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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307181

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic in a very short time span. Currently, there is no specific treatment or vaccine to counter this highly contagiousdisease. Presently, existing anti-virals and disease-modifying agents are being repurposed to manage COVID-19. There is an urgent need to find a specific cure for the disease and global efforts are directed at developing SARS-CoV-2 specific anti-viralsand immunomodulators.The objective of this study is to explore the immunomodulatory and anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential of key phytoconstituents from Ayurveda based Rasayana drugs, Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) and Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) using in silico approaches like network pharmacology, and molecular docking. The SWISS-ADME tool was used to predict the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) interactions and drug likeliness potential. Using these approaches we propose a library of phytomolecules with potential to be developed as phytopharmaceuticals for COVID 19 management.The plant extracts were prepared as per Ayurvedic procedures and a total of 31 phytoconstituents were identified using HPLC and MS studies. The network pharmacology model shows that these phytoconstituents possess the potential to modulate several immune pathways. Amongst the three botanicals Withania somnifera was found to be the most potent immunomodulator through its potential to modulate T cell differentiation, NK cell cytotoxicity as well as T cell, B cell and NOD-like receptor signalling pathways.Molecular docking studies showed thatseveral phytoconstituents possess good affinity for the Spike protein, Main Protease and RNA dependent RNA polymerase of SARS-CoV-2 suggesting their application for the termination of viral life cycle. Further, predictive tools indicate that there would beneficial herb-drug pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic interactions with concomitantly administered drug therapy. We thus make a compelling case to evaluate the potential of these Rasayana botanicals in the management of COVID-19 following rigorous experimental validation.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0248479, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266543

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 has become a global pandemic in a very short time span. Currently, there is no specific treatment or vaccine to counter this highly contagious disease. There is an urgent need to find a specific cure for the disease and global efforts are directed at developing SARS-CoV-2 specific antivirals and immunomodulators. Ayurvedic Rasayana therapy has been traditionally used in India for its immunomodulatory and adaptogenic effects, and more recently has been included as therapeutic adjuvant for several maladies. Amongst several others, Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) and Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) play an important role in Rasayana therapy. The objective of this study was to explore the immunomodulatory and anti SARS-CoV2 potential of phytoconstituents from Ashwagandha, Guduchi and Shatavari using network pharmacology and docking. The plant extracts were prepared as per ayurvedic procedures and a total of 31 phytoconstituents were identified using UHPLC-PDA and mass spectrometry studies. To assess the immunomodulatory potential of these phytoconstituents an in-silico network pharmacology model was constructed. The model predicts that the phytoconstituents possess the potential to modulate several targets in immune pathways potentially providing a protective role. To explore if these phytoconstituents also possess antiviral activity, docking was performed with the Spike protein, Main Protease and RNA dependent RNA polymerase of the virus. Interestingly, several phytoconstituents are predicted to possess good affinity for the three targets, suggesting their application for the termination of viral life cycle. Further, predictive tools indicate that there would not be adverse herb-drug pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic interactions with concomitantly administered drug therapy. We thus make a compelling case to evaluate the potential of these Rasayana botanicals as therapeutic adjuvants in the management of COVID-19 following rigorous experimental validation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Asparagus Plant/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , Immunologic Factors/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Plant Extracts/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Tinospora/chemistry , Withania/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Herb-Drug Interactions , Humans , Immunologic Factors/pharmacokinetics , India , Medicine, Ayurvedic/methods , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacokinetics , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
3.
Life Sci ; 252: 117652, 2020 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-46308

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, better known as COVID-19 has become the current health concern to the entire world. Initially appeared in Wuhan, China around December 2019, it had spread to almost 187 countries due to its high contagious nature. Precautionary measures remain the sole obliging tactic to cease the person to person transmissions till any effective method of treatment or vaccine is developed. Amidst the pandemic, research and development of new molecule is labour-intensive and tedious process. Drug repurposing is the concept of identifying therapeutically potent molecule from the library of pre-existing molecules. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, 61 molecules that are already being used in clinics or under clinical scrutiny as antiviral agents are surveyed via docking study. Docking study was performed using Maestro interface (Schrödinger Suite, LLC, NY). KEY FINDINGS: Out of these 61 molecules, 37 molecules were found to interact with >2 protein structures of COVID-19. The docking results indicate that amongst the reported molecules, HIV protease inhibitors and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors showed promising features of binding to COVID-19 enzyme. Along with these, Methisazone an inhibitor of protein synthesis, CGP42112A an angiotensin AT2 receptor agonist and ABT450 an inhibitor of the non-structural protein 3-4A might become convenient treatment option as well against COVID-19. SIGNIFICANCE: The drug repurposing approach provide an insight about the therapeutics that might be helpful in treating corona virus disease.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Drug Repositioning , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , COVID-19 , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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