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2.
Curr HIV Res ; 20(4): 296-300, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974465

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines have had a fundamental impact in containing the ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, there are few efficacy data relating to frail patients, including the HIV-positive patient. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV- 2) serum neutralization in People Living with HIV (PLWH) compared to a cohort of healthy volunteers both vaccinated with BNT162b2. METHODS: A serum sample was then withdrawn 14-21 days after the second dose of the vaccine and a serum neutralization assay was performed on Vero E6 cells. The experiments were performed using two strains of SARS-CoV-2 as 20A.EU1 and B.1.617.2. RESULTS: PLWH on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) showed a vaccine response comparable to the healthy subjects. No correlation between CD4 count or CD4/CD8 and neutralizing antibodies (NTAbs) has been found. No differences in NT-Abs between patients with CD4 nadir above or under 200 cells/µl have been found. In both cohorts, vaccine-elicited serum better neutralized 20A.EU1 than B.1.617.2 strain. CONCLUSION: PLWH in ART and with good immuno-virological recovery showed a vaccine response comparable to that of healthy subjects and regardless of their immunological status at HIV infection diagnosis. However, larger studies are needed to confirm our results and to evaluate the vaccine response even in patients with low CD4 counts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Viral Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Antibodies, Neutralizing
3.
Microorganisms ; 10(7)2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957393

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The development of effective vaccines has partially mitigated the trend of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; however, the need for orally administered antiviral drugs persists. This study aims to investigate the activity of molnupiravir in combination with nirmatrelvir or GC376 on SARS-CoV-2 to verify the synergistic effect. METHODS: The SARS-CoV-2 strains 20A.EU, BA.1 and BA.2 were used to infect Vero E6 in presence of antiviral compounds alone or in combinations using five two-fold serial dilution of compound concentrations ≤EC90. After 48 and 72 h post-infection, viability was performed using MTT reduction assay. Supernatants were collected for plaque-assay titration. All experiments were performed in triplicate, each being repeated at least three times. The synergistic score was calculated using Synergy Finder version 2. RESULTS: All compounds reached micromolar EC90. Molnupiravir and GC376 showed a synergistic activity at 48 h with an HSA score of 19.33 (p < 0.0001) and an additive activity at 72 h with an HSA score of 8.61 (p < 0.0001). Molnupiravir and nirmatrelvir showed a synergistic activity both at 48 h and 72 h with an HSA score of 14.2 (p = 0.01) and 13.08 (p < 0.0001), respectively. CONCLUSION: Molnupiravir associated with one of the two protease-inhibitors nirmatrelvir and GC376 showed good additive-synergic activity in vitro.

4.
J Infect ; 83(4): 467-472, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The emergence of new variants of concern (VOCs) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) around the world significantly complicated the exit from Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum neutralizing activity of three cohorts. METHODS: BNT162b2-elicited serum (N = 103), candidates as hyper-immune plasma donors (N = 90) and patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 P1 variant (N = 22) were enrolled. Three strains of SARS-CoV-2 have been tested: 20A.EU1, B.1.1.7 (alpha) and P.1 (gamma). Neutralizing antibodies (NT-Abs) titers against SARS-CoV-2 were evaluated. RESULTS: B.1.1.7 and P.1 are less efficiently neutralized by convalescent wild-type infected serums if compared to 20A.EU1 strain (mean titer 1.6 and 6.7-fold lower respectively). BNT162b2 vaccine-elicited human sera show an equivalent neutralization potency on the B.1.1.7 but it is significantly lower for the P.1 variant (mean titer 3.3-fold lower). Convalescent P.1 patients are less protected from other SARS-CoV-2 strains with an important reduction of neutralizing antibodies against 20A.EU1 and B.1.1.7, about 12.2 and 10.9-fold, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: BNT162b2 vaccine confers immunity against all the tested VOCs, while previous SARS-CoV-2 infection may be less protective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans
5.
Redox Biol ; 45: 102041, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263367

ABSTRACT

Viral infections sustain their replication cycle promoting a pro-oxidant environment in the host cell. In this context, specific alterations of the levels and homeostatic function of the tripeptide glutathione have been reported to play a causal role in the pro-oxidant and cytopathic effects (CPE) of the virus. In this study, these aspects were investigated for the first time in SARS-CoV2-infected Vero E6 cells, a reliable and well-characterized in vitro model of this infection. SARS-CoV2 markedly decreased the levels of cellular thiols, essentially lowering the reduced form of glutathione (GSH). Such an important defect occurred early in the CPE process (in the first 24 hpi). Thiol analysis in N-acetyl-Cys (NAC)-treated cells and membrane transporter expression data demonstrated that both a lowered uptake of the GSH biosynthesis precursor Cys and an increased efflux of cellular thiols, could play a role in this context. Increased levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and protein glutathionylation were also observed along with upregulation of the ER stress marker PERK. The antiviral drugs Remdesivir (Rem) and Nelfinavir (Nel) influenced these changes at different levels, essentially confirming the importance or blocking viral replication to prevent GSH depletion in the host cell. Accordingly, Nel, the most potent antiviral in our in vitro study, produced a timely activation of Nrf2 transcription factor and a GSH enhancing response that synergized with NAC to restore GSH levels in the infected cells. Despite poor in vitro antiviral potency and GSH enhancing function, Rem treatment was found to prevent the SARS-CoV2-induced glutathionylation of cellular proteins. In conclusion, SARS-CoV2 infection impairs the metabolism of cellular glutathione. NAC and the antiviral Nel can prevent such defect in vitro.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glutathione , Glutathione/metabolism , Glutathione Disulfide/metabolism , Humans , Oxidation-Reduction , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 188: 114564, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188321

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 is the pathogenetic agent of Corona Virus Induced Disease (COVID)19. The virus enters the human cells after binding to the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2 receptor in target tissues. ACE2 expression is induced in response to inflammation. The colon expression of ACE2 is upregulated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), highlighting a potential risk of intestinal inflammation in promoting viral entry in the human body. Because mechanisms that regulate ACE2 expression in the intestine are poorly understood and there is a need of anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapies, we have settled to investigate whether natural flavonoids might regulate the expression of Ace2 in intestinal models of inflammation. The results of these studies demonstrated that pelargonidin activates the Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) in vitro and reverses intestinal inflammation caused by chronic exposure to high fat diet or to the intestinal braking-barrier agent TNBS in a AhR-dependent manner. In these two models, development of colon inflammation associated with upregulation of Ace2 mRNA expression. Colon levels of Ace2 mRNA were directly correlated with Tnf-α mRNA levels. Molecular docking studies suggested that pelargonidin binds a fatty acid binding pocket on the receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. In vitro studies demonstrated that pelargonidin significantly reduces the binding of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein to ACE2 and reduces the SARS-CoV-2 replication in a concentration-dependent manner. In summary, we have provided evidence that a natural flavonoid might hold potential in reducing intestinal inflammation and ACE2 induction in the inflamed colon in a AhR-dependent manner.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , Anthocyanins/pharmacology , Drug Discovery/methods , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/agonists , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Anthocyanins/chemistry , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Mice, Transgenic , Protein Structure, Secondary , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vero Cells
7.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129784

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to establish the persistence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on inanimate surfaces such as plastic, stainless steel, and glass during UV-C irradiation which is a physical means commonly utilized in sanitization procedures. The viral inactivation rate, virus half-life, and percentage of titer reduction after UV-C irradiation were assessed. Infectivity was maintained on plastic and glass until 120 h and on stainless steel until 72 h. The virus half-life was 5.3, 4.4, and 4.2 h on plastic, stainless steel, and glass, respectively. In all cases, titer decay was >99% after drop drying. UV-C irradiation efficiently reduced virus titer (99.99%), with doses ranging from 10.25 to 23.71 mJ/cm2. Plastic and stainless steel needed higher doses to achieve target reduction. The total inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 on glass was obtained with the lower dose applied. SARS-CoV-2 survival can be long lasting on inanimate surfaces. It is worth recommending efficient disinfection protocols as a measure of prevention of viral spread. UV-C can provide rapid, efficient and sustainable sanitization procedures of different materials and surfaces. The dosages and mode of irradiation are important parameters to consider in their implementation as an important means to fight the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Disinfection/methods , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection/instrumentation , Glass/analysis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stainless Steel/analysis , Ultraviolet Rays , Viral Load/radiation effects
8.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(1): 1-12, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-841058

ABSTRACT

Can a patient diagnosed with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) be infected again? This question is still unsolved. We tried to analyze local and literature cases with a positive respiratory swab after recovery. We collected data from symptomatic patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Italian Umbria Region that, after recovery, were again positive for SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory tract specimens. Samples were also assessed for infectivity in vitro. A systematic review of similar cases reported in the literature was performed. The study population was composed of 9 patients during a 4-month study period. Among the new positive samples, six were inoculated in Vero-E6 cells and showed no growth and negative molecular test in culture supernatants. All patients were positive for IgG against SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein and/or S protein. Conducting a review of the literature, 1350 similar cases have been found. The presumptive reactivation occurred in 34.5 days on average (standard deviation, SD, 18.7 days) after COVID-19 onset, when the 5.6% of patients presented fever and the 27.6% symptoms. The outcome was favorable in 96.7% of patients, while the 1.1% of them were still hospitalized at the time of data collection and the 2.1% died. Several hypotheses have been formulated to explain new positive respiratory samples after confirmed negativity. According to this study, the phenomenon seems to be due to the prolonged detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA traces in respiratory samples of recovered patients. The failure of the virus to replicate in vitro suggests its inability to replicate in vivo.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Recurrence , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
9.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 52(10): 698-704, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-614100

ABSTRACT

Background: From January 2020, Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread all over the world. An early assessment of illness severity is important for the stratification of patients. We analysed the predictive value of National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) for intensive care unit admission (ICU) in patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome- Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.Methods: Data of 71 patients with SARS-CoV-2 admitted from 1 March to 20 April 2020, to the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of Perugia Hospital, Italy, were retrospectively reviewed. NEWS2 at hospital admission, demographic, comorbidity and clinical data were collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to establish the correlation between each variable and ICU admission.Results: Among 68 patients included in the analysis, 27 were admitted to ICU. NEWS2 at hospital admission was a good predictor of ICU admission as shown by an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis of 0.90 (standard error 0.04; 95% confidence interval 0.82-0.97). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, NEWS2 was significantly related to ICU admission using thresholds of 5 and 7. No other clinical variables included in the model were significantly correlated with ICU admission.A NEWS2 threshold of 5 had higher sensitivity than a threshold of 7 (89% and 63%). Higher specificity, positive likelihood ratio and positive predictive value were found using a threshold of 7 than a threshold of 5.Conclusions: NEWS2 at hospital admission was a good predictor for ICU admission. Patients with severe COVID-19 were correctly and rapidly stratified.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Likelihood Functions , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Severity of Illness Index
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