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2.
Stroke ; 53(2): 304-306, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779503
3.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(2): 115-126, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1567885

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is clinical equipoise for COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) use in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of CCP compared with placebo in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 receiving noninvasive supplemental oxygen. Design, Setting, and Participants: CONTAIN COVID-19, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of CCP in hospitalized adults with COVID-19, was conducted at 21 US hospitals from April 17, 2020, to March 15, 2021. The trial enrolled 941 participants who were hospitalized for 3 or less days or presented 7 or less days after symptom onset and required noninvasive oxygen supplementation. Interventions: A unit of approximately 250 mL of CCP or equivalent volume of placebo (normal saline). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was participant scores on the 11-point World Health Organization (WHO) Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement on day 14 after randomization; the secondary outcome was WHO scores determined on day 28. Subgroups were analyzed with respect to age, baseline WHO score, concomitant medications, symptom duration, CCP SARS-CoV-2 titer, baseline SARS-CoV-2 serostatus, and enrollment quarter. Outcomes were analyzed using a bayesian proportional cumulative odds model. Efficacy of CCP was defined as a cumulative adjusted odds ratio (cOR) less than 1 and a clinically meaningful effect as cOR less than 0.8. Results: Of 941 participants randomized (473 to placebo and 468 to CCP), 556 were men (59.1%); median age was 63 years (IQR, 52-73); 373 (39.6%) were Hispanic and 132 (14.0%) were non-Hispanic Black. The cOR for the primary outcome adjusted for site, baseline risk, WHO score, age, sex, and symptom duration was 0.94 (95% credible interval [CrI], 0.75-1.18) with posterior probability (P[cOR<1] = 72%); the cOR for the secondary adjusted outcome was 0.92 (95% CrI, 0.74-1.16; P[cOR<1] = 76%). Exploratory subgroup analyses suggested heterogeneity of treatment effect: at day 28, cORs were 0.72 (95% CrI, 0.46-1.13; P[cOR<1] = 93%) for participants enrolled in April-June 2020 and 0.65 (95% CrI, 0.41 to 1.02; P[cOR<1] = 97%) for those not receiving remdesivir and not receiving corticosteroids at randomization. Median CCP SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing titer used in April to June 2020 was 1:175 (IQR, 76-379). Any adverse events (excluding transfusion reactions) were reported for 39 (8.2%) placebo recipients and 44 (9.4%) CCP recipients (P = .57). Transfusion reactions occurred in 2 (0.4) placebo recipients and 8 (1.7) CCP recipients (P = .06). Conclusions and Relevance: In this trial, CCP did not meet the prespecified primary and secondary outcomes for CCP efficacy. However, high-titer CCP may have benefited participants early in the pandemic when remdesivir and corticosteroids were not in use. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04364737.


Subject(s)
Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Adult , Aged , Double-Blind Method , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome , United States
4.
Neurology ; 2021 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477495

ABSTRACT

Racial inequities as illustrated by the health disparities in COVID19 infections and deaths, the recent killings of Black men and women by law enforcement, and the widening socioeconomic inequality and have brought systemic racism into a national conversation. These unprecedented times may have deleterious consequences, increasing stress, and trauma for many members of the neurology workforce. The Equity, Diversity, Inclusion and Anti-Racism Committee within our Department of Neurology provides infrastructure and guidance to foster a culture of belonging and addresses the well-being of faculty, staff, and trainees. Here, we present the creation and implementation of our Equity, Diversity, Inclusion, and Anti-Racism (EDIA) Pledge which was central to our committee's response to these unprecedented times. We outline the process of developing this unique EDIA Pledge and provide a roadmap for approaching these important topics through a CME Neurology Grand Rounds aimed at fostering a diverse, inclusive, equitable and antiracist work environment. Through the lived experiences of 4 faculty members, we identify the impact of bias and microaggressions, and encourage allyship and personal development for cultural intelligence. We hope these efforts will inspire Neurology departments and other academic institutions across the globe to make a similar pledge.

5.
Brain Behav Immun ; 97: 186-192, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432970

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether immune protein panels add significant information to correlates of cognition. BACKGROUND: Immune mechanisms in vascular cognitive aging are incompletely characterized. DESIGN/METHODS: A subsample of the prospective Northern Manhattan Study underwent detailed neuropsychological testing. Cognitive scores were converted into Z-scores and categorized into four domains (memory, language, processing speed, and executive function) based on factor analysis. Blood samples were analyzed using a 60-plex immunoassay. We used least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) procedures to select markers and their interactions independently associated with cognitive scores. Linear regression models assessed cross-sectional associations of known correlates of cognition with cognitive scores, and assessed model fit before and after addition of LASSO-selected immune markers. RESULTS: Among 1179 participants (mean age 70 ± 8.9 years, 60% women, 68% Hispanic), inclusion of LASSO-selected immune markers improved model fit above age, education, and other risk factors (p for likelihood ratio test < 0.005 for all domains). C-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 11 (CCL 11, eotaxin), C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 9 (CXCL9), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and serpin E1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) were associated with each of the domains and with overall cognitive function. Immune marker effects were comparable to conventional risk factors: for executive function, each standard deviation (SD) increase in CCL11 was associated with an effect equivalent to aging three years; for memory, HGF had twice the effect of aging. CONCLUSIONS: Immune markers associate with cognitive function in a multi-ethnic cohort. Further work is needed to validate these findings and determine optimal treatment targets.


Subject(s)
Cognition , Aged , Biomarkers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests , Prospective Studies
6.
Neurology ; 2021 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365410

ABSTRACT

Racial inequities as illustrated by the health disparities in COVID19 infections and deaths, the recent killings of Black men and women by law enforcement, and the widening socioeconomic inequality and have brought systemic racism into a national conversation. These unprecedented times may have deleterious consequences, increasing stress, and trauma for many members of the neurology workforce. The Equity, Diversity, Inclusion and Anti-Racism Committee within our Department of Neurology provides infrastructure and guidance to foster a culture of belonging and addresses the well-being of faculty, staff, and trainees. Here, we present the creation and implementation of our Equity, Diversity, Inclusion, and Anti-Racism (EDIA) Pledge which was central to our committee's response to these unprecedented times. We outline the process of developing this unique EDIA Pledge and provide a roadmap for approaching these important topics through a CME Neurology Grand Rounds aimed at fostering a diverse, inclusive, equitable and antiracist work environment. Through the lived experiences of 4 faculty members, we identify the impact of bias and microaggressions, and encourage allyship and personal development for cultural intelligence. We hope these efforts will inspire Neurology departments and other academic institutions across the globe to make a similar pledge.

7.
Stroke ; 51(7): 1919-1920, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622390
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