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1.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969511

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT), or thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS), is a rare but serious complication of adenovirus-based vaccines against severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Observation of long-term outcomes is important to guide treatment of affected patients. This single-center consecutive cohort study included all patients diagnosed based on (1) vaccination 4 to 21 days before symptom onset, (2) signs or symptoms of venous or arterial thrombosis, (3) thrombocytopenia < 150/nL, (4) positive anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibody, and (5) elevated D-Dimer > 4 times the upper limit of normal. Nine patients were enrolled. Acute management consisted of parenteral anticoagulants, corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and/or eculizumab. Eculizumab was successfully used in two patients with recurrent thromboembolic events after IVIG. Direct oral anticoagulants were given after hospital discharge. Median follow-up duration was 300 days (range 153 to 380). All patients survived the acute phase of the disease and were discharged from hospital. One patient died from long-term neurological sequelae of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis 335 days after diagnosis. Eight out of nine patients were alive at last follow-up, and seven had fully recovered. Anti-PF4 antibodies remained detectable for at least 12 weeks after diagnosis, and D-Dimer remained elevated in some patients despite oral anticoagulation. No recurrent thromboembolic events, other signs of VITT relapse, or bleeding complications occurred after discharge. In conclusion, VITT appears to be a highly prothrombotic condition. IVIG is not always successful, and eculizumab may be considered a rescue agent. Long-term management with direct oral anticoagulants appears to be safe and effective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/adverse effects , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy
4.
Thromb Haemost ; 121(12): 1622-1627, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine ChAdOx1 nCov-19 may rarely lead to vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). Antibody-mediated, platelet factor 4 (PF4)-dependent platelet activation appears to resemble a key mechanism in VITT, partially comparable to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. The use of PF4/heparin immunoassays has been proposed as part of a diagnostic approach, but their sensitivity has not been established. METHODS: Sera from 12 well-defined VITT patients were first studied by two different laboratories in functional assays. Sera where then used for an interlaboratory comparison, in which five different PF4/heparin immunoassays were used by four laboratories. RESULTS: Results for functional testing were highly concordant. VITT antibodies were also reliably detected by PF4/heparin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (92-100%). In contrast, only 25% of VITT antibodies were reactive in a particle gel immunoassay (PaGIA), and 8% in a lateral flow assay (LFA). An automated chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) was negative for all sera tested (0%). CONCLUSION: It seems feasible to establish functional antibody testing for the confirmation of VITT. For the initial screening of suspected VITT cases, PaGIA, LFA, and CLIA are useless when applied as single tests. Only ELISA-based PF4/heparin immunoassays are sensitive enough to be incorporated in the diagnostic workup. However, a combination of a positive ELISA and a negative CLIA may be useful to identify VITT antibodies in the absence of confirmatory functional assays.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/blood , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/adverse effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/diagnosis , Vaccination/adverse effects , Biomarkers/blood , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/administration & dosage , Humans , Luminescent Measurements , Predictive Value of Tests , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/blood , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology , Reproducibility of Results
5.
Blood ; 138(4): 350-353, 2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331923

ABSTRACT

We report 5 cases of prothrombotic immune thrombocytopenia after exposure to the ChAdOx1 vaccine (AZD1222, Vaxzevria) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Patients presented 5 to 11 days after first vaccination. The spectrum of clinical manifestations included cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, splanchnic vein thrombosis, arterial cerebral thromboembolism, and thrombotic microangiopathy. All patients had thrombocytopenia and markedly elevated D-dimer. Autoantibodies against platelet factor 4 (PF4) were detected in all patients, although they had never been exposed to heparin. Immunoglobulin from patient sera bound to healthy donor platelets in an AZD1222-dependent manner, suppressed by heparin. Aggregation of healthy donor platelets by patient sera was demonstrated in the presence of buffer or AZD1222 and was also suppressed by heparin. Anticoagulation alone or in combination with eculizumab or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resolved the pathology in 3 patients. Two patients had thromboembolic events despite anticoagulation at a time when platelets were increasing after IVIG. In summary, an unexpected autoimmune prothrombotic disorder is described after vaccination with AZD1222. It is characterized by thrombocytopenia and anti-PF4 antibodies binding to platelets in AZD1222-dependent manner. Initial clinical experience suggests a risk of unusual and severe thromboembolic events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Adult , Aged , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology
6.
Haematologica ; 106(8): 2170-2179, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236658

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. To prevent severe infection, mass COVID-19 vaccination campaigns with several vaccine types are currently underway. We report pathological and immunological findings in 8 patients who developed vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) after administration of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. We analyzed patient material using enzyme immune assays, flow cytometry and heparin-induced platelet aggregation assay and performed autopsies on two fatal cases. Eight patients (5 female, 3 male) with a median age of 41.5 years (range, 24 to 53) were referred to us with suspected thrombotic complications 6 to 20 days after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination. All patients had thrombocytopenia at admission. Patients had a median platelet count of 46.5 x109/L (range, 8 to 92). Three had a fatal outcome and 5 were successfully treated. Autopsies showed arterial and venous thromboses in various organs and the occlusion of glomerular capillaries by hyaline thrombi. Sera from VITT patients contain high titer antibodies against platelet factor 4 (PF4) (OD 2.59±0.64). PF4 antibodies in VITT patients induced significant increase in procoagulant markers (P-selectin and phosphatidylserine externalization) compared to healthy volunteers and healthy vaccinated volunteers. The generation of procoagulant platelets was PF4 and heparin dependent. We demonstrate the contribution of antibody-mediated platelet activation in the pathogenesis of VITT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Adult , Autoantibodies , Blood Platelets , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Vaccination/adverse effects , Young Adult
7.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(6): 1585-1588, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202119

ABSTRACT

Vaccine administration is under way worldwide to combat the current COVID-19 pandemic. The newly developed vaccines are highly effective with minimal adverse effects. Recently, the AstraZeneca ChadOx1 nCov-19 vaccine has raised public alarm with concerns regarding the rare, but serious, development of thrombotic events, now known as vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). These thrombotic events appear similar to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, both clinically and pathologically. In this manuscript, the ISTH SSC Subcommittee on Platelet Immunology outlines guidelines on how to recognize, diagnose and manage patients with VITT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Communication , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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