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1.
Front Pediatr ; 11: 1144230, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231848

ABSTRACT

Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from mother to fetus is widely accepted. Whereas most infected neonates present with mild symptoms or are asymptomatic, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and abnormal lung images are significantly more frequent in COVID-19 positive neonates than in non-infected newborns. Fatality is rare and discordant meta-analyses of case reports and series relating perinatal maternal COVID-19 status to neonatal disease severity complicate their extrapolation as prognostic indicators. A larger database of detailed case reports from more extreme cases will be required to establish therapeutic guidelines and allow informed decision making. Here we report an unusual case of a 28 weeks' gestation infant with perinatally acquired SARS-CoV-2, who developed severe protracted respiratory failure. Despite intensive care from birth with first line anti-viral and anti-inflammatory therapy, respiratory failure persisted, and death ensued at 5 months. Lung histopathology showed severe diffuse bronchopneumonia, and heart and lung immunohistochemistry confirmed macrophage infiltration, platelet activation and neutrophil extracellular trap formation consistent with late multisystem inflammation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of SARS CoV-2 pulmonary hyperinflammation in a preterm newborn with fatal outcome.

2.
Pediatrics ; 151(5)2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251851

ABSTRACT

Long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae are a potential concern in neonates following in utero exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We report 2 neonates born to SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers, who displayed early-onset (day 1) seizures, acquired microcephaly, and significant developmental delay over time. Sequential MRI showed severe parenchymal atrophy and cystic encephalomalacia. At birth, neither infant was SARS-CoV-2 positive (nasopharyngeal swab, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction), but both had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and increased blood inflammatory markers. Placentas from both mothers showed SARS-CoV-2-nucleocapsid protein and spike glycoprotein 1 in the syncytiotrophoblast, fetal vascular malperfusion, and significantly increased inflammatory and oxidative stress markers pyrin domain containing 1 protein, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 ßη, stromal cell-derived factor 1, interleukin 13, and interleukin 10, whereas human chorionic gonadotropin was markedly decreased. One infant (case 1) experienced sudden unexpected infant death at 13 months of age. The deceased infant's brain showed evidence of SARS-CoV-2 by immunofluorescence, with colocalization of the nucleocapsid protein and spike glycoprotein around the nucleus as well as within the cytoplasm. The constellation of clinical findings, placental pathology, and immunohistochemical changes strongly suggests that second-trimester maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection with placentitis triggered an inflammatory response and oxidative stress injury to the fetoplacental unit that affected the fetal brain. The demonstration of SARS-CoV-2 in the deceased infant's brain also raises the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 infection of the fetal brain directly contributed to ongoing brain injury. In both infants, the neurologic findings at birth mimicked the presentation of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy of newborn and neurologic sequelae progressed well beyond the neonatal period.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Placenta/pathology , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Glycoproteins , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
3.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 146(6): 660-676, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876076

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: Perinatal death is an increasingly important problem as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues, but the mechanism of death has been unclear. OBJECTIVE.­: To evaluate the role of the placenta in causing stillbirth and neonatal death following maternal infection with COVID-19 and confirmed placental positivity for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). DESIGN.­: Case-based retrospective clinicopathologic analysis by a multinational group of 44 perinatal specialists from 12 countries of placental and autopsy pathology findings from 64 stillborns and 4 neonatal deaths having placentas testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 following delivery to mothers with COVID-19. RESULTS.­: Of the 3 findings constituting SARS-CoV-2 placentitis, all 68 placentas had increased fibrin deposition and villous trophoblast necrosis and 66 had chronic histiocytic intervillositis. Sixty-three placentas had massive perivillous fibrin deposition. Severe destructive placental disease from SARS-CoV-2 placentitis averaged 77.7% tissue involvement. Other findings included multiple intervillous thrombi (37%; 25 of 68) and chronic villitis (32%; 22 of 68). The majority (19; 63%) of the 30 autopsies revealed no significant fetal abnormalities except for intrauterine hypoxia and asphyxia. Among all 68 cases, SARS-CoV-2 was detected from a body specimen in 16 of 28 cases tested, most frequently from nasopharyngeal swabs. Four autopsied stillborns had SARS-CoV-2 identified in internal organs. CONCLUSIONS.­: The pathology abnormalities composing SARS-CoV-2 placentitis cause widespread and severe placental destruction resulting in placental malperfusion and insufficiency. In these cases, intrauterine and perinatal death likely results directly from placental insufficiency and fetal hypoxic-ischemic injury. There was no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 involvement of the fetus had a role in causing these deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Perinatal Death , Placenta , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/complications , Female , Fibrin , Humans , Hypoxia/pathology , Hypoxia/virology , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Perinatal Death/etiology , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth
4.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 145(11): 1328-1340, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485410

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: SARS-CoV-2 can undergo maternal-fetal transmission, heightening interest in the placental pathology findings from this infection. Transplacental SARS-CoV-2 transmission is typically accompanied by chronic histiocytic intervillositis together with necrosis and positivity of syncytiotrophoblast for SARS-CoV-2. Hofbauer cells are placental macrophages that have been involved in viral diseases, including HIV and Zika virus, but their involvement in SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. OBJECTIVE.­: To determine whether SARS-CoV-2 can extend beyond the syncytiotrophoblast to enter Hofbauer cells, endothelium, and other villous stromal cells in infected placentas of liveborn and stillborn infants. DESIGN.­: Case-based retrospective analysis by 29 perinatal and molecular pathology specialists of placental findings from a preselected cohort of 22 SARS-CoV-2-infected placentas delivered to pregnant women testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 from 7 countries. Molecular pathology methods were used to investigate viral involvement of Hofbauer cells, villous capillary endothelium, syncytiotrophoblast, and other fetal-derived cells. RESULTS.­: Chronic histiocytic intervillositis and trophoblast necrosis were present in all 22 placentas (100%). SARS-CoV-2 was identified in Hofbauer cells from 4 of 22 placentas (18.2%). Villous capillary endothelial staining was positive in 2 of 22 cases (9.1%), both of which also had viral positivity in Hofbauer cells. Syncytiotrophoblast staining occurred in 21 of 22 placentas (95.5%). Hofbauer cell hyperplasia was present in 3 of 22 placentas (13.6%). In the 7 cases having documented transplacental infection of the fetus, 2 (28.6%) occurred in placentas with Hofbauer cell staining positive for SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS.­: SARS-CoV-2 can extend beyond the trophoblast into the villous stroma, involving Hofbauer cells and capillary endothelial cells, in a small number of infected placentas. Most cases of SARS-CoV-2 transplacental fetal infection occur without Hofbauer cell involvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Macrophages/virology , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Proliferation , Endothelium/pathology , Endothelium/virology , Female , Humans , Hyperplasia/pathology , Hyperplasia/virology , Infant, Newborn , Macrophages/pathology , Macrophages/physiology , Male , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Stillbirth , Trophoblasts/pathology , Trophoblasts/virology
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