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EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314532


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a variable clinical presentation that ranges from asymptomatic, to severe disease with cytokine storm. The mortality rates also differ across the globe, ranging from 0.5-13%. This variation is likely due to both pathogen and host factors. Host factors may include genetic differences in the immune response genes as well as variation in HLA and KIR allotypes. To better understand what impact these genetic variants in immune response genes may have in the differences observed in the immune response to SARS-CoV-2, a quantitative analysis of a dynamical systems model that considers both, the magnitude of viral growth, and the subsequent innate and adaptive response required to achieve control of infection is considered. Based on this broad quantitative framework it may be posited that the spectrum of symptomatic to severely symptomatic presentations of COVID19 represents the balance between innate and adaptive immune responses. In asymptomatic patients, prompt and adequate adaptive immune response quells infection, whereas in those with severe symptoms a slower inadequate adaptive response leads to a runaway cytokine cascade fueled by ongoing viral replication. Polymorphisms in the various components of the innate and adaptive immune response may cause altered immune response kinetics that would result in variable severity of illness. Understanding how this genetic variation may alter the response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is critical to develop successful treatment strategies.

J Am Board Fam Med ; 34(6): 1189-1202, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581435


BACKGROUND: Primary care is crucial to the health of individuals and communities, but it faces numerous structural and systemic challenges. Our study assessed the state of primary care in Virginia to prepare for Medicaid expansion. It also provides insight into the frontline of health care prior to an unprecedented global COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We surveyed 1622 primary care practices to understand organizational characteristics, scope of care, capacity, and organizational stress. RESULTS: Practices (484) varied in type, ownership, location, and care for medically underserved and diverse patient populations. Most practices accepted uninsured and Medicaid patients. Practices reported a broad scope of care, including offering behavioral health and medication-assisted therapy for opioid addiction. Over half addressed social needs like transportation and unstable housing. One in three practices experienced a significant stress in 2019, prepandemic, and only 18.8% of practices anticipated a stress in 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Primary care serves as the foundation of our health care system and is an essential service, but it is severely stressed, under-resourced, and overburdened in the best of times. Primary care needs strategic workforce planning, adequate access to resources, and financial investment to sustain its value and innovation.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Medicaid , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Virginia