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1.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884377

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the correlation between the mechanism involved in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) replication and autophagic flux. In this study, we found that as PEDV replicated, production of LC3-II was significantly induced up to 24 h post-infection (hpi). Interestingly, although there was significant production of LC3-II, greater p62 accumulation was simultaneously found. Pretreatment with rapamycin significantly induced PEDV replication, but autolysosome formation was reduced. These results were confirmed by the evaluation of ATG5/ATG12 and LAMP1/LAMP2. Taken together, we conclude that PEDV infection induces autophagosome formation but inhibits autolysosome formation during replication.


Subject(s)
Autophagosomes/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Animals , Autophagosomes/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Lysosomes/genetics , Lysosomes/metabolism , Macroautophagy , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Swine , Vero Cells
2.
Cell Biosci ; 12(1): 7, 2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634540

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One of coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and threatened worldwide. However, therapy for COVID-19 has rarely been proven to possess specific efficacy. As the virus relies on host metabolism for its survival, several studies have reported metabolic intervention by SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: We investigated the coronavirus-metabolic hijacking using mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) as a surrogate for SARS-CoV-2. Based on the altered host metabolism by MHV infection, an increase of glycolysis with low mitochondrial metabolism, we tried to investigate possible therapeutic molecules which increase the TCA cycle. Endogenous metabolites and metabolic regulators were introduced to restrain viral replication by metabolic intervention. We observed that cells deprived of cellular energy nutrition with low glycolysis strongly suppress viral replication. Furthermore, viral replication was also significantly suppressed by electron transport chain inhibitors which exhaust cellular energy. Apart from glycolysis and ETC, pyruvate supplement suppressed viral replication by the TCA cycle induction. As the non-glucose metabolite, fatty acids supplement decreased viral replication via the TCA cycle. Additionally, as a highly possible therapeutic metabolite, nicotinamide riboside (NR) supplement, which activates the TCA cycle by supplying NAD+, substantially suppressed viral replication. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that metabolite-mediated TCA cycle activation suppresses replication of coronavirus and suggests that NR might play a role as a novel therapeutic metabolite for coronavirus.

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