Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening lung disease. It may occur during the pancytopenia phase following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). ARDS is rare following HCT. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have strong anti-inflammatory effect and first home to the lung following intravenous infusion. MSCs are safe to infuse and have almost no side effects. During the Covid-19 pandemic many patients died from ARDS. Subsequently MSCs were evaluated as a therapy for Covid-19 induced ARDS. We report three patients, who were treated with MSCs for ARDS following HCT. Two were treated with MSCs derived from the bone marrow (BM). The third patient was treated with MSCs obtained from the placenta, so-called decidua stromal cells (DSCs). In the first patient, the pulmonary infiltrates cleared after infusion of BM-MSCs, but he died from multiorgan failure. The second patient treated with BM-MSCs died of aspergillus infection. The patient treated with DSCs had a dramatic response and survived. He is alive after 7 years with a Karnofsky score of 100%. We also reviewed experimental and clinical studies using MSCs or DSCs for ARDS. Several positive reports are using MSCs for sepsis and ARDS in experimental animals. In man, two prospective randomized placebo-controlled studies used adipose and BM-MSCs, respectively. No difference in outcome was seen compared to placebo. Some pilot studies used MSCs for Covid-19 ARDS. Positive results were achieved using umbilical cord and DSCs however, optimal source of MSCs remains to be elucidated using randomized trials.
Subject(s)Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
We are going through the greatest global health crisis of the last decades, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. It may cause morbidity and mortality in some cases, and there is no therapeutic approach with reproducible and favorable outcomes. As clinical manifestations differ from patient to patient, any report regarding clinical symptoms has been beneficial for early detection and treatment. Due to the immunomodulatory effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), MSCs-based therapy has been approved to be one of the therapeutic strategies for COVID-19 management. For the first time in the literature, we reported generalized lymphadenopathy with fever and no sign of respiratory distress in a 16-year-old patient with confirmed COVID-19 infection as the main clinical signs. We also introduce decidual stromal cells as a potential immunomodulatory treatment for COVID-19-infected patients.
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) possess profound immunomodulatory and regenerative properties that are of clinical use in numerous clinical indications with unmet medical need. Common sources of MSCs include among others, bone marrow (BM), fat, umbilical cord, and placenta-derived decidua stromal cells (DSCs). We here summarize our more than 20-years of scientific experience in the clinical use of MSCs and DSCs in different clinical settings. BM-MSCs were first explored to enhance the engraftment of autografts in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and osteogenesis imperfecta around 30 years ago. In 2004, our group reported the first anti-inflammatory use of BM-MSCs in a child with grade IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Subsequent studies have shown that MSCs appear to be more effective in acute than chronic GvHD. Today BM-MSC-therapy is registered for acute GvHD in Japan and for GvHD in children in Canada and New Zeeland. MSCs first home to the lung following intravenous injection and exert strong local and systemic immunomodulatory effects on the host immune system. Thus, they were studied for ameliorating the cytokine storm in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Both, MSCs and DSCs were used to treat SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus-induced disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced ARDS. In addition, they were also used for other novel indications, such as pneumomediastinum, colon perforation, and radiculomyelopathy. MSC and DSCs trigger coagulation and were thus explored to stop hemorrhages. DSCs appear to be more effective for acute GvHD, ARDS, and hemorrhages, but randomized studies are needed to prove superiority. Stromal cell infusion is safe, well tolerated, and only gives rise to a slight fever in a limited number of patients, but no major side effects have been reported in multiple safety studies and metaanalysis. In this review we summarize current evidence from in vitro studies, animal models, and importantly our clinical experience, to support stromal cell therapy in multiple clinical indications. This encloses MSC's effects on the immune system, coagulation, and their safety and efficacy, which are discussed in relation to prominent clinical trials within the field.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Graft vs Host Disease/etiology , Graft vs Host Disease/therapy , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most common cause of death in COVID-19 patients. The cytokine storm is the main driver of the severity and magnitude of ARDS. Placenta-derived decidua stromal cells (DSCs) have a stronger immunosuppressive effect than other sources of mesenchymal stromal cells. Safety and efficacy study included 10 patients with a median age of 50 (range 14-68) years with COVID-19-induced ARDS. DSCs were administered 1-2 times at a dose of 1 × 106 /kg. End points were safety and efficacy by survival, oxygenation and effects on levels of cytokines. Oxygenation levels increased from a median of 80.5% (range 69-88) to 95% (range 78-99) (p = 0.012), and pulmonary infiltrates disappeared in all patients. Levels of IL-6 decreased from a median of 69.3 (range 35.0-253.4) to 11 (range 4.0-38.3) pg/ml (p = 0.018), and CRP decreased from 69 (range 5-169) to 6 (range 2-31) mg/ml (p = 0.028). Two patients died, one of a myocardial infarction and the other of multiple organ failure, diagnosed before the DSC therapy. The other patients recovered and left the intensive care unit (ICU) within a median of 6 (range 3-12) days. DSC therapy is safe and capable of improving oxygenation, decreasing inflammatory cytokine level and clearing pulmonary infiltrates in patients with COVID-19.