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Neural Regen Res ; 17(6): 1228-1239, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518676


As the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread globally, it became evident that the SARS-CoV-2 virus infects multiple organs including the brain. Several clinical studies revealed that patients with COVID-19 infection experience an array of neurological signs ranging in severity from headaches to life-threatening strokes. Although the exact mechanism by which the SARS-CoV-2 virus directly impacts the brain is not fully understood, several theories have been suggested including direct and indirect pathways induced by the virus. One possible theory is the invasion of SARS-CoV-2 to the brain occurs either through the bloodstream or via the nerve endings which is considered to be the direct route. Such findings are based on studies reporting the presence of viral material in the cerebrospinal fluid and brain cells. Nevertheless, the indirect mechanisms, including blood-clotting abnormalities and prolonged activation of the immune system, can result in further tissue and organ damages seen during the course of the disease. This overview attempts to give a thorough insight into SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus neurological infection and highlights the possible mechanisms leading to the neurological manifestations observed in infected patients.

Stroke ; 52(5): e117-e130, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195876
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 649922, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186796


Since the early days of the pandemic, there have been several reports of cerebrovascular complications during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Numerous studies proposed a role for SARS-CoV-2 in igniting stroke. In this review, we focused on the pathoetiology of stroke among the infected patients. We pictured the results of the SARS-CoV-2 invasion to the central nervous system (CNS) via neuronal and hematogenous routes, in addition to viral infection in peripheral tissues with extensive crosstalk with the CNS. SARS-CoV-2 infection results in pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine release and activation of the immune system, COVID-19-associated coagulopathy, endotheliitis and vasculitis, hypoxia, imbalance in the renin-angiotensin system, and cardiovascular complications that all may lead to the incidence of stroke. Critically ill patients, those with pre-existing comorbidities and patients taking certain medications, such as drugs with elevated risk for arrhythmia or thrombophilia, are more susceptible to a stroke after SARS-CoV-2 infection. By providing a pictorial narrative review, we illustrated these associations in detail to broaden the scope of our understanding of stroke in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. We also discussed the role of antiplatelets and anticoagulants for stroke prevention and the need for a personalized approach among patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

EBioMedicine ; 59: 102939, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716658


BACKGROUND: There is an increased attention to stroke following SARS-CoV-2. The goal of this study was to better depict the short-term risk of stroke and its associated factors among SARS-CoV-2 hospitalized patients. METHODS: This multicentre, multinational observational study includes hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients from North and South America (United States, Canada, and Brazil), Europe (Greece, Italy, Finland, and Turkey), Asia (Lebanon, Iran, and India), and Oceania (New Zealand). The outcome was the risk of subsequent stroke. Centres were included by non-probability sampling. The counts and clinical characteristics including laboratory findings and imaging of the patients with and without a subsequent stroke were recorded according to a predefined protocol. Quality, risk of bias, and heterogeneity assessments were conducted according to ROBINS-E and Cochrane Q-test. The risk of subsequent stroke was estimated through meta-analyses with random effect models. Bivariate logistic regression was used to determine the parameters with predictive outcome value. The study was reported according to the STROBE, MOOSE, and EQUATOR guidelines. FINDINGS: We received data from 26,175 hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients from 99 tertiary centres in 65 regions of 11 countries until May 1st, 2020. A total of 17,799 patients were included in meta-analyses. Among them, 156(0.9%) patients had a stroke-123(79%) ischaemic stroke, 27(17%) intracerebral/subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 6(4%) cerebral sinus thrombosis. Subsequent stroke risks calculated with meta-analyses, under low to moderate heterogeneity, were 0.5% among all centres in all countries, and 0.7% among countries with higher health expenditures. The need for mechanical ventilation (OR: 1.9, 95% CI:1.1-3.5, p = 0.03) and the presence of ischaemic heart disease (OR: 2.5, 95% CI:1.4-4.7, p = 0.006) were predictive of stroke. INTERPRETATION: The results of this multi-national study on hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection indicated an overall stroke risk of 0.5%(pooled risk: 0.9%). The need for mechanical ventilation and the history of ischaemic heart disease are the independent predictors of stroke among SARS-CoV-2 patients. FUNDING: None.

Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Stroke/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Tertiary Care Centers