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2.
PLoS Med ; 18(12): e1003872, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581903

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The United States (US) Expanded Access Program (EAP) to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma was initiated in response to the rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19. While randomized clinical trials were in various stages of development and enrollment, there was an urgent need for widespread access to potential therapeutic agents. The objective of this study is to report on the demographic, geographical, and chronological characteristics of patients in the EAP, and key safety metrics following transfusion of COVID-19 convalescent plasma. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mayo Clinic served as the central institutional review board for all participating facilities, and any US physician could participate as a local physician-principal investigator. Eligible patients were hospitalized, were aged 18 years or older, and had-or were at risk of progression to-severe or life-threatening COVID-19; eligible patients were enrolled through the EAP central website. Blood collection facilities rapidly implemented programs to collect convalescent plasma for hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Demographic and clinical characteristics of all enrolled patients in the EAP were summarized. Temporal patterns in access to COVID-19 convalescent plasma were investigated by comparing daily and weekly changes in EAP enrollment in response to changes in infection rate at the state level. Geographical analyses on access to convalescent plasma included assessing EAP enrollment in all national hospital referral regions, as well as assessing enrollment in metropolitan areas and less populated areas that did not have access to COVID-19 clinical trials. From April 3 to August 23, 2020, 105,717 hospitalized patients with severe or life-threatening COVID-19 were enrolled in the EAP. The majority of patients were 60 years of age or older (57.8%), were male (58.4%), and had overweight or obesity (83.8%). There was substantial inclusion of minorities and underserved populations: 46.4% of patients were of a race other than white, and 37.2% of patients were of Hispanic ethnicity. Chronologically and geographically, increases in the number of both enrollments and transfusions in the EAP closely followed confirmed infections across all 50 states. Nearly all national hospital referral regions enrolled and transfused patients in the EAP, including both in metropolitan and in less populated areas. The incidence of serious adverse events was objectively low (<1%), and the overall crude 30-day mortality rate was 25.2% (95% CI, 25.0% to 25.5%). This registry study was limited by the observational and pragmatic study design that did not include a control or comparator group; thus, the data should not be used to infer definitive treatment effects. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the EAP provided widespread access to COVID-19 convalescent plasma in all 50 states, including for underserved racial and ethnic minority populations. The study design of the EAP may serve as a model for future efforts when broad access to a treatment is needed in response to an emerging infectious disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT#: NCT04338360.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Compassionate Use Trials/methods , Health Services Needs and Demand/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Distribution Systems/organization & administration , Registries , Transfusion Reaction/complications , Transfusion Reaction/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive/methods , Inpatients , Male , Medically Underserved Area , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Safety , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , United States
3.
Nat Med ; 27(11): 2012-2024, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526091

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of convalescent plasma for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unclear. Although most randomized controlled trials have shown negative results, uncontrolled studies have suggested that the antibody content could influence patient outcomes. We conducted an open-label, randomized controlled trial of convalescent plasma for adults with COVID-19 receiving oxygen within 12 d of respiratory symptom onset ( NCT04348656 ). Patients were allocated 2:1 to 500 ml of convalescent plasma or standard of care. The composite primary outcome was intubation or death by 30 d. Exploratory analyses of the effect of convalescent plasma antibodies on the primary outcome was assessed by logistic regression. The trial was terminated at 78% of planned enrollment after meeting stopping criteria for futility. In total, 940 patients were randomized, and 921 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Intubation or death occurred in 199/614 (32.4%) patients in the convalescent plasma arm and 86/307 (28.0%) patients in the standard of care arm-relative risk (RR) = 1.16 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-1.43, P = 0.18). Patients in the convalescent plasma arm had more serious adverse events (33.4% versus 26.4%; RR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.02-1.57, P = 0.034). The antibody content significantly modulated the therapeutic effect of convalescent plasma. In multivariate analysis, each standardized log increase in neutralization or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity independently reduced the potential harmful effect of plasma (odds ratio (OR) = 0.74, 95% CI 0.57-0.95 and OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.50-0.87, respectively), whereas IgG against the full transmembrane spike protein increased it (OR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.14-2.05). Convalescent plasma did not reduce the risk of intubation or death at 30 d in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Transfusion of convalescent plasma with unfavorable antibody profiles could be associated with worse clinical outcomes compared to standard care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Intention to Treat Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
4.
Transfusion ; 61(8): 2374-2383, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma (CP) is an important initial treatment in pandemics and the New York (NY) metropolitan area is likely to remain a hotspot for collection and distribution of such units. This study reports characteristics of coronavirus disease 19 CP (CCP) donors and their donations to the New York Blood Center (NYBC). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: All CCP data from our first day of collection on March 26th through July 7th, 2020 are included in this retrospective analysis. Donor and donation data were extracted from NYBC electronic databases. SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing was initially performed by the NY State Department of Health, and later by NYBC using Ortho and Abbott platforms. RESULTS: CCP donor age and ABO distributions were consistent with reported lower COVID-19 susceptibility in O blood types. CCP versus whole blood donors had similar on-site deferrals, but higher post-donation deferral rates. CCP versus routine plasmapheresis donations had higher vasovagal reactions but similar product rejection rates. Changes in antibody (Ab) test platforms resulted in significant changes in the percent of donors regarded as antibody positive. Donor correlates with higher anti-spike total Ig S/CO ratios were Hispanic ethnicity, overweight body mass index, and longer symptom duration; and with higher anti-nucleocapsid IgG S/CO ratios were male gender, older age, Hispanic ethnicity, and fewer days between symptom onset and first donation. DISCUSSION: We identify donor characteristics not previously reported to correlate with Ab titer. Our analysis should assist with donor outreach strategies, blood center operating logistics, and recruitment of high titer donors.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19/therapy , ABO Blood-Group System/blood , ABO Blood-Group System/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
5.
Trials ; 22(1): 323, 2021 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma has been used for numerous viral diseases including influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome and Ebola virus; however, evidence to support its use is weak. SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus responsible for the 2019 global pandemic of COVID-19 community acquired pneumonia. We have undertaken a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: CONCOR-1 is an open-label, multicentre, randomized trial. Inclusion criteria include the following: patients > 16 years, admitted to hospital with COVID-19 infection, receiving supplemental oxygen for respiratory complications of COVID-19, and availability of blood group compatible CCP. Exclusion criteria are : onset of respiratory symptoms more than 12 days prior to randomization, intubated or imminent plan for intubation, and previous severe reactions to plasma. Consenting patients are randomized 2:1 to receive either approximately 500 mL of CCP or standard of care. CCP is collected from donors who have recovered from COVID-19 and who have detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies quantified serologically. The primary outcome is intubation or death at day 30. Secondary outcomes include ventilator-free days, length of stay in intensive care or hospital, transfusion reactions, serious adverse events, and reduction in SARS-CoV-2 viral load. Exploratory analyses include patients who received CCP containing high titre antibodies. A sample size of 1200 patients gives 80% power to detect a 25% relative risk reduction assuming a 30% baseline risk of intubation or death at 30 days (two-sided test; α = 0.05). An interim analysis and sample size re-estimation will be done by an unblinded independent biostatistician after primary outcome data are available for 50% of the target recruitment (n = 600). DISCUSSION: This trial will determine whether CCP will reduce intubation or death non-intubated adults with COVID-19. The trial will also provide information on the role of and thresholds for SARS-CoV-2 antibody titres and neutralization assays for donor qualification. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT04348656 . Registered on 16 April 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Adult , Bisoprolol , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
8.
Transfusion ; 60(7): 1348-1355, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-361424

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of convalescent plasma as a possible treatment has been explored. Here we describe our experience as the first U.S. organization creating a COVID-19 convalescent plasma program to support its use through the single-patient emergency investigational new drug, the National Expanded Access Program, and multiple randomized controlled trials. Within weeks, we were able to distribute more than 8000 products, scale up collections to more than 4000 units per week, meet hospital demand, and support randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of convalescent plasma treatment. This was through strategic planning; redeployment of staff; and active engagement of hospital, community, and public health partners. Our partners helped with donor recruitment, testing, patient advocacy, and patient availability. The program will continue to evolve as we learn more about optimizing the product. Remaining issues to be resolved are antibody titers, dose, and at what stage of disease to transfuse.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Betacoronavirus , Blood Component Transfusion , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Plasma , Pneumonia, Viral , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Clin Invest ; 130(6): 2757-2765, 2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-38467

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has spurred a global health crisis. To date, there are no proven options for prophylaxis for those who have been exposed to SARS-CoV-2, nor therapy for those who develop COVID-19. Immune (i.e., "convalescent") plasma refers to plasma that is collected from individuals following resolution of infection and development of antibodies. Passive antibody administration through transfusion of convalescent plasma may offer the only short-term strategy for conferring immediate immunity to susceptible individuals. There are numerous examples in which convalescent plasma has been used successfully as postexposure prophylaxis and/or treatment of infectious diseases, including other outbreaks of coronaviruses (e.g., SARS-1, Middle East respiratory syndrome [MERS]). Convalescent plasma has also been used in the COVID-19 pandemic; limited data from China suggest clinical benefit, including radiological resolution, reduction in viral loads, and improved survival. Globally, blood centers have robust infrastructure for undertaking collections and constructing inventories of convalescent plasma to meet the growing demand. Nonetheless, there are nuanced challenges, both regulatory and logistical, spanning donor eligibility, donor recruitment, collections, and transfusion itself. Data from rigorously controlled clinical trials of convalescent plasma are also few, underscoring the need to evaluate its use objectively for a range of indications (e.g., prevention vs. treatment) and patient populations (e.g., age, comorbid disease). We provide an overview of convalescent plasma, including evidence of benefit, regulatory considerations, logistical work flow, and proposed clinical trials, as scale-up is brought underway to mobilize this critical resource.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Investigational New Drug Application , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
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