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Chest ; 162(4):A462, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060600


SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 1 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Mucormycosis is an angio-invasive fungal infection with substantial morbidity and mortality. While diabetes and immune suppression remain well-known risk factors for mucormycosis, COVID-19 is now emerging as its independent predictor. CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old male, with a history of hyperlipidemia and alcoholism, presented to the hospital with complaints of progressive dyspnea on exertion, productive cough, intermittent fever, anorexia, and chest pain over the course of 2 weeks. About 5 weeks prior to the current presentation, he was tested positive for COVID-19 by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based test and remained in quarantine at home. He was not vaccinated against COVID-19. He had no known immunosuppressive disease. On initial examination, he was ill-appearing and had a temperature of 101 F, blood pressure 138/83 mmHg, respiratory rate 22/minute, pulse 102/minute, and saturation of 91% on 2 L nasal cannula oxygen. A computerized tomography (CT) scan of the chest revealed small bilateral pneumothorax (2 cm and 5mm) along with extensive ground-glass opacifications in all lobes. In the next 24 hours, the right-sided pneumothorax progressed to tension pneumothorax requiring pigtail pleural drainage catheter placement. The drained pleural fluid had more than 100,000/uL total nucleated cells (91% neutrophils, 2% lymphocytes, and 1% eosinophils) and ultimately cultures grew Rhizopus spp. He was started on intravenous liposomal amphotericin-B infusion (5 mg/kg daily). On hospital discharge, he was switched to oral posaconazole (started with loading 300 mg delayed-release tablet twice a day, followed by 300 mg dosing of delayed-release posaconazole tablets daily) to complete the long term treatment course. DISCUSSION: Most of the reported cases of mucormycosis in COVID-19 were in patients with either diabetes or receiving steroids. This is a rare presentation of COVID-19–associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) as spontaneous pneumothorax, in the absence of known immunosuppression history. COVID-19 results in a considerable increase in cytokines, particularly interleukin-6 (IL-6), which increase free iron by increasing ferritin levels due to increased synthesis and decreased iron transport. Also, concomitant acidosis increases free iron by reducing the ability of transferrin to chelate iron and this available iron becomes a considerable resource for mucormycosis. [1] Also, Mucorales adheres to and invades endothelial cells by specific recognition of the host receptor glucose-regulator protein 78 (GRP-78). Acidosis associated with severe COVID-19 triggers GRP-78 and fungal ligand spore coating homolog (CotH) protein expression on endothelial cells, both contributing to angioinvasion, hematogenous dissemination, and tissue necrosis. [2] CONCLUSIONS: Mucormycosis can present as spontaneous pneumothorax after recent COVID-19 and clinicians should be aware of rare clinical presentation. Reference #1: Singh AK, Singh R, Joshi SR, et al. Mucormycosis in COVID-19: A systematic review of cases reported worldwide and in India. Diabetes Metab Syndr Clin Res Rev 2021;15:102146. doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2021.05.019 Reference #2: Baldin C, Ibrahim AS. Molecular mechanisms of mucormycosis—The bitter and the sweet. PLOS Pathog 2017;13:e1006408. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1006408 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Faran Ahmad No relevant relationships by AYESHA BATOOL No relevant relationships by Zachary DePew No relevant relationships by Neil Mendoza