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1.
Front Psychol ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2199167

ABSTRACT

Despite being bio-epidemiological phenomena, the causes and effects of pandemics are culturally influenced in ways that go beyond national boundaries. However, they are often studied in isolated pockets, and this fact makes it difficult to parse the unique influence of specific cultural psychologies. To help fill in this gap, the present study applies existing cultural theories via linear mixed modeling to test the influence of unique cultural factors in a multi-national sample (that moves beyond Western nations) on the effects of age, biological sex, and political beliefs on pandemic outcomes that include adverse financial impacts, adverse resource impacts, adverse psychological impacts, and the health impacts of COVID. Our study spanned 19 nations (participant N = 14,133) and involved translations into 9 languages. Linear mixed models revealed similarities across cultures, with both young persons and women reporting worse outcomes from COVID across the multi-national sample. However, these effects were generally qualified by culture-specific variance, and overall more evidence emerged for effects unique to each culture than effects similar across cultures. Follow-up analyses suggested this cultural variability was consistent with models of pre-existing inequalities and socioecological stressors exacerbating the effects of the pandemic. Collectively, this evidence highlights the importance of developing culturally flexible models for understanding the cross-cultural nature of pandemic psychology beyond typical WEIRD approaches.

2.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13:1052374, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198893

ABSTRACT

The longevity of immune responses induced by different degrees of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection provides information important to understanding protection against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we report the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) specific antibodies and memory B cells recognizing this antigen in sequential samples from patients in Bangladesh with asymptomatic, mild, moderate and severe COVID-19 out to six months following infection. Since the development of long-lived memory B cells, as well as antibody production, is likely to be dependent on T helper (Th) cells, we also investigated the phenotypic changes of Th cells in COVID-19 patients over time following infection. Our results show that patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 mounted significant levels of IgG antibodies out to six months following infection, while patients with asymptomatic or mild disease had significant levels of IgG antibodies out to 3 months following infection, but these then fell more rapidly at 6 months than in patients with higher disease severity. Patients from all severity groups developed circulating memory B cells (MBCs) specific to SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD by 3 months following infection, and these persisted until the last timepoint measured at 6 months. A T helper cell response with an effector memory phenotype was observed following infection in all symptomatic patients, while patients with asymptomatic infection had no significant increases in effector Th1, Th2 and Th17 effector memory cell responses. Our results suggest that the strength and magnitude of antibody and memory B cells induced following SARS-CoV-2 infection depend on the severity of the disease. Polarization of the Th cell response, with an increase in Th effector memory cells, occurs in symptomatic patients by day 7 following infection, with increases seen in Th1, Th2, Th17 and follicular helper T cell subsets.

3.
Frontiers in Global Womens Health ; 3:943641, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198797

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted access to health services. Our objective was to understand the pandemic's impact on access to HIV, pregnancy, and family planning (FP) care among women living with HIV (WLHIV).

4.
Front Digit Health ; 4:1052408, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2198747

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Numerous factors are intersecting in healthcare resulting in an increased focus on new tools and methods for managing care in patients' homes. Remote patient monitoring (RPM) is an option to provide care at home and maintain a connection between patients and providers to address ongoing medical issues. METHODS: Mayo Clinic developed a nurse-led RPM program for disease and post-procedural management to improve patient experience, clinical outcomes, and reduce health care utilization by more directly engaging patients in their health care. Enrolled patients are sent a technology package that includes a digital tablet and peripheral devices for the collection of symptoms and vital signs. The data are transmitted from to a hub integrated within the electronic health record. Care team members coordinate patient needs, respond to vital sign alerts, and utilize the data to inform and provide individualized patient assessment, patient education, medication management, goal setting, and clinical care planning. RESULTS: Since its inception, the RPM program has supported nearly 22,000 patients across 17 programs. Patients who engaged in the COVID-19 RPM program experienced a significantly lower rate of 30-day, all-cause hospitalization (13.7% vs. 18.0%, P = 0.01), prolonged hospitalization >7 days (3.5% vs. 6.7%, P = 0.001), intensive care unit (ICU) admission (2.3% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.01), and mortality (0.5% vs. 1.7%, P = 0.01) when compared with those enrolled and unengaged with the technology. Patients with chronic conditions who were monitored with RPM upon hospital discharge were significantly less likely to experience 30-day readmissions (18.2% vs. 23.7%, P = 0.03) compared with those unmonitored. Ninety-five percent of patients strongly agreed or agreed they were likely to recommend RPM to a friend or family member. CONCLUSIONS: The Mayo Clinic RPM program has generated positive clinical outcomes and is satisfying for patients. As technology advances, there are greater opportunities to enhance this clinical care model and it should be extended and expanded to support patients across a broader spectrum of needs. This report can serve as a framework for health care organizations to implement and enhance their RPM programs in addition to identifying areas for further evolution and exploration in developing RPM programs of the future.

5.
Emerging Infectious Diseases ; 29(1), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2198448

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and the worldwide COVID- 19 pandemic triggered considerable attention to the emergence and evolution of novel human pathogens. Bourbon virus (BRBV) was first discovered in 2014 in Bourbon County, Kansas, USA. Since its initial discovery, several cases of BRBV infection in humans have been identified in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. BRBV is classified within the Thogotovirus genus;these negativestrand RNA viruses appear to be transmitted by ticks, and much of their biology remains unknown. In this review, we describe the emergence, virology, geographic range and ecology, and human disease caused by BRBV and discuss potential treatments for active BRBV infections. This virus and other emerging viral pathogens remain key public health concerns and require continued surveillance and study to mitigate human exposure and disease. Copyright © 2023 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved.

6.
Journal of Health Care for the Poor & Underserved ; 33(4S):25-43, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196779

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Multi-sector outreach collaborations have the potential to improve COVID-19 vaccine access among underserved populations, including refugees.

7.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 28:1, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2196744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) employed personal protective equipment (PPE) during the COVID-19 pandemic, crucial to protecting themselves from infection. To highlight the efficacy of PPE in preventing environmental infection among HCWs, a systematic review was conducted in line with PRISMA guidance. METHODS: A search of the PubMed and Web of Science databases was conducted from January 2019 to April 2021 using pre-defined search terms. Articles were screened by three researchers. The approved papers were read in full and included in this review if relevance was mutually agreed upon. Data were extracted by study design and types of PPEs. RESULTS: 47 of 108 identified studies met the inclusion criteria, with seven reviews and meta-analyses, seven cohort, nine case-control, fifteen cross-sectional studies, four before and after, four case series, and one modeling studies. Wearing PPE offered COVID-19 protection in HCWs but required adequate training. Wearing surgical masks provided improved protection over cloth masks, while the benefit of powered air-purifying respirators is less clear, as are individual gowns, gloves, and/or face shields. CONCLUSIONS: Wearing PPE, especially facial masks, is necessary among HCWs, while training in proper use of PPE is also important to prevent COVID-19 infection.

8.
Egyptian Journal of Bronchology ; 16(1), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2196579

ABSTRACT

Background: WHO recognized the COVID-19 outbreak in China as a pandemic crisis on March 11, 2020. Patients with chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) have limited physiological reserve;this lead to the assumption that COVID-19 infection in such patients could carry worse prognosis. Aim of study: To detect the prevalence and prognostic significance of CRDs among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection. Methods: The study was carried out at Minia Cardiothoracic University Hospital;all hospitalized COVID-19 patients during the period from January 2021 to August 2021 were included. Patients were subjected to full medical history taking, full blood count, inflammatory markers (CRP, serum ferritin, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum D-dimer, PCR for COVID-19 infection), and HRCT chest. Need for and duration of mechanical ventilation whether invasive or non-invasive, duration of hospital stay, and condition at hospital discharge were recorded. Diagnosis for chronic respiratory disease was considered when patients have documented previous history and investigations compatible with the diagnosis, e.g., previous pulmonary function tests, chest CT, or sleep study. Results: Comorbid chronic respiratory diseases were present in 57 patients (17.6%). Regarding presenting symptoms, no significant difference exists between patients with and without CRDs except for sputum production which was more frequent among patients with underlying CRDs. Elevated inflammatory markers (ferritin, D-dimer, and LDH) were more frequently observed in patients without CRDs (p < 0.0001, 0.033, and 0.008, respectively). COVID-19 with comorbid CRDs patients were more hypoxemic at presentation than other patients (p = 0.032). There was significant number of COVID-19 patients with CRDs were discharged on home oxygen therapy (p = 0.003). Regarding mortality in our cohort of patients, no significant difference exist between patients with and without CRDs (p 0.374) Among patients with comorbid CRDs, the highest mortality was observed on patients with OSA followed by ILDS and then COPD. Conclusion: The presence of CRD was not found to be a poor prognostic value of COVID-19. Inflammatory markers (ferritin, D-dimer, and LDH) were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients without CRD than COVID-19 with CRD.

9.
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ; 12(1):3, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2196568

ABSTRACT

BackgroundPlant elements and extracts have been used for centuries to treat a wide range of diseases, from cancer to modern lifestyle ailments like viral infections. These plant-based miRNAs have the capacity to control physiological and pathological conditions in both humans and animals, and they might be helpful in the detection and treatment of a variety of diseases. The present study investigates the miRNA of the well-known spice Curcuma Longa and its prospective targets using a variety of bioinformatics techniques.ResultsUsing the integrative database of animal, plant, and viral microRNAs known as miRNEST 2.0, nine C. longa miRNAs were predicted. psRNA target service foretells the presence of 23 human target genes linked to a variety of disorders. By interacting with a variety of cellular and metabolic processes, miRNAs 167, 1525, and 756 have been found to be critical regulators of tumour microenvironment. SARS-cov2 and influenza A virus regulation have been connected to ZFP36L1 from miRNA 1525 and ETV5 from miRNA 756, respectively.ConclusionsThe current cross-kingdom study offers fresh knowledge about how to increase the effectiveness of plant-based therapies for disease prevention and serves as a platform for in vitro and in vivo research development.

10.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 10(1):56, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2196504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hyper-inflammatory syndrome in children and young adult occur 2-6 weeks after COVID-19 infection or closed contact with COVID-19 persons. In this study, the laboratory data and echocardiography and abdominal ultrasonography assessments were evaluated before and after Methylprednisolone pulse as an initial treatment of hyper-inflammatory syndrome. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assessment the clinical manifestations and laboratory data and outcome after methylprednisolone pulse as an initial treatment. METHOD: In this retrospective study, the demographic status, clinical features, laboratory data, echocardiography, abdominal ultrasound, treatment and outcome of 31 pediatric patients under 16 years old, with inflammatory process after COVID-19 were evaluated. The clinical assessments, laboratory data, sonography and echocardiography were evaluated before and after methylprednisolone pulse. The patients were divided in two age group < and ≥ 7 years old and the clinical manifestations were compared with each other. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to assess the difference in quantitative variables between two groups. To compare pre- and post- treatment values, Wilcoxol test was used. To assess the correlation between qualitative variables chi-square test was used. The level of significant was considered 0.05. These patients with fever and hyper-inflammation features admitted to the referral pediatric rheumatology ward in Children Medical Center of Tehran University of medical sciences, from April 2020 to May 2021 were assessed. RESULT: The mean age ± SD were (5.94 ± 3) and 51.6% (16) patients were male and 48.4% (15) patients were female. The most documented of previous COVID infection were antibody positive in about 27 (87%) patients. Moreover, 1 (3.8%) was PCR positive, 2 (7.7%) were positive in both PCR and serology and 3(11.5%) had closed contact with COVID-19 patients. About 9(29%) of patients were admitted in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). There were significant correlation between days of delay in starting treatment and ICU admission (P-value = 0.02). The mortality rate was negative in patients and no re-hospitalization was documented. There were significant differences (P-value < 0.05) between lymphocytes, platelet, Erythrocyte Sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, Aspartate transaminase, Alanine transaminase and ferritin before and after treatment. Skin rashes and cardiac involvement totally as carditis (myocarditis, vulvulitis and pericarditis) (33.3%) and coronary involvements (53.3%) were the most prominent initial presentation in patients. There were near significant correlation (P-value = 0.066) between ferritin level and carditis before treatment. Cervical lymphadenopathy was seen significantly more in ≥ 7 years old (P-value = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Multisystem inflammatory system in children as a hyperinflammatory syndrome could be treated with first step methylprednisolone pulse with decreasing inflammation in laboratory data and cardiac involvements and good outcome. Furthermore, the ferritin level may be one of the predictor of severe hyper-inflammatory syndrome leading to aggressive and urgent treatment with methylprednisolone pulse.

11.
Injury Epidemiology ; 10(1):1, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Self-harm is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, though the prevalence tends to be highest among adolescents. As an indicator in suicide surveillance, the incidence of self-harm is useful because it is sensitive to social, environmental, and economic conditions. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the epidemiology of self-harm has varied across contexts. This study aims to investigate the changes in self-harm emergency department visits in 2020 compared to a pre-pandemic period in 2018-2019.

12.
De Simone, B.; Abu-Zidan, F. M.; Chouillard, E.; Di Saverio, S.; Sartelli, M.; Podda, M.; Gomes, C. A.; Moore, E. E.; Moug, S. J.; Ansaloni, L.; Kluger, Y.; Coccolini, F.; Landaluce-Olavarria, A.; Estraviz-Mateos, B.; Uriguen-Etxeberria, A.; Giordano, A.; Luna, A. P.; Amin, L. A. H.; Hernandez, A. M. P.; Shabana, A.; Dzulkarnaen, Z. A.; Othman, M. A.; Sani, M. I.; Balla, A.; Scaramuzzo, R.; Lepiane, P.; Bottari, A.; Staderini, F.; Cianchi, F.; Cavallaro, A.; Zanghi, A.; Cappellani, A.; Campagnacci, R.; Maurizi, A.; Martinotti, M.; Ruggieri, A.; Jusoh, A. C.; Rahman, K. A.; Zulkifli, A. S. M.; Petronio, B.; Matias-Garcia, B.; Quiroga-Valcarcel, A.; Mendoza-Moreno, F.; Atanasov, B.; Campanile, F. C.; Vecchioni, I.; Cardinali, L.; Travaglini, G.; Sebastiani, E.; Chooklin, S.; Chuklin, S.; Cianci, P.; Restini, E.; Capuzzolo, S.; Curro, G.; Filippo, R.; Rispoli, M.; Aparicio-Sanchez, D.; Munoz-Cruzado, V. D.; Barbeito, S. D.; Delibegovic, S.; Kesetovic, A.; Sasia, D.; Borghi, F.; Giraudo, G.; Visconti, D.; Doria, E.; Santarelli, M.; Luppi, D.; Bonilauri, S.; Grossi, U.; Zanus, G.; Sartori, A.; Piatto, G.; De Luca, M.; Vita, D.; Conti, L.; Capelli, P.; Cattaneo, G. M.; Marinis, A.; Vederaki, S. A.; Bayrak, M.; Altintas, Y.; Uzunoglu, M. Y.; Demirbas, I. E.; Altinel, Y.; Meric, S.; Aktimur, Y. E.; Uymaz, D. S.; Omarov, N.; Azamat, I.; Lostoridis, E.; Nagorni, E. A.; Pujante, A.; Anania, G.; Bombardini, C.; Bagolini, F.; Gonullu, E.; Mantoglu, B.; Capoglu, R.; Cappato, S.; Muzio, E.; Colak, E.; Polat, S.; Koylu, Z. A.; Altintoprak, F.; Bayhan, Z.; Akin, E.; Andolfi, E.; Rezart, S.; Kim, J. I.; Jung, S. W.; Shin, Y. C.; Enciu, O.; Toma, E. A.; Medas, F.; Canu, G. L.; Cappellacci, F.; D'Acapito, F.; Ercolani, G.; Solaini, L.; Roscio, F.; Clerici, F.; Gelmini, R.; Serra, F.; Rossi, E. G.; Fleres, F.; Clarizia, G.; Spolini, A.; Ferrara, F.; Nita, G.; Sarnari, J.; Gachabayov, M.; Abdullaev, A.; Poillucci, G.; Palini, G. M.; Veneroni, S.; Garulli, G.; Piccoli, M.; Pattacini, G. C.; Pecchini, F.; Argenio, G.; Armellino, M. F.; Brisinda, G.; Tedesco, S.; Fransvea, P.; Ietto, G.; Franchi, C.; Carcano, G.; Martines, G.; Trigiante, G.; Negro, G.; Vega, G. M.; Gonzalez, A. R.; Ojeda, L.; Piccolo, G.; Bondurri, A.; Maffioli, A.; Guerci, C.; Sin, B. H.; Zuhdi, Z.; Azman, A.; Mousa, H.; Al Bahri, S.; Augustin, G.; Romic, I.; Moric, T.; Nikolopoulos, I.; Andreuccetti, J.; Pignata, G.; D'Alessio, R.; Kenig, J.; Skorus, U.; Fraga, G. P.; Hirano, E. S.; de Lima Bertuol, J. V.; Isik, A.; Kurnaz, E.; Asghar, M. S.; Afzal, A.; Akbar, A.; Nikolouzakis, T. K.; Lasithiotakis, K.; Chrysos, E.; Das, K.; Ozer, N.; Seker, A.; Ibrahim, M.; Hamid, H. K. S.; Babiker, A.; Bouliaris, K.; Koukoulis, G.; Kolla, C. C.; Lucchi, A.; Agostinelli, L.; Taddei, A.; Fortuna, L.; Agostini, C.; Licari, L.; Viola, S.; Callari, C.; Laface, L.; Abate, E.; Casati, M.; Anastasi, A.; Canonico, G.; Gabellini, L.; Tosi, L.; Guariniello, A.; Zanzi, F.; Bains, L.; Sydorchuk, L.; Iftoda, O.; Sydorchuk, A.; Malerba, M.; Costanzo, F.; Galleano, R.; Monteleone, M.; Costanzi, A.; Riva, C.; Waledziak, M.; Kwiatkowski, A.; Czyzykowski, L.; Major, P.; Strzalka, M.; Matyja, M.; Natkaniec, M.; Valenti, M. R.; Di Vita, M. D. P.; Sotiropoulou, M.; Kapiris, S.; Massalou, D.; Veroux, M.; Volpicelli, A.; Gioco, R.; Uccelli, M.; Bonaldi, M.; Olmi, S.; Nardi, M.; Livadoti, G.; Mesina, C.; Dumitrescu, T. V.; Ciorbagiu, M. C.; Ammendola, M.; Ammerata, G.; Romano, R.; Slavchev, M.; Misiakos, E. P.; Pikoulis, E.; Papaconstantinou, D.; Elbahnasawy, M.; Abdel-Elsalam, S.; Felsenreich, D. M.; Jedamzik, J.; Michalopoulos, N. V.; Sidiropoulos, T. A.; Papadoliopoulou, M.; Cillara, N.; Deserra, A.; Cannavera, A.; Negoi, I.; Schizas, D.; Syllaios, A.; Vagios, I.; Gourgiotis, S.; Dai, N.; Gurung, R.; Norrey, M.; Pesce, A.; Feo, C. V.; Fabbri, N.; Machairas, N.; Dorovinis, P.; Keramida, M. D.; Mulita, F.; Verras, G. I.; Vailas, M.; Yalkin, O.; Iflazoglu, N.; Yigit, D.; Baraket, O.; Ayed, K.; Ghalloussi, M. H.; Patias, P.; Ntokos, G.; Rahim, R.; Bala, M.; Kedar, A.; Sawyer, R. G.; Trinh, A.; Miller, K.; Sydorchuk, R.; Knut, R.; Plehutsa, O.; Liman, R. K.; Ozkan, Z.; Kader, S. A.; Gupta, S.; Gureh, M.; Saeidi, S.; Aliakbarian, M.; Dalili, A.; Shoko, T.; Kojima, M.; Nakamoto, R.; Atici, S. D.; Tuncer, G. K.; Kaya, T.; Delis, S. G.; Rossi, S.; Picardi, B.; Del Monte, S. R.; Triantafyllou, T.; Theodorou, D.; Pintar, T.; Salobir, J.; Manatakis, D. K.; Tasis, N.; Acheimastos, V.; Ioannidis, O.; Loutzidou, L.; Symeonidis, S.; de Sa, T. C.; Rocha, M.; Guagni, T.; Pantalone, D.; Maltinti, G.; Khokha, V.; Abdel-Elsalam, W.; Ghoneim, B.; Lopez-Ruiz, J. A.; Kara, Y.; Zainudin, S.; Hayati, F.; Azizan, N.; Khei, V. T. P.; Yi, R. C. X.; Sellappan, H.; Demetrashvili, Z.; Lekiashvili, N.; Tvaladze, A.; Froiio, C.; Bernardi, D.; Bonavina, L.; Gil-Olarte, A.; Grassia, S.; Romero-Vargas, E.; Bianco, F.; Gumbs, A. A.; Dogjani, A.; Agresta, F.; Litvin, A.; Balogh, Z. J.; Gendrikson, G.; Martino, C.; Damaskos, D.; Pararas, N.; Kirkpatrick, A.; Kurtenkov, M.; Gomes, F. C.; Pisanu, A.; Nardello, O.; Gambarini, F.; Aref, H.; Angelis, N. D.; Agnoletti, V.; Biondi, A.; Vacante, M.; Griggio, G.; Tutino, R.; Massani, M.; Bisetto, G.; Occhionorelli, S.; Andreotti, D.; Lacavalla, D.; Biffl, W. L.; Catena, F..
World Journal Of Emergency Surgery ; 17(1):61, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence of the highly morbid and potentially lethal gangrenous cholecystitis was reportedly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the ChoCO-W study was to compare the clinical findings and outcomes of acute cholecystitis in patients who had COVID-19 disease with those who did not.

13.
Malar J ; 22(1):11, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2196291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Malaria-endemic areas are not spared from the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), leading to co-infection scenarios where overlapping symptoms impose serious diagnostic challenges. Current knowledge on Plasmodium spp. and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) co-infection in pregnant women remains limited, especially in Latin America, where Plasmodium vivax infection is highly prevalent. METHODS: This is a case series of five pregnant women with P. vivax and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection hospitalized in two main malaria referral centers of the Capital District and Bolivar state, Venezuela between March 13, 2020 and December 31, 2021. RESULTS: Clinical and laboratory data from five pregnant women with a mean age of 22 years were analyzed;three of them were in the third trimester of pregnancy. Comorbidities included obesity in two cases, hypertension in one, and asthma in one. Three out of five patients had severe to critical COVID-19 disease. Dry cough, fever, chills, and headache were the most frequent symptoms reported. Laboratory analyses showed elevated aspartate/alanine aminotransferase and creatinine levels, thrombocytopenia, and severe anemia as the most relevant abnormalities. The mean period between symptom onset and a positive molecular test for SARS-CoV-2 infection or positive microscopy for Plasmodium spp. was 4.8 ± 2.5 days and 2.8 ± 1.6 days, respectively. The mean hospital stay was 5.4 ± 7 days. Three women recovered and were discharged from the hospital. Two women died, one from cerebral malaria and one from respiratory failure. Three adverse fetal outcomes were registered, two miscarriages and one stillbirth. CONCLUSION: This study documented a predominance of severe/critical COVID-19 disease and a high proportion of adverse maternal-fetal outcomes among pregnant women with malaria and COVID-19 co-infection. More comprehensive prospective cohort studies are warranted to explore the risk factors, management challenges, and clinical outcomes of pregnant women with this co-infection.

14.
BMC Proceedings. Conference: 6th International Conference on Molecular Diagnostics and Biomarker Discovery, MDBD ; 16(Supplement 7), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2196279

ABSTRACT

Background Severe Acute Respiratory Disease 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been identified as the causal factor to the recent COVID-19 pandemic [1]. One of the capacities required to study this virus is to isolate and propagate them according to the requirement of the studies. To date, the majority of studies utilized monkey-derived Vero cells to rapidly propagate the virus. However, due to its highly susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and limited capacity to metabolize drugs, this cell line is not suitable for pathophysiology and anti-viral research. Vero cells are not preferred for investigation of pathological mechanism of host cell's response to virus infection because they are not derived from human lung tissue. Furthermore, they are difficult to be used in the study to assess cytopathic effects as they do not express type 1 interferon genes [2]. In this study, we adapted the SARS-CoV-2 isolates into selected human lung-derived cell lines, i.e., MRC-5 and A549, to investigate the capacity of these cell lines as a platform for the characterization of SARS-CoV-2 isolated in Malaysia. MRC-5 has already been identified to be highly susceptible to the infection of various human coronaviruses, including HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) [3]. Meanwhile, A549 was selected due to its origin of lung derived. Methodology To determine the growth profile of SARS-CoV-2 in human-derived cell lines, a local SARS-CoV-2 clinical isolate obtained from the IMR archive was first adapted into Vero E6, thus resulting in the generation of passage 1 (P1). The P1 isolate was used to study the growth profile of the virus in MRC-5 and A549 cell lines. P1 isolate was subjected to Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) to identify the genomic sequence of the isolate. The replication kinetics of these isolates in MRC-5 and A459 were evaluated based on the on the formation of cytopathic effect (CPE), Cq value, plaque forming unit (pfu) as well as observation by electron microscope (EM). Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) was repeated on the propagated SARS-CoV-2 passages to examine the genomic stability. Results and Discussion There was no formation of CPE observed after inoculation of SARSCoV- 2 into MRC-5 and A549 cells after 7 days of culture. In parallel, the qRT-PCR results suggested that the virus did not multiply well in these cells. Plaque assay and EM images further supported these findings. In terms of genome stability, WGS data revealed several genetic polymorphisms in the genome of the virus adapted in MRC- 5 and A549 cells. Conclusion MRC-5 and A549 are not susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

15.
Sage Open ; 12(4):21582440221143298, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2195741

ABSTRACT

Beyond the physical transmission of COVID-19, the pandemic has had far-reaching consequences in Bangladesh, including social and cultural implications. This review paper aimed at identifying and synthesizing the costs of COVID-19 on sociocultural issues in Bangladesh. For this purpose, we conducted a systematic search in MEDLINE, PubMed, ProQuest, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar up to August 2021. Studies related to the costs of COVID-19 were identified, tabulated, analyzed, and synthesized by using a thematic approach. Our final synthesis of 19 studies resulted in five analytical themes: (i) disruption in education, (ii) loss of everyday social interaction, (iii) increase of "new poor" and suicide, (iv) rise of violence against women, and (v) worsening the life of refugees. Our findings showed that the costs of disruption in education, loss of everyday social interaction, and increase of "new poor" and suicide were more evident. Finally, we recommend the government and the community to adopt some integrated actions and policies to combat the problems in improving Bangladeshi sociocultural situations.

16.
Clinical Trials ; : 17407745221140041, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2195375

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: High follow-up is critical in randomized clinical trials. We developed novel approaches to modify in-person visits and complete follow-up during COVID-19. Since these strategies are broadly applicable to circumstances wherein follow-up is difficult, they may help in contingency planning. The objective of this article is to develop and evaluate new approaches to replace detailed, in-person study visits for two trials focused on preventing diabetic foot complications.

17.
Public Health Rep ; : 333549221138856, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2194744

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Research on COVID-19's effect on substance use is mixed, and few studies have focused on adolescents. We assessed whether implementation of the COVID-19 lockdown affected substance use and changed perceptions of psychoactive substance availability in middle and high school students. METHODS: We assessed self-reported use and perceived availability of alcohol, tobacco cigarettes, electronic cigarettes, marijuana, synthetic marijuana, nonprescribed prescription drugs, and illicit drugs (heroin, inhalants) among middle and high school respondents aged 11-18 years to the Rhode Island Student Survey (N = 17 751). An administrative pause because of COVID-19 lockdowns allowed us to divide results into surveys completed before (January through March 2020;n = 13 259) and after (November 2020 through May 2021;n = 4492) the lockdown implementation. We determined the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown using logistic regression models, adjusting for age, gender/sexual orientation, middle/high school level, and city/town classification. RESULTS: After the COVID-19 lockdown implementation, the odds of respondents using psychoactive substances decreased, with the largest decreases occurring for prescription drugs (odds ratio [OR] = 0.39;95% CI, 0.28-0.54) and inhalants (OR = 0.37;95% CI, 0.26-0.53). The odds of respondents perceiving difficulties in obtaining psychoactive substances significantly increased after lockdown implementation, with the largest increases occurring for prescription drugs (OR = 1.53;95% CI, 1.39-1.69) and illicit drugs (OR = 1.65;95% CI, 1.44-1.88). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 lockdown implementation was associated with a decreased perception of availability of psychoactive substances and use of psychoactive substances. Decreases in substance use may be because of decreased perceived availability and increased parental support and oversight. Interventions that focus on parental oversight and strengthened policies to disrupt the licit and illicit drug markets are needed.

18.
Circulation Conference: American Heart Association's ; 146(Supplement 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2194380

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Rates of initiation and dose optimization of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) for heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction are suboptimal nationally. Recently, virtual medicine has been studied as a potential solution to help overcome barriers limiting GDMT optimization. We evaluated GDMT optimization during telehealth visits compared with in-person visits at Parkland Health, a large urban safety-net health system. Method(s): Parkland has a registry of all patients with an ejection fraction <= 40% on transthoracic echocardiography within the last three years. Using this registry data of patients seen in the Parkland cardiology clinic between September 2021 and February 2022, we compared GDMT prescriptions for patients before and after each clinic visit. We defined an optimization event as the initiation of a new class of GDMT, a switch to an angiotensin receptor/neprilysin inhibitor, or an increase in dosage of any class of GDMT. The rise of Omicron variant COVID-19 cases in Dallas led to a nearly universal shift of in-person to virtual visits in December 2021, allowing us to compare GDMT optimization rates between each visit type. Result(s): From 9/12/21 to 12/24/21, there were 147 visits of which 134 (91%) were in-person. Of these in-person visits, 58.2% led to an optimization event. From 12/25/21 to 2/12/22, there were 97 visits of which 84 (89%) were telehealth visits, all conducted by telephone. Of these telehealth visits, 16.1% led to an optimization event (p<0.001). Baseline characteristics of patients from each period were not significantly different (Table 1). Conclusion(s): Our study demonstrated GDMT optimization was significantly lower in telephone visits compared with in-person visits despite each group having similar demographics and medical co-morbidities. This observation should raise concern over increased reliance on telephone-only encounters, especially in urban resource limited populations. (Figure Presented).

19.
Circulation Conference: American Heart Association's ; 146(Supplement 1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2194376

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There are conflicting data on COVID-19 outcomes in pregnant women. Using the AHA COVID-19 CVD Registry we evaluated COVID-19 outcomes in pregnant vs non-pregnant women with COVID-19. Method(s): Women 18-40 years old hospitalized from March 2020 to December 2021 with symptomatic COVID-19 were included (n=2,068), with 110 (5.3%) pregnant at admission. Women with unknown pregnancy status were excluded. Vaccine data were limited (2.8% of participants), therefore omitted from analysis. Baseline demographics and symptoms at presentation were compared between pregnant and non-pregnant women (Table). Rates of death, mechanical ventilation, ICU admission, hospital stay >=5 days, myocardial infarction, stroke, DVT, PE, and a composite of all outcomes were determined. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed, adjusting for comorbidities and prior CVD. Result(s): Pregnant women hospitalized with COVID-19 had fewer comorbidities than non-pregnant women (Table). There were no deaths in the pregnant group and 44 (2.3%) in the non-pregnant group. Fewer pregnant women were hospitalized >=5 days (29.1% vs 41.2% non-pregnant);this difference was not statistically significant after multivariable adjustment [adjusted HR (95% CI), 0.67 (0.43-1.02)]. There were no significant differences between the groups in the composite outcome [adjusted HR (95% CI), 0.72 (0.48-1.07)] or its components (Table). Conclusion(s): Pregnant women hospitalized with symptomatic COVID-19 had fewer comorbidities compared with non-pregnant women. There were fewer deaths and lower rates of hospitalization >=5 days in pregnant vs non-pregnant women which was no longer statistically significant after multivariable adjustment. The potential for residual confounding due to healthier pregnant women presenting with milder COVID-19 illness or being admitted for non-COVID-19 indications compared to non-pregnant women must be considered when interpreting these findings.

20.
Respiration ; : 1-14, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2194324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung function impairment persists in some patients for months after acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Long-term lung function, radiological features, and their association remain to be clarified.

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