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1.
Endocrine ; 2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075622

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of pneumonia caused by a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is called COVID-19 and has led to a pandemic worldwide. It is reasonable to investigate and control factors affecting disease severity and mortality. The relation between vitamin D and viral pneumonia has been previously reported. Vitamin D deficiency is common and may increase hospital admission and mortality rate in patients with COVID-19. This mini-review examines the pathways that show the association between vitamin D and COVID-19. On the other hand, it deals with the available evidence related to the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the prevalence, severity, and mortality of COVID-19. Also, we described the pathophysiology of the organs' involvement in COVID-19 and the effect of vitamin D on these outcomes. Vitamin D strengthens the innate and adaptive immune system, modulates immune responses, prevents lung and cardiovascular system damage, and reduces thrombotic events. Vitamin D exerts these effects in several pathways. Vitamin D prevents virus entry and replication by maintaining the integrity of the body's physical barrier. Vitamin D reduces the damage to vital organs and thrombotic events by increasing the level of Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), nitric oxide, and antioxidants or by reducing inflammatory cytokines and free radicals. Sufficient vitamin D may be reduced morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19. However, this issue should be investigated and confirmed by further research in the future.

2.
Tanaffos ; 19(4): 291-299, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory mediators are an important component in the pathophysiology of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to assess the effects of reducing inflammatory mediators using hemoperfusion (HP) and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) on the mortality of patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included. All patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Patients were divided into three groups, namely, HP, CRRT and HP+CRRT. The primary outcome was mortality and the secondary outcomes were oxygenation and reduction in inflammatory mediators at the end of the study. RESULTS: Patients were not different at baseline in demographics, inflammatory cytokine levels, and the level of acute phase reactants. Half of the patients (3 out of 6) in the HP+CRRT group survived along with the survival of one patient (1 out of 2) in the HP group. All four patients in the CRRT group died. Serum creatinine (SCr), Interleukin-1 (IL1), Interleukin-6 (IL6), Interleukin-8 (IL8), partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), O2 saturation (O2 sat), and hemodynamic parameters improved over time in HP+CRRT and CRRT groups, but no significant difference was observed in the HP group (All Ps > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Combined HP and CRRT demonstrated the best result in terms of mortality, reduction of inflammatory mediators and oxygenation. Further investigations are needed to explore the role of HP+CRRT in COVID-19 patients.

3.
Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology ; 20(4):394-401, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1761411

ABSTRACT

Considering the increasing prevalence and burden of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease and false-negative results in routine reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests, additional diagnostic methods are needed to diagnose active cases of this disease. This prospective study was conducted on patients, in whom clinical and radiological symptoms/signs were in favor of COVID-19 while their first PCR test was negative. Later on, a second RT-PCR was performed and serological evaluation was carried out and results were compared with each other. Out of 707 patients who had been referred to the hospital and were clinically and radiologically suspicious of disease, 137 patients with negative RT-PCR tests entered the study. RT-PCR assay became positive for the second time in 45 (32.8%). Anti-COVID-19 IgM and IgG antibodies were positive in 83 (60.6%) and 86 (62.8%) patients, respectively. Finally, it was determined that serological test was diagnostic in 73% of patients and the diagnostic yield of serology was significantly higher after the first week of illness (54.8% in the first week and 88% after that). Taking advantage of both serological tests and RT-PCR helps in diagnosing 83.9% of cases. Based on the present study, the serology may be useful as a complementary test and in parallel to RT-PCR assay for diagnosis of COVID-19 among admitted symptomatic cases.

4.
Z Gesundh Wiss ; 30(3): 531-536, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548359

ABSTRACT

Aim: To validate a questionnaire to assess stress and burnout in healthcare workers during COVID-19 pandemic. Subjects and methods: In this study, content validity, Cronbach's alpha, and test-retest reliability method were utilized among 60 HCWs to evaluate the validity, internal consistency, and reliability of the questionnaire respectively. The final questionnaire was composed of four parts asking for the background information, questions about the stress caused by the COVID-19, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale - 21 (DASS-21), and six questions from the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI). Results: The CVR of 46 questions was equal to 1, making them acceptably valid (CVR > 0.78), so that the items could be arranged into a final questionnaire. Moreover, all items could successfully attain CVI values above 0.79, confirming the content validity of the questionnaire. The Cronbach's alpha was between 0.80-0.95 for different sections of questionaire, confirming the stable reliability and high repeatability of the questionnaire. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the DASS-21 offers adequate levels of validity and reliability for assessing the stress, anxiety, and depression among the HCWs engaged with the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, the six items adapted from the Copenhagen burnout inventory (CBI) were found to provide a good instrument for investigating the job burnout among the HCWs at Masih Daneshvari Hospital during the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic.

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