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Patient Saf Surg ; 16(1): 26, 2022 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032619


BACKGROUND: Airborne transmission diseases can transfer long and short distances via sneezing, coughing, and breathing. These airborne repertory particles can convert to aerosol particles and travel with airflow. During the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many surgeries have been delayed, increasing the demand for establishing a clean environment for both patient and surgical team in the operating room. METHODS: This study aims to investigate the hypothesis of implementing a protective curtain to reduce the transmission of infectious contamination in the surgical microenvironment of an operating room. In this regard, the spread of an airborne transmission disease from the patient was evaluated, consequently, the exposure level of the surgical team. In the first part of this study, a mock surgical experiment was established in the operating room of an academic medical center in Norway. In the second part, the computational fluid dynamic technique was performed to investigate the spread of airborne infectious diseases. Furthermore, the field measurement was used to validate the numerical model and guarantee the accuracy of the applied numerical models. RESULTS: The results showed that the airborne infectious agents reached the breathing zone of the surgeons. However, using a protective curtain to separate the microenvironment between the head and lower body of the patient resulted in a 75% reduction in the spread of the virus to the breathing zone of the surgeons. The experimental results showed a surface temperature of 40 ˚C, which was about a 20 ˚C increase in temperature, at the wound area using a high intensity of the LED surgical lamps. Consequently, this temperature increase can raise the patient's thermal injury risk. CONCLUSION: The novel method of using a protective curtain can increase the safety of the surgical team during the surgery with a COVID-19 patient in the operating room.

Physics of Fluids ; 34(4):1-25, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1830315


Given the recent acceptance of the central role of airborne transmission for SARS-CoV-2, increased attention has been paid to the dispersion of respiratory droplets in different scenarios. Studies including numerical simulations have been conducted on methods for breaking the chains of transmission. Here, we present the first such study on the impact of body position while coughing on the dispersion of respiratory droplets. Four scenarios are examined, including normal standing, bending the head at different angles, coughing into the elbow in still air, and a gentle breeze from the front and behind. The model showed that an uncovered cough is dangerous and causes many droplets to enter the environment, posing a cross-contamination threat to the others. Droplets with an initial diameter smaller than 62.5 μm remain suspended in windless air for more than 3 min. In the presence of wind, these droplets move with the wind flow and may travel long distances greater than 3.5 m. The model showed that covering the mouth with the elbow while coughing is clearly the best strategy for reducing airborne transmission of exhaled pathogens. About 62% of the initial number of droplets deposit on the cougher's elbow immediately after the cough and have no chance of spreading through the air in both windless and windy conditions. Covering the cough in windless or light breeze conditions also causes the upward thermal plume around the body to expel many small droplets. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Physics of Fluids is the property of American Institute of Physics and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)