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1.
RSC advances ; 11(29):18103-18121, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1812920

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), resulting in a contagious respiratory tract infection that has become a global burden since the end of 2019. Notably, fewer patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 progress from acute disease onset to death compared with the progression rate associated with two other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Several research organizations and pharmaceutical industries have attempted to develop successful vaccine candidates for the prevention of COVID-19. However, increasing evidence indicates that the SARS-CoV-2 genome undergoes frequent mutation;thus, an adequate analysis of the viral strain remains necessary to construct effective vaccines. The current study attempted to design a multi-epitope vaccine by utilizing an approach based on the SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins. We predicted the antigenic T- and B-lymphocyte responses to four structural proteins after screening all structural proteins according to specific characteristics. The predicted epitopes were combined using suitable adjuvants and linkers, and a secondary structure profile indicated that the vaccine shared similar properties with the native protein. Importantly, the molecular docking analysis and molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the constructed vaccine possessed a high affinity for toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In addition, multiple descriptors were obtained from the simulation trajectories, including the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD), root-mean-square fluctuation (RMSF), solvent-accessible surface area (SASA), and radius of gyration (Rg), demonstrating the rigid nature and inflexibility of the vaccine and receptor molecules. In addition, codon optimization, based on Escherichia coli K12, was used to determine the GC content and the codon adaptation index (CAI) value, which further followed for the incorporation into the cloning vector pET28+(a). Collectively, these findings suggested that the constructed vaccine could be used to modulate the immune reaction against SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2, resulting in a contagious respiratory tract infection. For designing a multi-epitope vaccine, we utilized the four structural proteins from the SARS-CoV-2 by using bioinformatics and immunoinformatics analysis.

2.
J Int Med Res ; 50(4): 3000605221090363, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779533

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been used during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic because of its reported anti-viral activity. This study examined the association of chronic HCQ use with the incidence and complications of COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included adults with rheumatoid arthritis and/or systemic lupus erythematosus who visited rheumatology clinics in three tertiary hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January 2019 and December 2020. Patients were categorized into two groups based on HCQ use. Data were obtained from the electronic health record and by interviews with patients. The primary study objective was the incidence of COVID-19 and its complications from March 2020 to February 2021. RESULTS: Almost 11% of the study cohort was positive for COVID-19, and the incidence of COVID-19 was similar between HCQ users (11.11%) and nonusers (10.86%). Disease complication rates were similar in the study arms, and they mainly included fever, dry cough, fatigue, and breathing difficulty. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed no significant association between chronic HCQ use and the incidence of COVID-19, and disease complications were similar in the study arms.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Adult , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
4.
Bull Natl Res Cent ; 46(1): 42, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701496
5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319721

ABSTRACT

Currently, with a large number of fatality rates, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a potential threat to human health worldwide. It has been well-known that severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for COVID-19 and World Health Organization (WHO) proclaimed the contagious disease as a global pandemic. Researchers from different parts of the world amalgamate together inquest of remedies for this deadly virus. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the spike glycoprotein (SGP) of SARS-CoV-2 is the mediator behind the entrance into the host cells. Our group has comprehensibly analyzed the SGP of SARS-CoV-2 through multiple sequence analysis along with the phylogenetic analysis. Further, this research work predicted the most immunogenic epitopes for both B-cell and T-cell. Notably, we focused mainly on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I potential peptides and predicted two epitopes;WTAGAAAYY and GAAAYYVGY, that bind with the MHC class I alleles which are further validated by molecular docking analysis. Furthermore, this study also proposed that the selected epitopes were shown availability in a greater range of the population. Hence, our study comes up with a strong base for the implementation of designing novel vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2, however adequate laboratory works will need to be conducted for the appropriate application.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319720

ABSTRACT

With an increasing fatality rate, severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a promising threat to human health worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 is a member of the Coronaviridae family, which is transmitted from animal to human and because of being contagious, further it transmitted human to human. Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) has announced the infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which is known as coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-2019) as a global pandemic. But, no specific medications are available for the treatment of COVID-19 so far. As a corollary, there is a need for a potential vaccine to impede the progression of the disease. Lately, it has been documented that the nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for viral replication as well as interferes with host immune responses. We have comparatively analyzed the sequences of N protein of SARS-CoV-2 for the identification of core attributes and analyzed the ancestry through phylogenetic analysis. Subsequently, we have predicted the most immunogenic epitope for T-cell as well as B-cell. Importantly, our investigation mainly focused on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I potential peptides and NTASWFTAL interacted with most human leukocyte antigen (HLA) that are encoded by MHC class I molecules. Further, molecular docking analysis unveiled that NTASWFTAL possessed a greater affinity towards HLA and also available in a greater range of the population. Our study provides a consolidated base for vaccine design and we hope that this computational analysis will pave the way for designing novel vaccine candidates.

7.
Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal ; - (4):1138, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1589781

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare emergency surgeries under spinal anesthesia in COVID-19 pandemic with pre-COVID period in a tertiary care hospital of a developing country. Study Design: Prospective observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Main Operation Theatre, Frontier Corps Hospital Quetta, from Mar to May 2020. Methodology: All emergency surgeries done under Spinal Anesthesia, were compared to emergency cases done in the pre-COVID period. Anesthesia notes were reviewed. Emergency cases done under general anesthesia and personal protective equipment worn were also noted. Ages of the patients were from 18-75 years. Spinal anesthesia was performed by consultant anesthesiologist. Result: Among total cases, 260 emergency cases were performed in the main operation theatre during the 3 months of pre-COVID period as compared to only 89 cases in the 3 months duration of COVID-19. Spinal anesthesia was used in 154 (59.2%) cases in the pre-COVID study period, while in COVID-19 pandemic 77 (86.5%) emergency cases were performed under spinal anesthesia. Conclusion: Spinal anesthesia has a significant role in the surgical management of patients in pre-COVID and especially in COVID pandemic. It provides high-quality perioperative care for patients whilst minimizing exposure to staff and utilization of scarce resources of personal protective equipment.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-297024

ABSTRACT

Background: The public's willingness to be vaccinated will determine the success of the COVID-19 vaccination programme. The aim of this study was to identify acceptance and hesitancy to receive COVID-19 vaccine among university students in Egypt, assess their level of knowledge about COVID-19 vaccine and identify barriers for hesitancy to uptake of COVID-19 vaccine. Methods: : This cross-sectional survey study included 1071 university students. A standardized and self-administered questionnaire was constructed by the authors and distributed to university students allover Egypt. Results: : Of the 1071 respondents, 739 (69%) were willing to get vaccinated against COVID-19 while 223 (20.8%) reported vaccine hesitancy. Median knowledge score of participants about COVID-19 vaccine was 4 out of 8 (IQR=8). While fear of getting infected (53.6%) and desire to get back to normal life (51%) were the main motives for intention to get vaccinated, fear of serious side effects (100%) and doubting the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccine (60.5%) were the main reasons for vaccine hesitancy and resistance. About 21% of students (n=225) reported voluntary uptake of COVID-19 vaccine. Conclusion: We identified rates of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy and detected poor knowledge scores among university students which may hinder vaccine acceptance. We also detected poor translation of vaccination intention into actual vaccine uptake. Educational campaigns and efforts aiming to raise awareness about safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines need to be directed to this important population.

9.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 29(4): 1981-1997, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569053

ABSTRACT

The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Wuhan city, China at the end of 2019 made it urgent to identify the origin of the causal pathogen and its molecular evolution, to appropriately design an effective vaccine. This study analyzes the evolutionary background of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-2) in accordance with its close relative SARS-CoV (SARS-1), which was emerged in 2002. A comparative genomic and proteomic study was conducted on SARS-2, SARS-1, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS), which was emerged in 2012. In silico analysis inferred the genetic variability among the tested viruses. The SARS-1 genome harbored 11 genes encoding 12 proteins, while SARS-2 genome contained only 10 genes encoding for 10 proteins. MERS genome contained 11 genes encoding 11 proteins. The analysis also revealed a slight variation in the whole genome size of SARS-2 comparing to its siblings resulting from sequential insertions and deletions (indels) throughout the viral genome particularly ORF1AB, spike, ORF10 and ORF8. The effective indels were observed in the gene encoding the spike protein that is responsible for viral attachment to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) cell receptor and initiating infection. These indels are responsible for the newly emerging COVID-19 variants αCoV, ßCoV, γCoV and δCoV. Nowadays, few effective COVID-19 vaccines developed based on spike (S) glycoprotein were approved and become available worldwide. Currently available vaccines can relatively prevent the spread of COVID-19 and suppress the disease. The traditional (killed or attenuated virus vaccine and antibody-based vaccine) and innovated vaccine production technologies (RNA- and DNA-based vaccines and viral vectors) are summarized in this review. We finally highlight the most common questions related to COVID-19 disease and the benefits of getting vaccinated.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0260129, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523452

ABSTRACT

The province of Sindh reported the first COVID-19 case in Pakistan on 26th February 2020. The Government of Sindh has employed numerous control measures to limit its spread. However, for low-and middle-income countries such as Pakistan, the management protocols for controlling a pandemic are not always as definitive as they would be in other developed nations. Given the dire socio-economic conditions of Sindh, continuation of province-wise lockdowns may inadvertently cause a potential economic breakdown. By using a data driven SEIR modelling framework, this paper describes the evolution of the epidemic projections because of government control measures. The data from reported COVID-19 prevalence and google mobility is used to parameterize the model at different time points. These time points correspond to the government's call for advice on the prerequisite actions required to curtail the spread of COVID-19 in Sindh. Our model predicted the epidemic peak to occur by 18th June 2020 with approximately 3500 reported cases at that peak, this projection correlated with the actual recorded peak during the first wave of the disease in Sindh. The impact of the governmental control actions and religious ceremonies on the epidemic profile during this first wave of COVID-19 are clearly reflected in the model outcomes through variations in the epidemic peaks. We also report these variations by displaying the trajectory of the epidemics had the control measures been guided differently; the epidemic peak may have occurred as early as the end of May 2020 with approximately 5000 reported cases per day had there been no control measures and as late as August 2020 with only around 2000 cases at the peak had the lockdown continued, nearly flattening the epidemic curve.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Government Programs/methods , Pandemics , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409558

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pakistan's immunization uptake rates are still significantly lower than anticipated despite several initiatives. Lack of awareness, forgetting about vaccination schedule, and vaccine misconception/misinformation are a few of the major drivers that mitigate the rates of immunization. The current COVID-19 pandemic emphasizes the importance of immunization. The significant reductions in regular childhood vaccination during pandemic have increased the risk of outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Concerns among parents over possibly exposing their children to COVID-19 during child visits may have contributed to the reported declines. Innovative and cost-effective mHealth interventions must be implemented in order to address the problem of inadequate immunization rates. In addition, it is also critical to understand the end user needs in order to reflect on the highly relevant essence of the customized healthcare experience. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to learn about caregivers' attitudes toward the usability and acceptability of behavior-change smartphone applications (mobile phones) for improving immunization coverage in Pakistan. METHODS: A mixed-method design was employed for this study. The study was conducted at Aga Khan University, Hospital. Parents visiting the Community Health Center for 6-week vaccination of their children were recruited. The study was conducted in two stages. Stage 1 consisted of qualitative interviews that grasped the parent's attitudes and challenges to immunization, as well as their acceptability and accessibility of the smartphone-based behavior-change application to increase vaccine uptake. Stage 1 was followed by stage 2, in which data were collected through a questionnaire designed by using data from qualitative interviews. RESULTS: The majority of participants agreed that immunization serves an important role in protecting their child from illnesses that cause morbidity and mortality. Almost all of them emphasized the importance of using a pre-appointment method at vaccination center in order to reduce the waiting time. Furthermore, participants were also interested in AI-based behavior modification applications related to immunization. They also wanted to have applications in their native language for better understanding and communication of related information. In our study, approximately 95.2 percent of participants agreed to accept SMS immunization updates, which was also reasonably high. Lastly, the majority of them identified forgetfulness as a significant contributor to regular immunization. CONCLUSION: To enhance the uptake of childhood vaccines, overall vaccination rates, and overcome barriers related to vaccination coverage, cost-effective and user-friendly mHealth AI-based smart phone applications are required to raise awareness regarding the continuation of vaccination service and the importance of timely vaccination. Parents' experiences and attitudes must be considered while designing and evaluating the efficacy of mHealth-based interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Child , Humans , Immunization Programs , Pakistan , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
14.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(8)2021 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360719

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a contemporary coronavirus, has impacted global economic activity and has a high transmission rate. As a result of the virus's severe medical effects, developing effective vaccinations is vital. Plant-derived metabolites have been discovered as potential SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors. The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) is a target for therapeutic research because of its highly conserved protein sequence. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and molecular docking were used to screen 34 compounds identified from Leucas zeylanica for potential inhibitory activity against the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. In addition, prime molecular mechanics-generalized Born surface area (MM-GBSA) was used to screen the compound dataset using a molecular dynamics simulation. From molecular docking analysis, 26 compounds were capable of interaction with the SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, while three compounds, namely 11-oxa-dispiro[4.0.4.1]undecan-1-ol (-5.755 kcal/mol), azetidin-2-one 3,3-dimethyl-4-(1-aminoethyl) (-5.39 kcal/mol), and lorazepam, 2TMS derivative (-5.246 kcal/mol), exhibited the highest docking scores. These three ligands were assessed by MM-GBSA, which revealed that they bind with the necessary Mpro amino acids in the catalytic groove to cause protein inhibition, including Ser144, Cys145, and His41. The molecular dynamics simulation confirmed the complex rigidity and stability of the docked ligand-Mpro complexes based on the analysis of mean radical variations, root-mean-square fluctuations, solvent-accessible surface area, radius of gyration, and hydrogen bond formation. The study of the postmolecular dynamics confirmation also confirmed that lorazepam, 11-oxa-dispiro[4.0.4.1]undecan-1-ol, and azetidin-2-one-3, 3-dimethyl-4-(1-aminoethyl) interact with similar Mpro binding pockets. The results of our computerized drug design approach may assist in the fight against SARS-CoV-2.

15.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1476-1498, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352121

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization, and the situation worsens daily, associated with acute increases in case fatality rates. The main protease (Mpro) enzyme produced by SARS-CoV-2 was recently demonstrated to be responsible for not only viral reproduction but also impeding host immune responses. The element selenium (Se) plays a vital role in immune functions, both directly and indirectly. Thus, we hypothesised that Se-containing heterocyclic compounds might curb the activity of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. We performed a molecular docking analysis and found that several of the selected selenocompounds showed potential binding affinities for SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, especially ethaselen (49), which exhibited a docking score of -6.7 kcal/mol compared with the -6.5 kcal/mol score for GC376 (positive control). Drug-likeness calculations suggested that these compounds are biologically active and possess the characteristics of ideal drug candidates. Based on the binding affinity and drug-likeness results, we selected the 16 most effective selenocompounds as potential anti-COVID-19 drug candidates. We also validated the structural integrity and stability of the drug candidate through molecular dynamics simulation. Using further in vitro and in vivo experiments, we believe that the targeted compound identified in this study (ethaselen) could pave the way for the development of prospective drugs to combat SARS-CoV-2 infections and trigger specific host immune responses.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Heterocyclic Compounds/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Selenium/analysis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Heterocyclic Compounds/chemistry , Humans , Ligands , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Pyrrolidines/chemistry , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Reproducibility of Results , Sulfonic Acids
17.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21260217

ABSTRACT

BackgroundDespite being variable and poorly characterized, the reported cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 are of increasing concern. Aim of the StudyThis study aimed to assess the prevalence and possible association between COVID-19 and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Patients and methodsA 9-item questionnaire was sent to 120 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients with a response rate of 66.67%. This cross-sectional observational study included 80 patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 infection who did not require hospitalization or steroid therapy. ResultsOne or more HSV infections were observed in 28 patients (35%) with COVID-19 infection, including 10 males (35.7%) and 18 females (64.29%). Of the 28 patients, fever was reported in 17 patients (75%) during COVID-19. Most of the respondents (78%) described a single HSV reactivation, 14.29% had 2 attacks, and 7.14% experienced 3 attacks. Compared to previous non-COVID-19 related HSV reactivation, the COVID-19 related attacks were more severe in 12 patients (42.85%), equally severe in 5 patients (17.85%) and less severe in 1 patient (3.57%). Interestingly, 10 patients (35.71%) developed an initial symptomatic HSV attack during COVID-19 infection. ConclusionsThis study demonstrated a possible association between COVID-19 infection and primary HSV infection and/or reactivation. The COVID-19 direct neuronal effect in addition to COVID-19 related psychological stress, fever and immunological dysregulation could play a potential role.

18.
Futur J Pharm Sci ; 7(1): 119, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, a respiratory tract infection caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a burning question worldwide as it gives rise to a pandemic situation. No specific medications are still recommended for COVID-19; however, healthcare support is crucial for ameliorating the disease condition. Pharmacists are the frontline fighters who are responsible for providing healthcare support to the COVID-19 infected patients around the world. This review endeavored to briefly rationalize the contributions of several pharmacy professionals in diverse fields along with their collaborative efforts and dedication regarding their limitations during the COVID-19 situation and view the prospects of pharmaceutical care services in the post-pandemic period. MAIN BODY OF THE ABSTRACT: Online databases were utilized to search for scholarly articles and organizational websites, to sum up the information about the contemporary and expanded role of pharmacists. Key articles were retrieved from Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct databases using terms: "COVID-19," "novel coronavirus," "community," "industrial," "hospital," "clinical," "recognition," "obstacles," "collaboration," "SARS-CoV-2," "healthcare," and "outbreak" in combination with "pharmacist." The articles were included from the inception of the pandemic to January 25, 2021. The current review found pharmacist's global contributions and involvements with other professionals to provide healthcare services amidst COVID-19. This included testing of suspects, providing medical information, psycho-social support, debunking myths, mitigating drug shortage events, telemedicine, e-prescription, infection control, and controlling the drug supply chain. In many countries, pharmacists' activities were much appreciated but in some countries, they were not properly acknowledged for their contributions amidst COVID-19 outbreak. They played additional roles such as participating in the antimicrobial stewardship team, improving value-added services, conducting clinical data analysis to suppress the outspread of the SARS-CoV-2. SHORT CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic while the whole world is fighting against an invisible virus, the pharmacists are the earnest hero to serve their responsibilities along with additional activities. They need to be prepared and collaborate with other healthcare professionals further to meet the challenges of post-pandemic circumstances.

19.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 625391, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268263

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first recognized in Wuhan in late 2019 and, since then, had spread globally, eventually culminating in the ongoing pandemic. As there is a lack of targeted therapeutics, there is certain opportunity for the scientific community to develop new drugs or vaccines against COVID-19 and so many synthetic bioactive compounds are undergoing clinical trials. In most of the countries, due to the broad therapeutic spectrum and minimal side effects, medicinal plants have been used widely throughout history as traditional healing remedy. Because of the unavailability of synthetic bioactive antiviral drugs, hence all possible efforts have been focused on the search for new drugs and alternative medicines from different herbal formulations. In recent times, it has been assured that the Mpro, also called 3CLpro, is the SARS-CoV-2 main protease enzyme responsible for viral reproduction and thereby impeding the host's immune response. As such, Mpro represents a highly specified target for drugs capable of inhibitory action against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As there continue to be no clear options for the treatment of COVID-19, the identification of potential candidates has become a necessity. The present investigation focuses on the in silico pharmacological activity of Calotropis gigantea, a large shrub, as a potential option for COVID-19 Mpro inhibition and includes an ADME/T profile analysis of that ligand. For this study, with the help of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of C. gigantea methanolic leaf extract, a total of 30 bioactive compounds were selected. Our analyses unveiled the top four options that might turn out to be prospective anti-SARS-CoV-2 lead molecules; these warrant further exploration as well as possible application in processes of drug development to combat COVID-19.

20.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(4): 510-513, 2020 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072381

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Physicians in China reported what is believed to be the first adult case of a SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with acute Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), followed by 5 adult Italian patients and another case in the United States. In the current report, we present one of the first descriptions of an association of GBS and SARS-CoV-2 infection in a child. In our facility, an 11-year-old boy presented with typical features of GBS and, after 5 days, a morbilliform skin rash over the palms of both hands. Three weeks before the start of the neurological symptoms, the boy had experienced an episode of mild febrile illness with mild respiratory manifestations and a persistent cough. The diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed by oropharyngeal swab on reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. The disease course of our patient strongly suggests a possible relationship between the development of GBS and SARS-CoV-2 infection. The case is discussed in view of previous case reports regarding the association of GBS and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
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