of bleeding complications, and decision making in terms of anticoagulation and hemostatic management.

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Adult , Cohort Studies , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Humans , Logistic Models , Registries , Retrospective Studies
Lancet ; 396(10257): 1071-1078, 2020 10 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797735


BACKGROUND: Multiple major health organisations recommend the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support for COVID-19-related acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure. However, initial reports of ECMO use in patients with COVID-19 described very high mortality and there have been no large, international cohort studies of ECMO for COVID-19 reported to date. METHODS: We used data from the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO) Registry to characterise the epidemiology, hospital course, and outcomes of patients aged 16 years or older with confirmed COVID-19 who had ECMO support initiated between Jan 16 and May 1, 2020, at 213 hospitals in 36 countries. The primary outcome was in-hospital death in a time-to-event analysis assessed at 90 days after ECMO initiation. We applied a multivariable Cox model to examine whether patient and hospital factors were associated with in-hospital mortality. FINDINGS: Data for 1035 patients with COVID-19 who received ECMO support were included in this study. Of these, 67 (6%) remained hospitalised, 311 (30%) were discharged home or to an acute rehabilitation centre, 101 (10%) were discharged to a long-term acute care centre or unspecified location, 176 (17%) were discharged to another hospital, and 380 (37%) died. The estimated cumulative incidence of in-hospital mortality 90 days after the initiation of ECMO was 37·4% (95% CI 34·4-40·4). Mortality was 39% (380 of 968) in patients with a final disposition of death or hospital discharge. The use of ECMO for circulatory support was independently associated with higher in-hospital mortality (hazard ratio 1·89, 95% CI 1·20-2·97). In the subset of patients with COVID-19 receiving respiratory (venovenous) ECMO and characterised as having acute respiratory distress syndrome, the estimated cumulative incidence of in-hospital mortality 90 days after the initiation of ECMO was 38·0% (95% CI 34·6-41·5). INTERPRETATION: In patients with COVID-19 who received ECMO, both estimated mortality 90 days after ECMO and mortality in those with a final disposition of death or discharge were less than 40%. These data from 213 hospitals worldwide provide a generalisable estimate of ECMO mortality in the setting of COVID-19. FUNDING: None.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Adult , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Care , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Registries , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome