Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 7 de 7
Filter
1.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45(6): 533-542, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635463

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to investigate the characteristics of patients affecting the duration of positivity test by RT-PCR in the population of Piedmont, a Region of North-West of Italy. DESIGN: observational cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: from the administrative database of the regional SARS-CoV-2 surveillance system, a cohort of all patients who tested positive by a RT-PCR assay to SARS-CoV-2 occurring from 22.02.2020 to 30.09.2020 in the Piedmont Region (N. 29,292) was obtained. The cohort has been linked to the hospital discharge database and to the vital statistics database. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: outcome of the study was the risk of non negativization, estimated by fitting Generalizing Estimating Equation model (GEE), a longitudinal model which consider for each subject several records collected on fixed time intervals 15, 30, 45 or 60+ days from the first positive test. Negativization was defined as the condition in which two consecutive samples taken from the patient at least 24 hours apart were negative for the presence of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: the median duration of positive RT-PCR was 27 days. A higher median of days until positive persistence was observed in people over 80 (34 days, IQR 25-49), female (28 days, IQR 18-40), symptomatic patients (28 days, IQR 19-40), hospitalized people (32 days, IQR 21-44), patients with Charlson's index >0 (34 days, IQR 23-49), patients host of elderly nursing homes (37 days, IQR 25-51). In the GEE multivariable model, the variables associated to the non negativization at all times intervals were: older age (at 15th day: class 65+, OR 2.56, 95%CI 2.39-2.74), female gender (at 15th day: OR 1.12, 95%CI 1.06-1.18), and to be hospitalized for COVID-19 (at 15th day: OR 1.38, 95%CI 1.29-1.48). The presence of comorbidities and of symptoms were associate with the non negativization at 15th day (respectively, class 4+: OR 1.29, 95%CI 1.08-1.56 and symptoms: OR 1.20, 95%CI 1.13-1.27), but not at 45th day. CONCLUSIONS: older age, female gender, presence of comorbidities and severity of disease (proxy hospitalization for COVID-19) were risk factors for non negativization at all times intervals. The presence of symptoms was a risk factors for the non negativization after 2 weeks from the first diagnosis and not at 45th day. Using a longitudinal model for the analysis of the dataset, it is possible to compare the weight of the variables included in the model at different times and correct an overestimation of the attributable risk after the first considered time interval.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology
2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 45, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613232

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients that arrive in the emergency department (ED) with COVID-19-like syndromes testing negative at the first RT-PCR represent a clinical challenge because of the lack of evidence about their management available in the literature. Our first aim was to quantify the proportion of patients testing negative at the first RT-PCR performed in our Emergency Department (ED) that were confirmed as having COVID-19 at the end of hospitalization by clinical judgment or by any subsequent microbiological testing. Secondly, we wanted to identify which variables that were available in the first assessment (ED variables) would have been useful in predicting patients, who at the end of the hospital stay were confirmed as having COVID-19 (false-negative at the first RT-PCR). METHODS: We retrospectively collected data of 115 negative patients from2020, March 1st to 2020, May 15th. Three experts revised patients' charts collecting information on the whole hospital stay and defining patients as COVID-19 or NOT-COVID-19. We compared ED variables in the two groups by univariate analysis and logistic regression. RESULTS: We classified 66 patients as COVID-19 and identified the other 49 as having a differential diagnosis (NOT-COVID), with a concordance between the three experts of 0.77 (95% confidence interval (95%CI) 0.66- 0.73). Only 15% of patients tested positive to a subsequent RT-PCR test, accounting for 25% of the clinically suspected. Having fever (odds ratio (OR) 3.32, (95%CI 0.97-12.31), p = 0.06), showing a typical pattern at the first lung ultrasound (OR 6.09, (95%CI 0.87-54.65), p = 0.08) or computed tomography scan (OR 4.18, (95%CI 1.11-17.86), p = 0.04) were associated with a higher probability of having COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: In patients admitted to ED with COVID-19 symptoms and negative RT-PCR a comprehensive clinical evaluation integrated with lung ultrasound and computed tomography could help to detect COVID-19 patients with a false negative RT-PCR result.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573692

ABSTRACT

This study examines the correlation of acute and habitual dietary intake of flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, theaflavins, and their main food sources with the urinary concentrations of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC). Participants (N = 419, men and women) provided 24-h urine samples and completed a 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) on the same day. Acute and habitual dietary data were collected using a standardized 24-HDR software and a validated dietary questionnaire, respectively. Intake of flavan-3-ols was estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database. Concentrations of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin in 24-h urine were analyzed using tandem mass spectrometry after enzymatic deconjugation. Simple and partial Spearman's correlations showed that urinary concentrations of (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and their sum were more strongly correlated with acute than with habitual intake of individual and total monomers (acute rpartial = 0.13-0.54, p < 0.05; and habitual rpartial = 0.14-0.28, p < 0.01), proanthocyanidins (acute rpartial = 0.24-0.49, p < 0.001; and habitual rpartial = 0.10-0.15, p < 0.05), theaflavins (acute rpartial = 0.22-0.31, p < 0.001; and habitual rpartial = 0.20-0.26, p < 0.01), and total flavan-3-ols (acute rpartial = 0.40-0.48, p < 0.001; and habitual rpartial = 0.23-0.33, p < 0.001). Similarly, urinary concentrations of flavan-3-ols were weakly correlated with both acute (rpartial = 0.12-0.30, p < 0.05) and habitual intake (rpartial = 0.10-0.27, p < 0.05) of apple and pear, stone fruits, berries, chocolate and chocolate products, cakes and pastries, tea, herbal tea, wine, red wine, and beer and cider. Moreover, all comparable correlations were stronger for urinary (-)-epicatechin than for (+)-catechin. In conclusion, our data support the use of urinary concentrations of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, especially as short-term nutritional biomarkers of dietary catechin, epicatechin and total flavan-3-ol monomers.


Subject(s)
Biflavonoids/analysis , Catechin/urine , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Flavonoids/analysis , Proanthocyanidins/analysis , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/urine , Catechin/analysis , Diet Surveys , Eating , Europe , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutrition Assessment , Prospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric
5.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 216-225, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068142

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to explore clinical and epidemiological characteristics associated with an imaging feature of COVID-19 pneumonia at disease onset, in order to identify factors that may be evaluable by general practitioners at patient's home, and which may lead to identify a more severe disease, needing hospitalization. DESIGN: this is a retrospective/prospective observational hospital cohort. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: the study population includes all patients consecutively admitted to the emergency department of Città della salute e della scienza University Hospital from 01.03 to 31.05.2020 with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: patients were classified in two groups according to the findings of X-ray imaging, lung ultrasound and chest computer tomography, as pneumonia or not pneumonia patients. RESULTS: in multivariable analysis, factors most strongly associated with emergency department admission with pneumonia were age, oxygen saturation <90% (adj OR 4.16 ;95%CI 1.44-12.07), respiratory rate >24 breaths/min (adj OR 6.50; 95%CI 2.36-17.87), fever ≥38° (adj OR 3.05; 95%CI 1.53-6.08) and the presence of gastroenteric symptoms (vomiting and diarrhea). A delay (> 7 days) between the appearance of the initial lung symptoms (cough and dyspnea) and the admission to the emergency department was also related to a higher probability of receiving a positive imaging report (OR 4.99; 95%CI 2,02-12,34). CONCLUSIONS: in order to reorganize the management of COVID-19 patients in Italy, in view of the risk of a second wave of epidemic or of local outbreaks, it would be desirable to relocate the triage, and possibly the patient's care, from hospital to home. In this scenario it is important to identify all symptoms and signs associated with COVID-19 pneumonia that would facilitate the decision-making process of GPs leading to patients hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , Comorbidity , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Oxygen/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Rate , Retrospective Studies , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/etiology
6.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 208-215, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: the emergency due to SARS-CoV-2 pandemic struck the national and regional health system that needed an effort to reorganise and increase resources to cope with a sudden, uncertain, and previously unknown situation. This study was conducted in the immediate aftermath of this difficult period. OBJECTIVES: to describe clinical characteristics, short-term outcomes, and management of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients that accessed the emergency department (ED) of the San Luigi Gonzaga hospital of Orbassano (Turin district, Piedmont Region, Northern Italy) in March and April 2020. Furthermore, this study aimed at investigating if a difference in patients characteristics, clinical management, and outcomes was present during time. DESIGN: comparison of different periods in a clinical cohort. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: for each patient who accessed the ED and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 swab, the ED medical record was collected and a descriptive analysis was performed on demographical characteristics, pre-existing comorbidities, parameters measured at triage, imaging exams results, lab tests results, separately for patients admitted at the ED in four different periods. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: discharge from ED, admission to hospital wards (low and high intensity of care), short term in-hospital mortality, hospital length of stay. The association between patients' characteristics and the main outcomes was measured using multivariable logistic models. RESULTS: age of patients increased significantly from March to April, together with female prevalence and associated comorbid conditions. A significant difference in symptoms at presentation was not observed nor it was in laboratory test results. Severity at triage and need of intensive care resources were higher in the first weeks, together with the typical clinical presentation with respiratory failure and imaging with signs of bilateral interstitial pneumonia. Accordingly, in-hospital mortality was higher in the first period. Nevertheless, nearly half of patients in the first period were discharged directly from ED showing mild COVID-19 cases. On the contrary, in April an increasing need of hospitalisation in low intensity of care beds was observed, whereas mild cases stopped to access the ED. CONCLUSIONS: the results of this study suggest that in few weeks of COVID-19 epidemic both management of the patients at the hospital level - and probably at territorial level resulting in a different population who accessed to the ED - and the clinical characteristics of the COVID-19 patients changed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Disease Management , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, Urban/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Distribution , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Triage
7.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 51-59, 2020.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: the Covid-19 pandemic has provoked a huge of clinical and epidemiological research initiatives, especially in the most involved countries. However, this very large effort was characterized by several methodological weaknesses, both in the field of discovering effective treatments (with too many small and uncontrolled trials) and in the field of identifying preventable risks and prognostic factors (with too few large, representative and well-designed cohorts or case-control studies). OBJECTIVES: in response to the fragmented and uncoordinated research production on Covid-19, the   italian Association of Epidemiology (AIE) stimulated the formation of a working group (WG) with the aims of identifying the most important gaps in knowledge and to propose a structured research agenda of clinical and epidemiological studies considered at high priority on Covid-19, including recommendations on the preferable methodology. METHODS: the WG was composed by 25 subjects, mainly epidemiologists, statisticians, and other experts in specific fields, who have voluntarily agreed to the proposal. The agreement on a list of main research questions and on the structure of the specific documents to be produced were defined through few meetings and cycles of document exchanges. RESULTS: twelve main research questions on Covid-19 were identified, covering aetiology, prognosis, interventions, follow-up and impact on general and specific populations (children, pregnant women). For each of them, a two-page form was developed, structured in: background, main topics, methods (with recommendations on preferred study design and warnings for bias prevention) and an essential bibliography. CONCLUSIONS: this research agenda represents an initial contribution to direct clinical and epidemiological research efforts on high priority topics with a focus on methodological aspects. Further development and refinements of this agenda by Public Health Authorities are encouraged.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Research Design , Pandemics , Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Epidemiology/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prognosis , Societies, Scientific , Therapeutic Equipoise
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL