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1.
Journal of Critical Care ; 70:154045, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1814672

ABSTRACT

Purpose Prolonged observation could avoid invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and related risks in patients with Covid-19 acute respiratory failure (ARF) compared to initiating early IMV. We aimed to determine the association between ARF management strategy and in-hospital mortality. Materials and methods Patients in the Weill Cornell Covid-19 registry who developed ARF between March 5 – March 25, 2020 were exposed to an early IMV strategy;between March 26 – April 1, 2020 to an intermediate strategy;and after April 2 to prolonged observation. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model in-hospital mortality and test an interaction between ARF management strategy and modified sequential organ failure assessment (mSOFA). Results Among 632 patients with ARF, 24% of patients in the early IMV strategy died versus 28% in prolonged observation. At lower mSOFA, prolonged observation was associated with lower mortality compared to early IMV (at mSOFA = 0, HR 0.16 [95% CI 0.04–0.57]). Mortality risk increased in the prolonged observation strategy group with each point increase in mSOFA score (HR 1.29 [95% CI 1.10–1.51], p = 0.002). Conclusion In Covid-19 ARF, prolonged observation was associated with a mortality benefit at lower mSOFA scores, and increased mortality at higher mSOFA scores compared to early IMV.

2.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e053961, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788959

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in a racially diverse sample from the US Southeast and examine the association of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor use with COVID-19 outcome. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: This study is a retrospective cohort of 1024 patients with reverse-transcriptase PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection, admitted to a 1242-bed teaching hospital in Alabama. Data on RAAS inhibitors use, demographics and comorbidities were extracted from hospital medical records. PRIMARY OUTCOMES: In-hospital mortality, a need of intensive care unit, respiratory failure, defined as invasive mechanical ventilation (iMV) and 90-day same-hospital readmissions. RESULTS: Among 1024 patients (mean (SD) age, 57 (18.8) years), 532 (52.0%) were African Americans, 514 (50.2%) male, 493 (48.1%) had hypertension, 365 (36%) were taking RAAS inhibitors. During index hospitalisation (median length of stay of 7 (IQR (4-15) days) 137 (13.4%) patients died; 170 (19.2%) of survivors were readmitted. RAAS inhibitor use was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (adjusted HR, 95% CI (0.56, (0.36 to 0.88), p=0.01) and no effect modification by race was observed (p for interaction=0.81). Among patients with hypertension, baseline RAAS use was associated with reduced risk of iMV, adjusted OR, 95% CI (aOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.95, p=0.03). Patients with heart failure were twice as likely to die from COVID-19, compared with patients without heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: In a retrospespective study of racially diverse patients, hospitalised with COVID-19, prehospitalisation use of RAAS inhibitors was associated with 40% reduction in mortality irrespective of race.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Renin-Angiotensin System , Retrospective Studies
3.
Journal of clinical and translational science ; 5(Suppl 1):72-72, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1710627

ABSTRACT

IMPACT: Patients living in overcrowded zip codes were at increased risk of contracting severe COVID-19 after controlling for confounding disease and socioeconomic factors OBJECTIVES/GOALS: This study sought to examine whether residences in over-crowded zip codes with higher reported over-crowding represented an independent risk factor for severe COVID-19 infection, defined by presentation to an emergency department. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In this zip code tabulated area (ZCTA)-level analysis, we used NYC Department of Health disease surveillance data in March 2020 merged with data from the CDC and ACS to model suspected COVID-19 case rates by zip code over-crowdedness (households with greater than 1 occupant per room, in quartiles). We defined suspected COVID-19 cases as emergency department reported cases of pneumonia and influenza-like illness. Our final model employed a multivariate Poisson regression models with controls for known COVID-19 clinical (prevalence of obesity, coronary artery disease, and smoking) and related socioeconomic risk factors (percentage below federal poverty line, median income by zip-code, percentage White, and proportion of multigenerational households) after accounting for multicollinearity. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our analysis examined 39,923 suspected COVID-19 cases across 173 ZCTAs in NYC between March 1 and March 30 2020. We found that, after adjusted analysis, for every quartile increase in defined over-crowdedness, case rates increased by 32.8% (95% CI: 22.7%% to 34.0%, P < 0.001). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Over-crowdedness by zip code may be an independent risk factor for severe COVID-19. Social distancing measures such as school closures that increase house-bound populations may inadvertently worsen the risk of COVID-19 contraction in this setting.

4.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263995, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686111

ABSTRACT

Older individuals with chronic health conditions are at highest risk of adverse clinical outcomes from COVID-19, but there is widespread belief that risk to younger, relatively lower-risk individuals is negligible. We assessed the rate and predictors of life-threatening complications among relatively lower-risk adults hospitalized with COVID-19. Of 3766 adults hospitalized with COVID-19 to three hospitals in New York City from March to May 2020, 963 were relatively lower-risk based on absence of preexisting health conditions. Multivariable logistic regression models examined in-hospital development of life-threatening complications (major medical events, intubation, or death). Covariates included age, sex, race/ethnicity, hypertension, weight, insurance type, and area-level sociodemographic factors (poverty, crowdedness, and limited English proficiency). In individuals ≥55 years old (n = 522), 33.3% experienced a life-threatening complication, 17.4% were intubated, and 22.6% died. Among those <55 years (n = 441), 15.0% experienced a life-threatening complication, 11.1% were intubated, and 5.9% died. In multivariable analyses among those ≥55 years, age (OR 1.03 [95%CI 1.01-1.06]), male sex (OR 1.72 [95%CI 1.14-2.64]), being publicly insured (versus commercial insurance: Medicare, OR 2.02 [95%CI 1.22-3.38], Medicaid, OR 1.87 [95%CI 1.10-3.20]) and living in areas with relatively high limited English proficiency (highest versus lowest quartile: OR 3.50 [95%CI 1.74-7.13]) predicted life-threatening complications. In those <55 years, no sociodemographic factors significantly predicted life-threatening complications. A substantial proportion of relatively lower-risk patients hospitalized with COVID-19 experienced life-threatening complications and more than 1 in 20 died. Public messaging needs to effectively convey that relatively lower-risk individuals are still at risk of serious complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hypertension/complications , Age Factors , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Length of Stay , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
5.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(5): 1218-1225, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649390

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term prevalence and risk factors for post-acute COVID-19 sequelae (PASC) are not well described and may have important implications for unvaccinated populations and policy makers. OBJECTIVE: To assess health status, persistent symptoms, and effort tolerance approximately 1 year after COVID-19 infection DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study using surveys and clinical data PARTICIPANTS: Survey respondents who were survivors of acute COVID-19 infection requiring Emergency Department presentation or hospitalization between March 3 and May 15, 2020. MAIN MEASURE(S): Self-reported health status, persistent symptoms, and effort tolerance KEY RESULTS: The 530 respondents (median time between hospital presentation and survey 332 days [IQR 325-344]) had mean age 59.2±16.3 years, 44.5% were female and 70.8% were non-White. Of these, 41.5% reported worse health compared to a year prior, 44.2% reported persistent symptoms, 36.2% reported limitations in lifting/carrying groceries, 35.5% reported limitations climbing one flight of stairs, 38.1% reported limitations bending/kneeling/stooping, and 22.1% reported limitations walking one block. Even those without high-risk comorbid conditions and those seen only in the Emergency Department (but not hospitalized) experienced significant deterioration in health, persistent symptoms, and limitations in effort tolerance. Women (adjusted relative risk ratio [aRRR] 1.26, 95% CI 1.01-1.56), those requiring mechanical ventilation (aRRR 1.48, 1.02-2.14), and people with HIV (aRRR 1.75, 1.14-2.69) were significantly more likely to report persistent symptoms. Age and other risk factors for more severe COVID-19 illness were not associated with increased risk of PASC. CONCLUSIONS: PASC may be extraordinarily common 1 year after COVID-19, and these symptoms are sufficiently severe to impact the daily exercise tolerance of patients. PASC symptoms are broadly distributed, are not limited to one specific patient group, and appear to be unrelated to age. These data have implications for vaccine hesitant individuals, policy makers, and physicians managing the emerging longer-term yet unknown impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Status , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 2255, 2021 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571753

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding health care experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic may provide insights into patient needs and inform policy. The objective of this study was to describe health care experiences by race and social determinants of health. METHODS: We conducted a telephone survey (July 6, 2020-September 4, 2021) among 9492 Black and White participants in the longitudinal REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke cohort study, age 58-105 years, from the continental United States. Among participants with symptoms of COVID-19, outcomes were: 1. Sought care or advice for the illness; 2. Received a SARS-CoV-2 test for the illness; and 3. Tested positive. Among participants without symptoms of COVID-19, outcomes were: 1. Wanted a test; 2. Wanted and received a test; 3. Did not want but received a test; and 4. Tested positive. We examined these outcomes overall and in subgroups defined by race, household income, marital status, education, area-level poverty, rural residence, Medicaid expansion, public health infrastructure ranking, and residential segregation. RESULTS: The average age of participants was 76.8 years, 36% were Black, and 57% were female. Among participants with COVID-19 symptoms (n = 697), 74% sought care or advice for the illness, 50% received a SARS-CoV-2 test, and 25% had a positive test (50% of those tested). Among participants without potential COVID-19 symptoms (n = 8795), 29% wanted a SARS-CoV-2 test, 22% wanted and received a test, 8% did not want but received a test, and 1% tested positive; a greater percentage of participants who were Black compared to White wanted (38% vs 23%, p < 0.001) and received tests (30% vs 18%, p < 0.001) and tested positive (1.4% vs 0.8%, p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: In this national study of older US adults, many participants with potential COVID-19 symptoms and asymptomatic participants who desired testing did not receive COVID-19 testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health , United States/epidemiology
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4197-e4205, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) frequently require mechanical ventilation and have high mortality rates. However, the impact of viral burden on these outcomes is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 from 30 March 2020 to 30 April 2020 at 2 hospitals in New York City. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral load was assessed using cycle threshold (Ct) values from a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay applied to nasopharyngeal swab samples. We compared characteristics and outcomes of patients with high, medium, and low admission viral loads and assessed whether viral load was independently associated with intubation and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: We evaluated 678 patients with COVID-19. Higher viral load was associated with increased age, comorbidities, smoking status, and recent chemotherapy. In-hospital mortality was 35.0% (Ct <25; n = 220), 17.6% (Ct 25-30; n = 216), and 6.2% (Ct >30; n = 242) with high, medium, and low viral loads, respectively (P < .001). The risk of intubation was also higher in patients with a high viral load (29.1%) compared with those with a medium (20.8%) or low viral load (14.9%; P < .001). High viral load was independently associated with mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.92-12.52) and intubation (aOR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.68-4.44). CONCLUSIONS: Admission SARS-CoV-2 viral load among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 independently correlates with the risk of intubation and in-hospital mortality. Providing this information to clinicians could potentially be used to guide patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Retrospective Studies , Viral Load
10.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0257979, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526683

ABSTRACT

Public health interventions such as social distancing and mask wearing decrease the incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but it is unclear whether they decrease the viral load of infected patients and whether changes in viral load impact mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We evaluated 6923 patients with COVID-19 at six New York City hospitals from March 15-May 14, 2020, corresponding with the implementation of public health interventions in March. We assessed changes in cycle threshold (CT) values from reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests and in-hospital mortality and modeled the impact of viral load on mortality. Mean CT values increased between March and May, with the proportion of patients with high viral load decreasing from 47.7% to 7.8%. In-hospital mortality increased from 14.9% in March to 28.4% in early April, and then decreased to 8.7% by May. Patients with high viral loads had increased mortality compared to those with low viral loads (adjusted odds ratio 2.34). If viral load had not declined, an estimated 69 additional deaths would have occurred (5.8% higher mortality). SARS-CoV-2 viral load steadily declined among hospitalized patients in the setting of public health interventions, and this correlated with decreases in mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Viral Load/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , New York , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
11.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(11): 3522-3529, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525598

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Improving accuracy of identification of COVID-19-related deaths is essential to public health surveillance and research. The verbal autopsy, an established strategy involving an interview with a decedent's caregiver or witness using a semi-structured questionnaire, may improve accurate counting of COVID-19-related deaths. OBJECTIVE: To develop and pilot-test the Verbal Autopsy Instrument for COVID-19 (VAIC) and a death adjudication protocol using it. METHODS/KEY RESULTS: We used a multi-step process to design the VAIC and a protocol for its use. We developed a preliminary version of a verbal autopsy instrument specifically for COVID. We then pilot-tested this instrument by interviewing respondents about the deaths of 15 adults aged ≥65 during the initial COVID-19 surge in New York City. We modified it after the first 5 interviews. We then reviewed the VAIC and clinical information for the 15 deaths and developed a death adjudication process/algorithm to determine whether the underlying cause of death was definitely (40% of these pilot cases), probably (33%), possibly (13%), or unlikely/definitely not (13%) COVID-19-related. We noted differences between the adjudicated cause of death and a death certificate. CONCLUSIONS: The VAIC and a death adjudication protocol using it may improve accuracy in identifying COVID-19-related deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Autopsy , Cause of Death , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Int J Med Inform ; 157: 104622, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1507080

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Data extraction from electronic health record (EHR) systems occurs through manual abstraction, automated extraction, or a combination of both. While each method has its strengths and weaknesses, both are necessary for retrospective observational research as well as sudden clinical events, like the COVID-19 pandemic. Assessing the strengths, weaknesses, and potentials of these methods is important to continue to understand optimal approaches to extracting clinical data. We set out to assess automated and manual techniques for collecting medication use data in patients with COVID-19 to inform future observational studies that extract data from the electronic health record (EHR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 4,123 COVID-positive patients hospitalized and/or seen in the emergency department at an academic medical center between 03/03/2020 and 05/15/2020, we compared medication use data of 25 medications or drug classes collected through manual abstraction and automated extraction from the EHR. Quantitatively, we assessed concordance using Cohen's kappa to measure interrater reliability, and qualitatively, we audited observed discrepancies to determine causes of inconsistencies. RESULTS: For the 16 inpatient medications, 11 (69%) demonstrated moderate or better agreement; 7 of those demonstrated strong or almost perfect agreement. For 9 outpatient medications, 3 (33%) demonstrated moderate agreement, but none achieved strong or almost perfect agreement. We audited 12% of all discrepancies (716/5,790) and, in those audited, observed three principal categories of error: human error in manual abstraction (26%), errors in the extract-transform-load (ETL) or mapping of the automated extraction (41%), and abstraction-query mismatch (33%). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest many inpatient medications can be collected reliably through automated extraction, especially when abstraction instructions are designed with data architecture in mind. We discuss quality issues, concerns, and improvements for institutions to consider when crafting an approach. During crises, institutions must decide how to allocate limited resources. We show that automated extraction of medications is feasible and make recommendations on how to improve future iterations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Data Collection , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Cell Metab ; 33(11): 2174-2188.e5, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446535

ABSTRACT

Individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 who also display hyperglycemia suffer from longer hospital stays, higher risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and increased mortality. Nevertheless, the pathophysiological mechanism of hyperglycemia in COVID-19 remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that hyperglycemia is similarly prevalent among patients with ARDS independent of COVID-19 status. Yet among patients with ARDS and COVID-19, insulin resistance is the prevalent cause of hyperglycemia, independent of glucocorticoid treatment, which is unlike patients with ARDS but without COVID-19, where pancreatic beta cell failure predominates. A screen of glucoregulatory hormones revealed lower levels of adiponectin in patients with COVID-19. Hamsters infected with SARS-CoV-2 demonstrated a strong antiviral gene expression program in the adipose tissue and diminished expression of adiponectin. Moreover, we show that SARS-CoV-2 can infect adipocytes. Together these data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 may trigger adipose tissue dysfunction to drive insulin resistance and adverse outcomes in acute COVID-19.

15.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(9): e008354, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is important to understand the risk for in-hospital mortality of adults hospitalized with acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection with a history of heart failure (HF). METHODS: We examined patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection from January 1, 2020 to July 22, 2020, from 88 centers across the US participating in the American Heart Association's COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease registry. The primary exposure was history of HF and the primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. To examine the association between history of HF and in-hospital mortality, we conducted multivariable modified Poisson regression models that included sociodemographics and comorbid conditions. We also examined HF subtypes based on left ventricular ejection fraction in the prior year, when available. RESULTS: Among 8920 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, mean age was 61.4±17.5 years and 55.5% were men. History of HF was present in 979 (11%) patients. In-hospital mortality occurred in 31.6% of patients with history of HF, and 16.9% in patients without a history of HF. In a fully adjusted model, history of HF was associated with increased risk for in-hospital mortality (relative risk: 1.16 [95% CI, 1.03-1.30]). Among 335 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality in a fully adjusted model (heart failure with reduced ejection fraction relative risk: 1.40 [95% CI, 1.10-1.79]; heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction relative risk: 1.06 [95% CI, 0.65-1.73]; heart failure with preserved ejection fraction relative risk, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.84-1.33]). CONCLUSIONS: Risk for in-hospital mortality was substantial among adults with history of HF, in large part due to age and comorbid conditions. History of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction may confer especially elevated risk. This population thus merits prioritization for the COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/mortality , Heart Failure/mortality , Stroke Volume/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
16.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367445

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and clinical outcomes other than death in patients hospitalised and intubated with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a single-centre cohort study of adults with COVID-19 admitted to New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Cornell Medicine from 3 March 2020 through 15 May 2020. Baseline and outcome variables, as well as lab and ventilatory parameters, were generated for the admitted and intubated cohorts after stratifying by BMI category. Linear regression models were used for continuous, and logistic regression models were used for categorical outcomes. RESULTS: The study included 1337 admitted patients with a subset of 407 intubated patients. Among admitted patients, hospital length of stay (LOS) and home discharge was not significantly different across BMI categories independent of demographic characteristics and comorbidities. In the intubated cohort, there was no difference in in-hospital events and treatments, including renal replacement therapy, neuromuscular blockade and prone positioning. Ventilatory ratio was higher with increasing BMI on days 1, 3 and 7. There was no significant difference in ventilator free days (VFD) at 28 or 60 days, need for tracheostomy, hospital LOS, and discharge disposition based on BMI in the intubated cohort after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: In our COVID-19 population, there was no association between obesity and morbidity outcomes, such as hospital LOS, home discharge or VFD. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying the reported effects of BMI on outcomes, which may be population dependent.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Morbidity , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , New York City
17.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(8): ofab370, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354305

ABSTRACT

We evaluated sex-related differences in symptoms and risk factors for mortality in 4798 patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 in New York City. When adjusted for age and comorbidities, being male was an independent predictor of death with mortality significantly higher than females, even with low severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viral load at admission.

18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15872, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345580

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated respiratory failure offers the unprecedented opportunity to evaluate the differential host response to a uniform pathogenic insult. Understanding whether there are distinct subphenotypes of severe COVID-19 may offer insight into its pathophysiology. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score is an objective and comprehensive measurement that measures dysfunction severity of six organ systems, i.e., cardiovascular, central nervous system, coagulation, liver, renal, and respiration. Our aim was to identify and characterize distinct subphenotypes of COVID-19 critical illness defined by the post-intubation trajectory of SOFA score. Intubated COVID-19 patients at two hospitals in New York city were leveraged as development and validation cohorts. Patients were grouped into mild, intermediate, and severe strata by their baseline post-intubation SOFA. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering was performed within each stratum to detect subphenotypes based on similarities amongst SOFA score trajectories evaluated by Dynamic Time Warping. Distinct worsening and recovering subphenotypes were identified within each stratum, which had distinct 7-day post-intubation SOFA progression trends. Patients in the worsening suphenotypes had a higher mortality than those in the recovering subphenotypes within each stratum (mild stratum, 29.7% vs. 10.3%, p = 0.033; intermediate stratum, 29.3% vs. 8.0%, p = 0.002; severe stratum, 53.7% vs. 22.2%, p < 0.001). Pathophysiologic biomarkers associated with progression were distinct at each stratum, including findings suggestive of inflammation in low baseline severity of illness versus hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in higher baseline severity of illness. The findings suggest that there are clear worsening and recovering subphenotypes of COVID-19 respiratory failure after intubation, which are more predictive of outcomes than baseline severity of illness. Distinct progression biomarkers at differential baseline severity of illness suggests a heterogeneous pathobiology in the progression of COVID-19 respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(6): e018477, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268159

ABSTRACT

Background The independent prognostic value of troponin and other biomarker elevation among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are unclear. We sought to characterize biomarker levels in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and develop and validate a mortality risk score. Methods and Results An observational cohort study of 1053 patients with COVID-19 was conducted. Patients with all of the following biomarkers measured-troponin-I, B-type natriuretic peptide, C-reactive protein, ferritin, and d-dimer (n=446) -were identified. Maximum levels for each biomarker were recorded. The primary end point was 30-day in-hospital mortality. Multivariable logistic regression was used to construct a mortality risk score. Validation of the risk score was performed using an independent patient cohort (n=440). Mean age of patients was 65.0±15.2 years and 65.3% were men. Overall, 444 (99.6%) had elevation of any biomarker. Among tested biomarkers, troponin-I ≥0.34 ng/mL was the only independent predictor of 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 4.38; P<0.001). Patients with a mortality score using hypoxia on presentation, age, and troponin-I elevation, age (HA2T2) ≥3 had a 30-day mortality of 43.7% while those with a score <3 had mortality of 5.9%. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the HA2T2 score was 0.834 for the derivation cohort and 0.784 for the validation cohort. Conclusions Elevated troponin and other biomarker levels are commonly seen in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. High troponin levels are a potent predictor of 30-day in-hospital mortality. A simple risk score can stratify patients at risk for COVID-19-associated mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Health Status Indicators , Hospitalization , Troponin I/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Up-Regulation
20.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(8): 2378-2385, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical course of COVID-19 includes multiple disease phases. Data describing post-hospital discharge outcomes may provide insight into disease course. Studies describing post-hospitalization outcomes of adults following COVID-19 infection are limited to electronic medical record review, which may underestimate the incidence of outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To determine 30-day post-hospitalization outcomes following COVID-19 infection. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study SETTING: Quaternary referral hospital and community hospital in New York City. PARTICIPANTS: COVID-19 infected patients discharged alive from the emergency department (ED) or hospital between March 3 and May 15, 2020. MEASUREMENT: Outcomes included return to an ED, re-hospitalization, and mortality within 30 days of hospital discharge. RESULTS: Thirty-day follow-up data were successfully collected on 94.6% of eligible patients. Among 1344 patients, 16.5% returned to an ED, 9.8% were re-hospitalized, and 2.4% died. Among patients who returned to the ED, 50.0% (108/216) went to a different hospital from the hospital of the index presentation, and 61.1% (132/216) of those who returned were re-hospitalized. In Cox models adjusted for variables selected using the lasso method, age (HR 1.01 per year [95% CI 1.00-1.02]), diabetes (1.54 [1.06-2.23]), and the need for inpatient dialysis (3.78 [2.23-6.43]) during the index presentation were independently associated with a higher re-hospitalization rate. Older age (HR 1.08 [1.05-1.11]) and Asian race (2.89 [1.27-6.61]) were significantly associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients discharged alive following their index presentation for COVID-19, risk for returning to a hospital within 30 days of discharge was substantial. These patients merit close post-discharge follow-up to optimize outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Discharge , Adult , Aftercare , Aged , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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