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1.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1980749

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a major issue. None of the published papers have reported data on the outcome of HSCT patients with COVID-19 according to the vaccination status and the short course of remdesivir (RDV). Therefore, we present the case of a 22-year-old man with relapsed testicular non-seminomatous germ-cell tumor who was diagnosed with COVID-19 during his first auto-HSCT. Our case report is the first one describing the efficacy of early RDV (and its anti-inflammatory effects that might counterbalance the negative effect of the recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factors -rhG-CSF-) in the context of severe neutropenia following HSCT with the concomitant onset of COVID-19.

2.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(7)2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911151

ABSTRACT

The guidelines on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) recommend an empiric therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) according to its prevalence rate. Considering the MRSA and MSSA VAP prevalence over the last 9 years in our tertiary care hospital, we assessed the clinical value of the MRSA nasal-swab screening in either predicting or ruling out MRSA VAP. We extracted the data of 1461 patients with positive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Regarding the MRSA nasal-swab screening, 170 patients were positive for MRSA or MSSA. Overall, MRSA had a high prevalence in our ICU. Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a significant downward trend in MRSA prevalence, while MSSA remained steady over time. Having VAP due to MRSA did not have any impact on LOS and mortality. Finally, the MRSA nasal-swab testing demonstrated a very high negative predictive value for MRSA VAP. Our results suggested the potential value of a patient-centered approach to improve antibiotic stewardship.

3.
Immunotherapy ; 14(12): 915-925, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892545

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer have a higher risk of severe COVID-19, and expert consensus advocates for COVID-19 vaccination in this population. Some cases of autoimmune hepatitis have been described after the administration of COVID-19 vaccine in the people in apparently good health. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are responsible for a wide spectrum of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). This article reports a case of hepatitis and colitis in a 52-year-old woman who was undergoing immunotherapy and was HBV positive 10 days after receiving the first Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine dose. Because both ICIs and the COVID-19 vaccines stimulate the immune response, the authors hypothesize that these vaccines may increase the incidence of irAEs during ICI treatment. There is a complex interplay between the immune-mediated reaction triggered by the vaccination and PD-L1 co-administration.


Patients with cancer have a higher risk of severe COVID-19, and expert consensus advocates for COVID-19 vaccination in this population. Some reports have described autoimmune hepatitis after the administration of COVID-19 vaccine. It is difficult, however, to establish a causal relationship between COVID-19 vaccination and autoimmune hepatitis. This article reports a case of hepatitis and colitis in a 52-year-old woman with lung cancer who was undergoing immunotherapy and was was found to be HBV positive 10 days after her first Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine dose. Because both immunotherapy and COVID-19 vaccines stimulate the immune response, the authors hypothesize that these vaccines may increase the incidence of immune-related side effects.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hepatitis , Neoplasms , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Hepatitis/etiology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334280

ABSTRACT

Background: the hyperinflammation phase of severe SARS-CoV-2 is characterized by complete blood count alterations. In this context, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) can be used as prognostic factors. We study NLR and PLR trends at different timepoints and compute optimal cutoffs to predict four outcomes: use of Continuous Positive Airways Pressure (CPAP), ICU admission, invasive ventilation and death. Methods: : we retrospectively included all adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted from 23 rd January 2020 to 18 th May 2021. Data were extracted using ICD9 codes and our Covid-19 registry. Analyses included descriptive statistics and non parametric tests to study the ability of NLR and PLR to distinguish the patients’ outcomes at each timepoint. ROC curves were built for NLR and PLR at each timepoint (minus discharge) in order to identify cutoffs to distinguish severe and non severe disease and their statistical significance was assessed with the Chi-square test. NLR and PLR were compared with DeLong’s test. Results: : we included 2169 patients. NLR and PLR were higher in severe Covid-19 at all the timepoints, with a difference that gets bigger and a trend that is steeper in more severe disease. Both ratios were able to distinguish the outcomes at each timepoint. For NLR, the areas under the curve (AUROC) ranged between 0.59 and 0.81, for PLR, between 0.53 and 0.67. From each ROC curve we computed an optimal cutoff value (e.g. NLR 7 for CPAP for males at admission). NLR performed better than PLR. Conclusion: our results are in line with other studies that computed NLR and PLR trends and values in disease, especially with those that distinguished between different grades of severity. Our study is retrospective and single centre, and is limited by selection bias, but includes more than 2000 patients, thus limiting the confounding factors and outliers. Our cutoffs do not only deal with severity and mortality but allow for a more tailored approach. Future prospect include validating our cutoffs in a prospective cohort and comparing their performance against other Covid19 scores.

5.
Heliyon ; 8(2): e08895, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778151

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 tide had shattered on European countries with three distinct and tough waves, from March and April, 2020; October and November, 2020 and March and April, 2021 respectively. We observed a 50% reduction in the hazard of death during both wave II and III compared with wave I (HR 0.54, 95%CI 0.39-0.74 and HR 0.57, 95%CI 0.41-0.80, respectively). Sex and age were independent predictors of death. We compare in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients admitted at our Referral Hospital of Northern Italy during the different waves, discuss the reasons of the observed differences and suggest approaches to the challenges ahead.

6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329622

ABSTRACT

The guidelines on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) recommend an empiric therapy against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) according to its the prevalence rate. Considering the MRSA and MSSA VAP prevalence over the last 9 years in our tertiary care Hospital, we firstly compared patients with MRSA VAP to those with MSSA VAP in terms of length of stay (LOS) in intensive care unit (ICU) and mortality and secondly, we assessed the clinical value of the MRSA nasal-swab screening in either predicting or ruling out MRSA VAP. We extracted the data of 1461 patients with positive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Regarding the MRSA nasal-swab screening, 170 patients were positive for MRSA or MSSA. Overall, MRSA had a high prevalence in our ICU. Despite the COVID pandemic, there was a significant downward trend in MRSA prevalence, while MSSA remained steady over time. Having VAP due to MRSA did not have any impact on LOS and mortality. Finally, the MRSA nasal-swab testing demonstrated a very high negative predictive value for MRSA VAP. Our results suggested the potential value of a patient-centered approach to improve antibiotic stewardship.

7.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328806

ABSTRACT

Background: the hyperinflammation phase of severe SARS-CoV-2 is characterized by complete blood count alterations. In this context, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) can be used as prognostic factors. We study NLR and PLR trends at different timepoints and compute optimal cutoffs to predict four outcomes: use of Continuous Positive Airways Pressure (CPAP), ICU admission, invasive ventilation and death. Methods: we retrospectively included all adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted from 23 rd January 2020 to 18 th May 2021. Data were extracted using ICD9 codes and our Covid-19 registry. Analyses included descriptive statistics and non parametric tests to study the ability of NLR and PLR to distinguish the patients’ outcomes at each timepoint. ROC curves were built for NLR and PLR at each timepoint (minus discharge) in order to identify cutoffs to distinguish severe and non severe disease and their statistical significance was assessed with the Chi-square test. NLR and PLR were compared with DeLong’s test. Results: we included 2169 patients. NLR and PLR were higher in severe Covid-19 at all the timepoints, with a difference that gets bigger and a trend that is steeper in more severe disease. Both ratios were able to distinguish the outcomes at each timepoint. For NLR, the areas under the curve (AUROC) ranged between 0.59 and 0.81, for PLR, between 0.53 and 0.67. From each ROC curve we computed an optimal cutoff value (e.g. NLR 7 for CPAP for males at admission). NLR performed better than PLR. Conclusion: our results are in line with other studies that computed NLR and PLR trends and values in disease, especially with those that distinguished between different grades of severity. Our study is retrospective and single centre, and is limited by selection bias, but includes more than 2000 patients, thus limiting the confounding factors and outliers. Our cutoffs do not only deal with severity and mortality but allow for a more tailored approach. Future prospect include validating our cutoffs in a prospective cohort and comparing their performance against other Covid19 scores.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325523

ABSTRACT

Objectives: An accurate prediction of the clinical outcomes of European patients requiring hospitalisation for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is lacking. The aim of the study is to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality and discharge in a cohort of Lombardy patients with COVID-19. Methods: All consecutive hospitalised patients from February 21 st to March 30 th , 2020, with confirmed COVID-19 from the IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Lombardy, Italy, were included. In-hospital mortality and discharge were evaluated by competing risk analysis. The Fine and Gray model was fitted in order to estimate the effect of covariates on the cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) for in-hospital mortality and discharge. Results: 426 adult patients (median age 68 (IQR, 56 to 77 years) were admitted with confirmed COVID-19 over a 5-week period;292 (69%) were male. By 21 April 2020, 141 (33%) of these patients had died, 239 (56%) patients had been discharged and 46 (11%) were still hospitalised. Regression on the CIFs for in-hospital mortality showed that older age, male sex, number of comorbidities and hospital admission after March 4 th were independent risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Olderage, male sex and number of comorbidities definitively predicted in-hospital mortality in hospitalised patients with COVID-19

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311193

ABSTRACT

Despite the progress in medical care, combined population-wide interventions (such as physical distancing, testing and contact tracing) are still crucial to manage the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, aggravated by the emergence of new highly transmissible variants. We combine the compartmental SIDARTHE model, predicting the course of COVID-19 infections, with a new data-based model that projects new cases onto casualties and healthcare system costs. Based on the Italian case study, we outline several scenarios: mass vaccination campaigns with different paces, different transmission rates due to new variants, and different enforced countermeasures, including the alternation of opening and closure phases. Our results demonstrate that non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have a higher impact on the epidemic evolution than vaccination, which advocates for the need to keep containment measures in place throughout the vaccination campaign. We also show that, if intermittent open-close strategies are adopted, deaths and healthcare system costs can be drastically reduced, without any aggravation of socioeconomic losses, as long as one has the foresight to start with a closing phase rather than an opening one.

11.
Nat Med ; 27(6): 993-998, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189264

ABSTRACT

Despite progress in clinical care for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)1, population-wide interventions are still crucial to manage the pandemic, which has been aggravated by the emergence of new, highly transmissible variants. In this study, we combined the SIDARTHE model2, which predicts the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infections, with a new data-based model that projects new cases onto casualties and healthcare system costs. Based on the Italian case study, we outline several scenarios: mass vaccination campaigns with different paces, different transmission rates due to new variants and different enforced countermeasures, including the alternation of opening and closure phases. Our results demonstrate that non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have a higher effect on the epidemic evolution than vaccination alone, advocating for the need to keep NPIs in place during the first phase of the vaccination campaign. Our model predicts that, from April 2021 to January 2022, in a scenario with no vaccine rollout and weak NPIs ([Formula: see text] = 1.27), as many as 298,000 deaths associated with COVID-19 could occur. However, fast vaccination rollouts could reduce mortality to as few as 51,000 deaths. Implementation of restrictive NPIs ([Formula: see text] = 0.9) could reduce COVID-19 deaths to 30,000 without vaccinating the population and to 18,000 with a fast rollout of vaccines. We also show that, if intermittent open-close strategies are adopted, implementing a closing phase first could reduce deaths (from 47,000 to 27,000 with slow vaccine rollout) and healthcare system costs, without substantive aggravation of socioeconomic losses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1137, 2021 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065934

ABSTRACT

An accurate prediction of the clinical outcomes of European patients requiring hospitalisation for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is lacking. The aim of the study is to identify predictors of in-hospital mortality and discharge in a cohort of Lombardy patients with COVID-19. All consecutive hospitalised patients from February 21st to March 30th, 2020, with confirmed COVID-19 from the IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Lombardy, Italy, were included. In-hospital mortality and discharge were evaluated by competing risk analysis. The Fine and Gray model was fitted in order to estimate the effect of covariates on the cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) for in-hospital mortality and discharge. 426 adult patients [median age 68 (IQR 56 to 77 years)] were admitted with confirmed COVID-19 over a 5-week period; 292 (69%) were male. By 21 April 2020, 141 (33%) of these patients had died, 239 (56%) patients had been discharged and 46 (11%) were still hospitalised. Among these 46 patients, updated as of 30 May, 2020, 5 (10.9%) had died, 8 (17.4%) were still in ICU, 12 (26.1%) were transferred to lower intensity care units and 21 (45.7%) were discharged. Regression on the CIFs for in-hospital mortality showed that older age, male sex, number of comorbidities and hospital admission after March 4th were independent risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality. Older age, male sex and number of comorbidities definitively predicted in-hospital mortality in hospitalised patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment
13.
Liver Int ; 40(11): 2655-2659, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-654155

ABSTRACT

Liver impairment is frequent in patients with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and direct viral tropism for the liver has been proven. Since several of the currently administered drugs against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are possibly hepatotoxic, the management of patients with COVID-19 and liver failure is still an almost unexplored field. Taking this challenging case of acute HBV with persistent hyperbilirubinemia and SARS-COV-2 infection with respiratory distress as a starting point, we here loop through this condition. Where the available therapeutic options are scarce, we here propose hemoperfusion (HP) as an attractive alternative to both delay any late-stage progression of hyper inflammation process in COVID-19 and remove the toxins involved in acute liver failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hepatitis B/complications , Registries , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Hepatitis B/blood , Hepatitis B/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
Microorganisms ; 8(5)2020 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209789

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to assess the role of Tocilizumab therapy (TCZ) in terms of ICU admission and mortality rate of critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Design: Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were prospectively enrolled in SMAtteo COvid19 REgistry (SMACORE). A retrospective analysis of patients treated with TCZ matched using propensity score to patients treated with Standard Of Care (SOC) was conducted. Setting: The study was conducted at IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Hospital, Pavia, Italy, from March 14, 2020 to March 27, 2020. Participants: Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 hospitalized in our institution at the time of TCZ availability. Interventions: TCZ was administered to 21 patients. The first administration was 8 mg/kg (up to a maximum 800 mg per dose) of Tocilizumab intravenously, repeated after 12 h if no side effects were reported after the first dose. Main Outcomes and Measures: ICU admission and 7-day mortality rate. Secondary outcomes included clinical and laboratory data. Results: There were 112 patients evaluated (82 were male and 30 were female, with a median age of 63.55 years). Using propensity scores, the 21 patients who received TCZ were matched to 21 patients who received SOC (a combination of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin and prophylactic dose of low weight heparin). No adverse event was detected following TCZ administration. This study found that treatment with TCZ did not significantly affect ICU admission (OR 0.11; 95% CI between 0.00 and 3.38; p = 0.22) or 7-day mortality rate (OR 0.78; 95% CI between 0.06 and 9.34; p = 0.84) when compared with SOC. Analysis of laboratory measures showed significant interactions between time and treatment regarding C-Reactive Protein (CRP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), platelets and international normalized ratio (INR) levels. Variation in lymphocytes count was observed over time, irrespective of treatment. Conclusions: TCZ administration did not reduce ICU admission or mortality rate in a cohort of 21 patients. Additional data are needed to understand the effect(s) of TCZ in treating patients diagnosed with COVID-19.

15.
Euro Surveill ; 25(16)2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108685

ABSTRACT

We describe clinical characteristics, treatments and outcomes of 44 Caucasian patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) at a single hospital in Pavia, Italy, from 21-28 February 2020, at the beginning of the outbreak in Europe. Seventeen patients developed severe disease, two died. After a median of 6 days, 14 patients were discharged from hospital. Predictors of lower odds of discharge were age > 65 years, antiviral treatment and for severe disease, lactate dehydrogenase > 300 mg/dL.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Europe , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Italy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
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