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Basic Clin Neurosci ; 12(5): 569-586, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623810

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The change of stroke incidence during the COVID-19 pandemic period and the proposed mechanisms of the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and stroke is reviewed. Methods: Web of Science, PMC/Medline, and Scopus databases were searched until July 2020 without time and language limitations. After quality assessment, 22 articles were included in this study. Results: Based on the results, it is impossible to conclude any definite relationship between the rising or decreasing stroke frequency or the shift in the ischemic and hemorrhagic ratio and SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, it appears that SARS-CoV-2 infection has some correlation with stroke. The supposed mechanisms for the SARS-CoV-2-related hemorrhagic stroke include 1) SARS-CoV-2-related vasculopathy with the endothelial damage of small vessels, 2) viral infection-induced platelet dysfunction or thrombocytopenia, and 3) activation of the proinflammatory cascade leading to coagulopathy. The helpful strategies are receiving therapeutic anticoagulation for high D-dimer or a known thrombus due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in some patients. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms for the SARS-CoV-2-related ischemic stroke include 1) dysregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (a key host cellular receptor for SARSCoV-2)-related physiologic functions, 2) endothelial cell damages, 3) thrombo-inflammation, and 4) coagulopathy and coagulation abnormalities related to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusion: A better understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and its relation to neurologic abnormalities such as stroke can help to design new therapeutic approaches.

3.
EBioMedicine ; 59: 102939, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is an increased attention to stroke following SARS-CoV-2. The goal of this study was to better depict the short-term risk of stroke and its associated factors among SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized patients. METHODS: This multicentre, multinational observational study includes hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients from North and South America (United States, Canada, and Brazil), Europe (Greece, Italy, Finland, and Turkey), Asia (Lebanon, Iran, and India), and Oceania (New Zealand). The outcome was the risk of subsequent stroke. Centres were included by non-probability sampling. The counts and clinical characteristics including laboratory findings and imaging of the patients with and without a subsequent stroke were recorded according to a predefined protocol. Quality, risk of bias, and heterogeneity assessments were conducted according to ROBINS-E and Cochrane Q-test. The risk of subsequent stroke was estimated through meta-analyses with random effect models. Bivariate logistic regression was used to determine the parameters with predictive outcome value. The study was reported according to the STROBE, MOOSE, and EQUATOR guidelines. FINDINGS: We received data from 26,175 hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients from 99 tertiary centres in 65 regions of 11 countries until May 1st, 2020. A total of 17,799 patients were included in meta-analyses. Among them, 156(0.9%) patients had a stroke-123(79%) ischaemic stroke, 27(17%) intracerebral/subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 6(4%) cerebral sinus thrombosis. Subsequent stroke risks calculated with meta-analyses, under low to moderate heterogeneity, were 0.5% among all centres in all countries, and 0.7% among countries with higher health expenditures. The need for mechanical ventilation (OR: 1.9, 95% CI:1.1-3.5, p = 0.03) and the presence of ischaemic heart disease (OR: 2.5, 95% CI:1.4-4.7, p = 0.006) were predictive of stroke. INTERPRETATION: The results of this multi-national study on hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection indicated an overall stroke risk of 0.5%(pooled risk: 0.9%). The need for mechanical ventilation and the history of ischaemic heart disease are the independent predictors of stroke among SARS-CoV-2 patients. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Stroke/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Tertiary Care Centers
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