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1.
EBioMedicine ; 82: 104138, 2022 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines against COVID-19 are needed to overcome challenges associated with mitigating the global pandemic. We report the safety and immunogenicity of V590, a live recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based COVID-19 vaccine candidate. METHODS: In this placebo-controlled, double-blind, three-part phase 1 study, healthy adults were randomised to receive a single intramuscular dose of vaccine or placebo. In Part 1, younger (18-54 years) and, in Part 2, older (≥55 years) adults seronegative for SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid received one of four V590 dose levels (5.00 × 105; 2.40 × 106; 1.15 × 107; or 5.55 × 107 plaque-forming units [pfu]) or placebo. In Part 3, a single V590 dose level (5.55 × 107 pfu) or placebo was administered to younger SARS-CoV-2 seropositive adults. Primary endpoints included adverse events (AEs) and for Parts 1 and 2 anti-SARS-CoV-2 serum neutralising antibody responses measured by 50% plaque reduction neutralisation (PRNT50) assay at Day 28. Registration NCT04569786 [P001-02]. FINDINGS: 232 participants were randomised and 219 completed the study. In seronegative participants, anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific antibody responses to V590 were low and comparable to placebo across the lower dose levels. At the highest dose level (5.55 × 107 pfu), anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific PRNT50 was 2.3-fold higher than placebo. The most frequently reported AEs were injection-site pain (38.4%), headache (15.1%) and fatigue (13.4%). INTERPRETATION: V590 was generally well-tolerated. However, Day 28 anti-SARS-Cov-2 spike-specific antibody responses in seronegative participants following a single intramuscular administration of V590 were not sufficient to warrant continued development. FUNDING: The study was funded by Merck Sharp & Dohme LLC., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, USA.

2.
EBioMedicine ; 75: 103811, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638699

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We report on the safety and immunogenicity of V591, a measles vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 1/2 trial, healthy adults with no history of COVID-19 disease were assigned to intramuscular injection of V591 or placebo (4:1 ratio). In part 1, younger adults (18-55 years) received V591 median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50)-levels of 1×105 or 1×106 or placebo, 56 days apart. In part 2, younger and older (>55 years) adults received a single dose of one of four (104/105/106/107) or one of two (105/106) V591 TCID50 levels, respectively, or placebo. PRIMARY OUTCOME: safety/tolerability. Secondary outcome: humoral immunogenicity. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04498247. FINDINGS: From August-December 2020, 444 participants were screened and 263 randomised (210 V591; 53 placebo); 262 received at least one and 10 received two doses of V591 or placebo. Adverse events were experienced by 140/209 (67.0%) V591 dose-group participants and 37/53 (69.8%) placebo-group participants following injection 1; most frequent were fatigue (57 [27.3%] vs 20 [37.7%]), headache (57 [27.3%] vs 19 [35.8%]), myalgia (35 [16.7%] vs 10 [18.9%]), and injection-site pain (35 [16.7%] vs 4 [7.5%]). No deaths nor vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. At Day 29, no anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike serum neutralising antibody and IgG-responses were identified in placebo or the three lower V591 dose-groups; responses were detected with V591 1×107 TCID50, although titres were lower than convalescent serum. INTERPRETATION: V591 was generally well tolerated, but immunogenicity was insufficient to warrant continued development. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme, Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , Genetic Vectors , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Measles virus , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S595-S596, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602166

ABSTRACT

Background Several COVID-19 vaccines have been authorized, and the need for rapid, further modification is anticipated. This work uses a Model-Based Meta-Analysis (MBMA) to relate, across species, immunogenicity to peak viral load (VL) after challenge and to clinical efficacy. Together with non-clinical and/or early clinical immunogenicity data (ECID), this enables prediction of a candidate vaccine’s clinical efficacy. The goal of this work was to enable the accelerated development of vaccine candidates by supporting Go/No-Go and study design decisions, and the resulting MBMA can be instrumental in decisions not to progress candidates to late stage development. Methods A literature review with pre-specified inclusion/exclusion criteria enabled creation of a database including nonclinical serum neutralizing titers (SN), peak VL after challenge with SARS-CoV-2 (VL), along with data from several clinical vaccine candidates. Rhesus Macaque (RM) and golden hamster (GH) were selected (due to availability and consistency of data) for MBMA modeling. For both RM and GH, peak post-challenge VL in lung and nasal tissues were used as surrogates for clinical disease and were related to pre-challenge SN via the MBMA. The VL predictions from the RM MBMA were scaled to incidence rates in humans, with a scaling factor between RM and human SN estimated using early Phase 3 efficacy data. This enabled clinical efficacy predictions based on ECID. To qualify the model’s predictive power, efficacies of COVID-19 vaccine candidates were compared to those predicted from the MBMA and their respective Ph1/2 SN data. More recently available clinical data enable building a clinical MBMA;comparing this to the RM MBMA further supports SN as predictive. Results The MBMA analyses identified a sigmoidal decrease in VL (increasing protection) with increase in SN in all three species, with more SN needed (in both RM and GH) for protection in nasal swabs than in BAL (see figure). The comparison between predicted and reported clinical efficacies demonstrated the model’s predictive power across vaccine platforms. RM and GH MBMA Protection Models and Translational Prediction with Observed Efficacies Sizes of circles indicate relative weight of the data in the respective quantitative model. Model and data visualizations have been harmonized (across tissue-types) separately for each of RM and GH using VACHER (Lommerse, et al., CPT:PSP, in press). Conclusion By quantifying adjustments needed between species and assays, translational MBMA can inform development decisions by using nonclinical SN and VL, and ECID to predict protection from COVID-19. Disclosures Anna Largajolli, PhD, Certara (Employee) Nele Plock, PhD, Certara (Employee, Shareholder)Merck & Co., Inc. (Independent Contractor) Bhargava Kandala, PhD, Merck & Co., Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Akshita Chawla, PhD, Merck & Co., Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Seth H. Robey, PhD, Merck & Co., Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Kenny Watson, PhD, Certara (Employee, Shareholder) Raj Thatavarti, MS, Certara (Employee, Shareholder) Sheri Dubey, PhD, Merck & Co., Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) S. Y. Amy Cheung, PhD, Certara (Employee, Shareholder) Rik de Greef, MSc, Certara (Employee, Shareholder) Jeffrey R. Sachs, PhD, Merck & Co., Inc. (Employee, Shareholder)

4.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 133, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503877

ABSTRACT

Vaccine efficacy is often assessed by counting disease cases in a clinical trial. A new quantitative framework proposed here ("PoDBAY," Probability of Disease Bayesian Analysis), estimates vaccine efficacy (and confidence interval) using immune response biomarker data collected shortly after vaccination. Given a biomarker associated with protection, PoDBAY describes the relationship between biomarker and probability of disease as a sigmoid probability of disease ("PoD") curve. The PoDBAY framework is illustrated using clinical trial simulations and with data for influenza, zoster, and dengue virus vaccines. The simulations demonstrate that PoDBAY efficacy estimation (which integrates the PoD and biomarker data), can be accurate and more precise than the standard (case-count) estimation, contributing to more sensitive and specific decisions than threshold-based correlate of protection or case-count-based methods. For all three vaccine examples, the PoD fit indicates a substantial association between the biomarkers and protection, and efficacy estimated by PoDBAY from relatively little immunogenicity data is predictive of the standard estimate of efficacy, demonstrating how PoDBAY can provide early assessments of vaccine efficacy. Methods like PoDBAY can help accelerate and economize vaccine development using an immunological predictor of protection. For example, in the current effort against the COVID-19 pandemic it might provide information to help prioritize (rank) candidates both earlier in a trial and earlier in development.

5.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(5): 1248-1261, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-897094

ABSTRACT

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) causes lower respiratory tract infections that can be severe and sometimes fatal. The risk for severe RSV infection is highest in infants and older adults. A safe and effective RSV vaccine for older adults represents a serious unmet medical need due to higher morbidity and mortality in this age group. In this randomized, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 dose-escalation study, we evaluated the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of an investigational messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccine encoding the RSV fusion protein (F) stabilized in the prefusion conformation. The study was conducted in healthy younger adults (ages ≥18 and ≤49 years) and healthy older adults (ages ≥60 and ≤79 years). Participants received mRNA-1777 (V171) or placebo as a single intramuscular dose. For each dose level, three sentinel participants were administered open-label mRNA-1777 (V171). Seventy-two younger adults were randomized and administered 25, 100, or 200 µg mRNA-1777 (V171) or placebo, and 107 older adults were randomized and administered 25, 100, 200 or 300 µg mRNA-1777 (V171) or placebo. Primary objectives were safety and tolerability and secondary objectives included humoral and cell-mediated immunogenicity. All dose levels of mRNA-1777 (V171) were generally well tolerated and no serious adverse events related to the vaccine were reported. Immunization with mRNA-1777 (V171) elicited a humoral immune response as measured by increases in RSV neutralizing antibody titers, serum antibody titers to RSV prefusion F protein, D25 competing antibody titers to RSV prefusion F protein, and cell-mediated immune responses to RSV-F peptides.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , Viral Fusion Proteins
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