Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 15 de 15
Filter
1.
Neurology ; 10(2), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2196712

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Prospective, deeply phenotyped research cohorts monitoring individuals with chronic neurologic conditions, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), depend on continued participant engagement. The COVID-19 pandemic restricted in-clinic research activities, threatening this longitudinal engagement, but also forced adoption of televideo-enabled care. This offered a natural experiment in which to analyze key dimensions of remote research: (1) comparison of remote vs in-clinic visit costs from multiple perspectives and (2) comparison of the remote with in-clinic measures in cross-sectional and longitudinal disability evaluations. METHOD(S): Between March 2020 and December 2021, 207 MS cohort participants underwent hybrid in-clinic and virtual research visits;96 contributed 100 "matched visits," that is, in-clinic (Neurostatus-Expanded Disability Status Scale [NS-EDSS]) and remote (televideo-enabled EDSS [tele-EDSS];electronic patient-reported EDSS [ePR-EDSS]) evaluations. Clinical, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics of participants were collected. RESULT(S): The costs of remote visits were lower than in-clinic visits for research investigators (facilities, personnel, parking, participant compensation) but also for participants (travel, caregiver time) and carbon footprint (p < 0.05 for each). Median cohort EDSS was similar between the 3 modalities (NS-EDSS: 2, tele-EDSS: 1.5, ePR-EDSS: 2, range 0.6.5);the remote evaluations were each noninferior to the NS-EDSS within +/-0.5 EDSS point (TOST for noninferiority, p < 0.01 for each). Furthermore, year to year, the % of participants with worsening/stable/improved EDSS scores was similar, whether each annual evaluation used NS-EDSS or whether it switched from NS-EDSS to tele-EDSS. DISCUSSION: Altogether, the current findings suggest that remote evaluations can reduce the costs of research participation for patients, while providing a reasonable evaluation of disability trajectory longitudinally. This could inform the design of remote research that is more inclusive of diverse participants. Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

2.
European Heart Journal, Supplement ; 24(Supplement K):K138-K139, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2188668

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinical manifestations of children's coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) were initially considered less severe compared with adult patients. However, there is now increasing evidence of a "long-tail" of COVID-19 related symptoms lasting for several months after recovery from the acute infection. Long COVID-19-related symptoms and mechanisms are poorly characterized and understood, with several phenotypes reported, often driven by long-term tissue damage (such as lung, heart and brain) and pathological inflammation due to viral persistence and/or immune deregulation. Purpose(s): The objective of this study was to evaluate atrio-ventricular mechanics, by means of two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography, in previously healthy children recovered from asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in a long-term followup. Method(s): We analysed a cohort of 157 paediatric patients, mean age 7 +/- 4 years, who had a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and were asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic for COVID-19. Patients underwent standard transthoracic echocardiogram and speckle tracking echocardiographic study 148 +/- 68 days after diagnosis. One hundred seven age, sex, and body surface area comparable healthy subjects were used as control group. Result(s): Left ventricular ejection fraction was within normal limits in postCOVID-19 cases and CTRL with no significant differences between the two groups (postCOVID-19: 65.6 +/- 4% vs CTRL: 65.0 +/- 5%, p = 0.182).Left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (postCOVID-19: -20.5 +/- 2.9%;CTRL: -21.8 +/- 1.7%;p < 0.001) was significantly reduced in cases compared with CTRLs. An amount of 11 (7%) postCOVID-19 cases showed impaired GLS values < -17% and 95 subjects (60%) presented with a strain lower than -16% in more than 2 segments. These subjects did not show any difference regarding symptoms or serological findings. Moreover, GLS was significantly reduced in children with disease's onset during the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic, compared with those during the first wave (second wave: -20.2 +/- 2.6%;first wave: -21.2 +/- 3.4%;p = 0.048). Finally, peak left atrial systolic strain was within the normal range in the postCOVID-19 group with no significant differences compared to CTRL (postCOVID-19: 49.1 +/- 12%;CTRL: 49.5 +/- 18%). Conclusion(s): SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect left ventricular deformation in children despite an asymptomatic or only mildly symptomatic acute illness. Our data show an amount of 60% of children, recovering from asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic COVID-19, with still mild subclinical systolic cardiac impairment in the midand long-term follow-up after the infection. This subtle impairment was seen to be worse in children recovering from the second wave of COVID-19 compared to the first one. A follow-up is needed to verify the reversibility of these alterations and their impact on long-term outcomes.

3.
Multiple Sclerosis Journal ; 28(3 Supplement):106-107, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2138831

ABSTRACT

Background: Prospective, deeply phenotyped research cohorts monitoring people with multiple sclerosis (MS) depend on careful participant engagement that was threatened by COVID19- related restrictions to in-clinic visits. Coincidentally, there was forced adoption of televideo-enabled care. Objective(s): To leverage a natural experiment of "going virtual" during the pandemic to evaluate two hypotheses pertaining to remote MS research: that (1) global costs of remote visits are lower, and (2) disability evaluations are non-inferior. Method(s): Between 3/2020 and 12/2021, 207 UCSF EPIC/ ORIGINS MS cohort participants underwent hybrid in-clinic and virtual research visits. Among these, 96 contributed 100 'matched visits', i.e. in-clinic (Neurostatus, NS-EDSS) and remote (televideo-, tele-EDSS;electronic patient-reported, ePR-EDSS) evaluations within 14 days. Clinical and socio/ demographic characteristics were collected. First, visit costs were compared. Then, the quality of data extracted was compared using non-inferiority design with NS-EDSS as primary outcome. Result(s): The 96 participants contributing 100 matched visits had mean age 41.4 years (SD 11.7) and MS duration 1.4 years (SD 3.4);69% were female and 72% White, 8% lived in lowincome zip codes;median driving distance was 70 miles (mean 545). The costs of remote visits to participants (travel, caregiver time), to research (facilities, personnel, parking, participant compensation), and carbon footprint were all lower than in-person visits (p<0.05 for each). Median cohort EDSS was similar, whether evaluated using NS-EDSS (2), tele-EDSS (1.5) or ePREDSS (2), with range 0-6.5. Utilizing a TOST for Non-inferiority, both remote evaluations were non-inferior to NS-EDSS within+/-0.5 EDSS point (p<0.01 for each). Year-to-year, the % of participants with worsening/stable/improved EDSS scores was similar, whether the annual evaluations both used NS-EDSS, or whether the annual evaluation switched from NS-EDSS to tele-EDSS. Discussion(s): "Going virtual" during the pandemic represented a natural experiment in which to test hypotheses about remote research visits. These visits lowered costs for investigators and participants. Further, remote assessments were non-inferior to NS-EDSS and for more precision, could be supplemented with biosensors. Together, these insights support the conduct of research that is more inclusive to participants regardless of geography, race, income, opportunity costs or ability level.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 43(Suppl 2), 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2107416

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinical manifestations of children's coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) were initially considered less severe compared with adult patients. However, there is now increasing evidence of a “long-tail” of COVID-19 related symptoms lasting for several months after recovery from the acute infection. Long COVID-19-related symptoms and mechanisms are poorly characterized and understood, with several phenotypes reported, often driven by long-term tissue damage (such as lung, heart and brain) and pathological inflammation due to viral persistence and/or immune deregulation. Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate atrio-ventricular mechanics, by means of two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography, in previously healthy children recovered from asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in a long-term follow-up. Methods: We analysed a cohort of 157 paediatric patients, mean age 7±4 years, who had a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and were asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic for COVID-19. Patients underwent standard transthoracic echocardiogram and speckle tracking echocardiographic study 148±68 days after diagnosis. One hundred seven age, sex, and body surface area comparable healthy subjects were used as control group. Results: Left ventricular ejection fraction was within normal limits in postCOVID-19 cases and CTRL with no significant differences between the two groups (postCOVID-19: 65.6±4% vs CTRL: 65.0±5%, p=0.182).Left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (postCOVID-19: −20.5±2.9%;CTRL: −21.8±1.7%;p<0.001) was significantly reduced in cases compared with CTRLs. An amount of 11 (7%) postCOVID-19 cases showed impaired GLS values < −17% and 95 subjects (60%) presented with a strain lower than −16% in more than 2 segments. These subjects did not show any difference regarding symptoms or serological findings. Moreover, GLS was significantly reduced in children with disease's onset during the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic, compared with those during the first wave (second wave: −20.2±2.6%;first wave: −21.2±3.4%;p=0.048). Finally, peak left atrial systolic strain was within the normal range in the postCOVID-19 group with no significant differences compared to CTRL (postCOVID-19: 49.1±12%;CTRL: 49.5±18%). Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect left ventricular deformation in children despite an asymptomatic or only mildly symptomatic acute illness. Our data show an amount of 60% of children, recovering from asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic COVID-19, with still mild subclinical systolic cardiac impairment in the mid- and long-term follow-up after the infection. This subtle impairment was seen to be worse in children recovering from the second wave of COVID-19 compared to the first one.A follow-up is needed to verify the reversibility of these alterations and their impact on long-term outcomes. Funding Acknowledgement: Type of funding sources: None.

5.
Cardiology in the Young ; 32(Supplement 2):S87, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062123

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Growing evidence has documented a severe systemic hyperinflammation syndrome affecting children previ-ously exposed to SARS-CoV-2, known as Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). Cardiovascular manifestations in MIS-C are frequent (34%-82%). The aim of our study was to describe the early and late cardiac abnormalities in patients with MIS-C, assessed by standard echocardiography, speckle tracking echocardiography (STE), and cardiac MRI (CMR). Method(s): 32 consecutive patients (21M, 11F), mean age 8.25 +/- 4years (range 1.3-17.7), with confirmed MIS-C diagnosis were enrolled in this study. Clinical, laboratory and microbiological data were collected. At disease onset, all children underwent standard transthoracic echocardiography, STE with analysis of left ventricle global longitudinal strain (GLS) and 23 (75%) of them performed CMR. Patients underwent complete cardiological evaluation, including echocardiography and STE at two months (T1) and six months (T2) after diagnosis. CMR was repeated at six months after diagnosis. Result(s): Cardiovascular symptoms were present in 45.8% of cases. Thirteen children (40.6%) shared Kawasaki Disease-like symp-toms, and 5 (15.6%) needed ICU admission. Early survival was 100%. All patients showed an hyperinflammatory state. Tn-I was elevated in 20 (62.5%) and BNP in 28 (87.5%) patients. Mean LVEF at baseline was 58.8 +/- 10% with 10 patients (31%) below 55%. STE showed reduced mean LV GLS (-17.4 +/- 4%). On CMR, LGE with nonischemic pattern was evident in 8/23 patients (35%). Follow-up data showed rapid improvement of LVEF at T1 (62.5 +/- 7.5 vs. 58.8 +/- 10.6%, p value 0.044) with only three patients (10%) below <= 55% at T1 and one (4%) at T2. LV GLS remained impaired at T1 (-17.2 +/- 2.7 vs.-17.4 +/- 4, p value 0.71), and significantly improved at T2 (-19 +/- 2.6% vs.-17.4 +/- 4%, p value 0.009). LV GLS was impaired (gt;-18%) in 53% of patients at baseline and T1, while only 13% showed persistent LV GLS reduc-tion at T2. Follow-up CMR showed LGE persistence in 33.4% of cases. Conclusion(s): Even though, early cardiac involvement significantly improves during follow-up, subclinical myocardial damage seems to be still detectable 6 months follow up in one third of MIS-C patients.

6.
Cardiology in the Young ; 32(Supplement 2):S93, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2062119

ABSTRACT

Background and Aim: Clinical manifestations of children's corona-virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) are generally considered less severe compared with adult patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac involvement in healthy children with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic severe acute respiratory syn-drome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Method(s): We analysed a cohort of 210 paediatric patients, mean age 7 +/- 4 years, who had a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and were asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic for COVID-19. Patients underwent standard transthoracic echocardiogram and speckle tracking echocardiographic study 138 +/- 65 days after diagnosis. Seventy-two age, sex, and body sur-face area comparable healthy subjects were used as control group. Result(s): Left ventricular ejection fraction was within normal limits but significantly lower in the cases group compared to controls (62 +/- 4% vs. 65 +/- 5%;P = 0.012). Left ventricular (LV) global longi-tudinal strain (-20,91 +/- 2,83 % vs.-22,73 +/- 2,51 %;P lt;0.001) was significantly reduced in cases compared with CTRLs. Regional LV strain analysis showed a significant reduction of the LV mid-wall segments strain among cases compared to controls. Furthermore, in the cases group, there were 25% of subjects with a regional peak systolic strain below-16% (-2.5 Z score in our healthy cohort) in at least two segments. These subjects did not show any difference regarding symptoms or serological findings. Conclusion(s): SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect left ventricular deformation in 26% of children despite an asymptomatic or only mildly symptomatic acute illness. A follow-up is needed to verify the reversibility of these alterations and their impact on long-term outcomes.

7.
European heart journal. Cardiovascular Imaging ; 23(Suppl 1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998671

ABSTRACT

Funding Acknowledgements Type of funding sources: Public hospital(s). Main funding source(s): University Hospital of Padua Background/Introduction: In recent years there has been a growing interest in artificial intelligence (AI) applications in the echocardiography field. This is in order to simplify, reduce time and amplify the use of advanced analyses in the echo lab. Purpose to compare results of the fully automated analysis and manual tracing analysis using a new intuitive software. Methods 28 consecutive previously healthy patients less than 18 years old who were screened at our Center for cardiac evaluation within 6 months after an asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic COVID19 infection were enrolled. All they were in sinus rhythm. Standard transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was performed for each patient using Canon Aplio i900, software 2D Wall Motion Tracking. Optimized apical 4-, 3- and 2- chamber views, mitral valve inflow pattern and LVOT Doppler interrogation were collected. Off-line data analysis of each examination was performed by both fully automated analysis (AI) and pediatric cardiologists with experience in echocardiography i.e. by manual tracing, evaluation and adjustment of the track by the operator (Echocardiographers). Operators were blinded to the AI analysis. To measure intraobserver variability, evaluations of 16 patients datasets were performed twice by both operators and AI. Results Patients’ demographic data were: age 9,8+/-4,7 years;males 22 (78%);height 134,3+/- 34,9 cm;weight 41,8+/-28,7 kg;BSA 1,2+/-0,4 mq, HR 85+/-15/min. The time taken for off-line analysis by AI and echocardiographers was 4-5 and 13-20 minutes, respectively. Reproducibility of echocardiographers’ analysis was found to be excellent for left ventricle assessment (IC from 0,88 to 0,98);moderate for LVOT mean gradient (IC 0,73), RV end diastolic area (IC 0,69) and right atrial strain (IC 0,59);poor for deceleration time (IC 0,5), left ventricle strain (IC 0,49), RV FAC and strain (IC from 0,27 to 0,45). Conversely, reproducibility of the AI analysis was found to be excellent for any parameter (ICC from 0,87 to 0,99) (Table 1). About the mitralic valve inflow pattern assessment, despite the excellent reproducibility of AI analysis, the margin of error was found to be high. Particularly, a systematic error was observed with a tendency of the AI to overestimate deceleration time (DT-AI 176,6 ± 63,8 vs DT-Ecocardiographers 150,4 ± 24,3). Conclusion(s): Fully automated analysis is technically simple, less time consuming and highly reproducible. AI analysis of the mitralic inflow pattern should be optimized, having found a systematic error in the calculation of deceleration time. Reproducibility is the strong point of AI. This reduces the variability of manual measurements between different sonographers and at different times. Table 1. Echocardiographic measurements

8.
Journal of General Internal Medicine ; 37:S574, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995799

ABSTRACT

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM/QUESTION: Early clinical trials demonstrated a decrease in hospital admissions and emergency department (ED) visits in high risk patients who received monoclonal antibody (MAB) treatment for COVID-19 within 3 days of a positive SARS-COV-2 test or within 5 days of symptom onset;thus rapid referral for treatment upon receipt of test results is imperative. DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAM/INTERVENTION: An electronic health record report was generated to identify all patients of an outpatient network of general internal medicine clinics who tested positive for SARS-COV-2 in the previous 3 days. Pharmacists reviewed new patients on the report 1-2 times per day to determine eligibility for MAB treatment and quickly referred those eligible by electronic consultation to a pulmonologist for order placement. If approved, the infusion team contacted the patient to review the treatment option and associated Emergency Use Authorization. Patients who consented to receive MAB treatment were scheduled for and received the MAB infusion. MEASURES OF SUCCESS: Measures of success include (1) number of high risk patients who qualified for and received MAB treatment, (2) time from symptom onset and positive SARS-COV-2 test to referral for MAB treatment and MAB treatment infusion, and (3) number of ED visits and hospital admissions in the patients who received MAB treatment compared to those who did not receive MAB treatment. Other important findings characterized include (1) COVID-19 risk factors for severe disease and/or hospitalization identified in patients who received MAB treatment compared to those who did not receive MAB treatment, (2) reasons eligible patients did not receive MAB treatment, and (3) COVID-19 symptoms reported in patients who received MAB treatment compared to those who did not receive MAB treatment. FINDINGS TO DATE: During the 36-week study period, 277 patients were eligible for MAB treatment. Of those, 188 patients (67.9%) received MAB treatment, 55 patients (19.9%) declined MAB treatment, and 34 patients (12.3%) were lost to follow-up. Average time from symptom onset to MAB treatment was 4.6 ± 2.2 days. A total of 22 (11.7%) patients who received MAB treatment had an ED visit or hospital admission compared to 17 (19.1%) patients who did not receive MAB treatment. Data analysis for other measures listed above and inteferential statistics are pending and will be available within the next week. KEY LESSONS FOR DISSEMINATION: Team-based care can improve the efficiency and quality of care provided to high risk patients while minimizing disruption in daily patient care activities. Keys to workflow success include comprehensive reporting, clear communication pathways, and team integration. Modifications in workflow for patients who report outside test results will also be described.

9.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 23(8): 1066-1074, 2022 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873887

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) with cardiovascular manifestations are frequent. However, there is lacking evidence regarding cardiological follow-up of this cohort of patients. The aim of our study was to describe the early and mid-term cardiac abnormalities assessed by standard and speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE), and cardiac MRI (CMR). METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 32 patients (21 male, 11 female), mean age 8.25 ± 4years, with diagnosis of MIS-C. During admission, all children underwent TTE, STE with analysis of left ventricle global longitudinal strain (GLS) and CMR. Patients underwent cardiological evaluation at 2 (T1) and 6 months (T2) after discharge. Cardiac MRI was repeated at 6 months after discharge. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at baseline was 58.8 ± 10% with 10 patients (31%) below 55%. Speckle-tracking echocardiography showed reduced mean LV GLS (-17.4 ± 4%). On CMR, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) with non-ischaemic pattern was evident in 8 of 23 patients (35%). Follow-up data showed rapid improvement of LVEF at T1 (62.5 ± 7.5 vs. 58.8 ± 10.6%, P-value 0.044) with only three patients (10%) below ≤ 55% at T1. Left ventricular (LV) GLS remained impaired at T1 (-17.2 ± 2.7 vs.-17.4 ± 4, P-value 0.71) and significantly improved at T2 (-19 ± 2.6% vs. -17.4 ± 4%, P-value 0.009). LV GLS was impaired (>-18%) in 53% of patients at baseline and T1, whereas only 13% showed persistent LV GLS reduction at T2. Follow-up CMR showed LGE persistence in 33.4% of cases. CONCLUSION: Early cardiac involvement significantly improves during follow-up of MIS-C patients. However, subclinical myocardial dysfunction seems to be still detectable after 6 months of follow-up in a not negligible proportion of them.


Subject(s)
Heart Defects, Congenital , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Contrast Media , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Male , Stroke Volume , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Ventricular Function, Left
11.
European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging ; 23(SUPPL 1):i250, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1795317

ABSTRACT

Background/Introduction: In recent years there has been a growing interest in artificial intelligence (AI) applications in the echocardiography field. This is in order to simplify, reduce time and amplify the use of advanced analyses in the echo lab. Purpose: to compare results of the fully automated analysis and manual tracing analysis using a new intuitive software. Methods: 28 consecutive previously healthy patients less than 18 years old who were screened at our Center for cardiac evaluation within 6 months after an asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic COVID19 infection were enrolled. All they were in sinus rhythm. Standard transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was performed for each patient using Canon Aplio i900, software 2D Wall Motion Tracking. Optimized apical 4-, 3- and 2- chamber views, mitral valve inflow pattern and LVOT Doppler interrogation were collected. Off-line data analysis of each examination was performed by both fully automated analysis (AI) and pediatric cardiologists with experience in echocardiography i.e. by manual tracing, evaluation and adjustment of the track by the operator (Echocardiographers). Operators were blinded to the AI analysis. To measure intraobserver variability, evaluations of 16 patients datasets were performed twice by both operators and AI. Results: Patients' demographic data were: age 9,8+/-4,7 years;males 22 (78%);height 134,3+/- 34,9 cm;weight 41,8+/-28,7 kg;BSA 1,2+/-0,4 mq, HR 85+/-15/min. The time taken for off-line analysis by AI and echocardiographers was 4-5 and 13-20 minutes, respectively. Reproducibility of echocardiographers' analysis was found to be excellent for left ventricle assessment (IC from 0,88 to 0,98);moderate for LVOT mean gradient (IC 0,73), RV end diastolic area (IC 0,69) and right atrial strain (IC 0,59);poor for deceleration time (IC 0,5), left ventricle strain (IC 0,49), RV FAC and strain (IC from 0,27 to 0,45). Conversely, reproducibility of the AI analysis was found to be excellent for any parameter (ICC from 0,87 to 0,99) (Table 1). About the mitralic valve inflow pattern assessment, despite the excellent reproducibility of AI analysis, the margin of error was found to be high. Particularly, a systematic error was observed with a tendency of the AI to overestimate deceleration time (DT-AI 176,6 ± 63,8 vs DTEcocardiographers 150,4 ± 24,3). Conclusion(s): Fully automated analysis is technically simple, less time consuming and highly reproducible. AI analysis of the mitralic inflow pattern should be optimized, having found a systematic error in the calculation of deceleration time. Reproducibility is the strong point of AI. This reduces the variability of manual measurements between different sonographers and at different times.

12.
European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging ; 23(SUPPL 1):i252-i253, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1795316

ABSTRACT

Background/Introduction: Ejection fraction (EF) is a parameter widely used in Echolab to evaluate left ventricular function. Recently, in parallel with the growing interest in artificial intelligence (AI), attemps have been made to create automated systems for EF assessment, in order to reduce time and improve the accuracy of the analysis. Purpose: to compare results of different methods of EF assessment: visual estimation (visual EF), manual and fully automated analysis. Methods: 28 consecutive pediatric patients were enrolled. This cohort of previously healthy patients was screened at our Center for cardiac evaluation within 6 months after an asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic COVID19 infection. All they were in sinus rhythm. Optimized apical 4- and 2- chamber views were collected for each patient using Canon Aplio i900. Off-line EF assessment was first evaluated visually by pediatric cardiologists with experience in echocardiography, then performed by both fully automated analysis (AI) using two different methods (Automatic Simpson -AI Simpson- and Wall Motion Tracking -AI WMT-) and pediatric cardiologists through manual tracing of endocardial border (Manual Simpson and Manual WMT respectively). Operators were blinded to the AI analysis. To measure intraobserver variability, evaluations of 16 patients' datasets were performed twice by both operators and AI. Results: Patients' demographic data were: age 9,8+/-4,7 years;males 22 (78%);height 134,3+/- 34,9 cm;weight 41,8+/-28,7 kg;BSA 1,2+/-0,4 mq, HR 85+/-15/min. The time taken for off-line analysis was 0.3-0.7 minutes, 1-1.5 minutes, 1-3 minutes and 3-4 minutes, respectively for AI WMT, AI Simpson, Manual WMT and Manual Simpson. As expected, visual EF showed high intraobserver variability and a poor reproducibility (ICC 43%). AI analysis revealed a good to excellent reproducibility (ICC from 80% to 99%, depending on the method used). WMT methods had the best reproducibility both for manual tracing of endocardial border and fully automated analysis (Table 1). The comparison between different methods (Table 2) showed a good agreement between AI Simpson and AI WMT (mean bias 2,9, from -3,2 to 9,0, ICC 86%). A moderate correlation was found between different methods of AI analysis while only poor correlation was found between manual Simpson and manual WMT (Table 2). Conclusion(s): Automatic Simpson and Wall Motion Tracking are two different fully automated methods which can be used for left ventricular function assessment. AI reproducibility is high for both methods, higher for WMT. WMT method is also less time consuming and improves reproducibility of manual tracing of endocardial borderd analysis.

13.
Multiple Sclerosis Journal ; 27(2 SUPPL):795, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1496071

ABSTRACT

Introduction: MS disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) lead to distinct effects on humoral and cellular immunity. Effective vaccine- elicited immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus- 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, requires robust antibody and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Understanding how different MS DMTs affect COVID-19 vaccine immunity is a vital clinical gap that needs to be urgently addressed. Objectives: The goal of this study is to assess COVID-19 vaccine- elicited antibody and T cell responses in MS patients on different of DMTs. Aims: To measure SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen-specific antibody and CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses before and after COVID- 19 vaccination of MS patients on different DMTs. Methods: Enrolment included MS patients on no therapy, or treated with glatiramer acetate (GA), dimethyl fumarate (DMF), natalizumab (NAT), sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor (S1P) modulator, or anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb). Serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from all patients before and 2-4 weeks following final COVID-19 vaccination. Patient serum was tested on a Luminex bead-based assay to quantitatively measure IgG levels against the whole SARSCoV- 2 spike protein and the spike receptor binding domain (RBD). PBMCs were stimulated with pools of SARS-CoV-2 spike peptides to measure the frequencies of spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by activation-induced marker expression. Results: Following COVID-19 vaccination, all untreated MS patients and patients on GA, DMF, and NAT were seropositive with similar high IgG titres to total spike and spike RBD. MS patients on S1P modulators and anti-CD20 mAb exhibited significantly reduced IgG titres to total spike and spike RBD antigens, with only a fraction of patients reaching seropositivity. Spike antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were present at similar levels across all DMT categories following COVID-19 vaccination. Conclusions: MS DMTs exhibited differential effects on COVID- 19 vaccine-elicited humoral, but not T cell immunity. Whereas IgG responses were unaffected in MS patients on GA, DMF, and NAT, IgG levels were reduced in MS patients on S1P modulators and anti-CD20 mAb. The findings of this study have important clinical implications for assessing potential risk of COVID-19 infection in vaccinated MS patients on specific DMTs.

14.
European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging ; 22(SUPPL 1):i215, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185663

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) and Kawasaki disease (KD) have overlapping features. This study aimed to describe the strain segmental analysis among both entities. Methods: Retrospective review of strain segmental analysis within 4 weeks of presentation of symptoms among children diagnosed with PIMS-TS between April and June 2020 and a historic cohort of typical KD from the Royal Brompton Hospital, London. Results: We included 33 PIMS-TS patients (23 males, 69.7%) at a mean age of 8 ± 4,9 years old and 45 KD patients (31 males, 68,9%) at a mean age of 5,8 ± 4,5 years old. PIMS-TS patients were older at presentation (p = 0.038). Left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) was normal in both groups (63,3% vs 63,5%;p= 0,89), 4/33 PIMS-TS children (12,1%) had coronary arteries abnormalities (CAA), whereas 100% of KD cohort had CAA. Both groups had a normal global longitudinal strain (GLS),but in PIMS-TS it was significantly reduced compared to the KD group (-20% vs -22%;p = 0,008). Basal segments were the most affected in PIMS-TS with significant difference in the basal anterior and anterolateral strain compared to KD (respectively -18,2% vs -23,4%;p < 0,001 and - 16,7% vs -22,7%;p < 0,001). PIMS-TS had a greater anterior, anterolateral and posterior segments involvement with a significant reduction in the anterolateral mid-wall longitudinal strain (-18,3% vs -22%;p = 0,002). Apical segments were less involved, with significant difference only in the septal and inferior apical strain (respectively p = 0.001 and p = 0,032). Conclusions: These preliminary data showed that after 4 weeks from the onset of symptoms, all PIMS-TS patients had a normal LVEF but they had a significant reduction in GLS and different segmental involvement compared to KD cohort. We hypothesize that these findings may be related to direct myocardial damage in PIMS-TS rather than caused by coronaries perfusion abnormalities.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL