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Biomedicines ; 10(6)2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883997


During an emergency, such as a pandemic in which time and resources are extremely scarce, it is important to find effective and rapid solutions when searching for possible treatments. One possibility in this regard is the repurposing of available "on the market" drugs. This is a proof of the concept study showing the potential of a collaboration between two research groups, engaged in computer-aided drug design and control of viral infections, for the development of early strategies to combat future pandemics. We describe a QSAR (quantitative structure activity relationship) based repurposing study on molecular topology and molecular docking for identifying inhibitors of the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. The aim of this computational strategy was to create an agile, rapid, and efficient way to enable the selection of molecules capable of inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 protease. Molecules selected through in silico method were tested in vitro using human coronavirus 229E as a surrogate for SARS-CoV-2. Three strategies were used to screen the antiviral activity of these molecules against human coronavirus 229E in cell cultures, e.g., pre-treatment, co-treatment, and post-treatment. We found >99% of virus inhibition during pre-treatment and co-treatment and 90-99% inhibition when the molecules were applied post-treatment (after infection with the virus). From all tested compounds, Molport-046-067-769 and Molport-046-568-802 are here reported for the first time as potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 compounds.

Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24318, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585786


The COVID-19 pandemic presents a unique challenge to the healthcare community due to the high infectivity rate and need for effective personal protective equipment. Zinc oxide nanoparticles have shown promising antimicrobial properties and are recognized as a safe additive in many food and cosmetic products. This work presents a novel nanocomposite synthesis approach, which allows zinc oxide nanoparticles to be grown within textile and face mask materials, including melt-blown polypropylene and nylon-cotton. The resulting nanocomposite achieves greater than 3 log10 reduction (≥ 99.9%) in coronavirus titer within a contact time of 10 min, by disintegrating the viral envelope. The new nanocomposite textile retains activity even after 100 laundry cycles and has been dermatologist tested as non-irritant and hypoallergenic. Various face mask designs were tested to improve filtration efficiency and breathability while offering antiviral protection, with Claros' design reporting higher filtration efficiency than surgical masks (> 50%) for particles ranged 200 nm to 5 µm in size.

Masks/virology , Nanocomposites/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Filtration/methods , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Nylons/chemistry , Polypropylenes/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Textiles/analysis , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(2): 296-312, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628257


Although the unprecedented efforts the world has been taking to control the spread of the human coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and its causative aetiology [severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)], the number of confirmed cases has been increasing drastically. Therefore, there is an urgent need for devising more efficient preventive measures, to limit the spread of the infection until an effective treatment or vaccine is available. The preventive measures depend mainly on the understanding of the transmission routes of this virus, its environmental stability, and its persistence on common touch surfaces. Due to the very limited knowledge about SARS-CoV-2, we can speculate its stability in the light of previous studies conducted on other human and animal coronaviruses. In this review, we present the available data on the stability of coronaviruses (CoVs), including SARS-CoV-2, from previous reports to help understand its environmental survival. According to available data, possible airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been suggested. SARS-CoV-2 and other human and animal CoVs have remarkably short persistence on copper, latex and surfaces with low porosity as compared to other surfaces like stainless steel, plastics, glass and highly porous fabrics. It has also been reported that SARS-CoV-2 is associated with diarrhoea and that it is shed in the faeces of COVID-19 patients. Some CoVs show persistence in human excrement, sewage and waters for a few days. These findings suggest a possible risk of faecal-oral, foodborne and waterborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in developing countries that often use sewage-polluted waters in irrigation and have poor water treatment systems. CoVs survive longer in the environment at lower temperatures and lower relative humidity. It has been suggested that large numbers of COVID-19 cases are associated with cold and dry climates in temperate regions of the world and that seasonality of the virus spread is suspected.

COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Climate , Environment , Global Health , Humans , Seasons , Touch