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1.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 32(4): 1152-1157, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715894

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) emerged as a pandemic with varied clinical presentations. Patients with an underlying comorbidity such as diabetes and chronic kidney diseases (CKDs) had an increased risk of developing secondary bacterial and fungal coinfections which was further accentuated by the use of steroids during the management and with prolonged intensive care unit stay. This case series describes the clinical course of two patients with CKD who developed acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection and mucormycosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103220, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is an incontrovertible fact that the Rhino Orbital Cerebral Mucormycosis (ROCM) upsurge is being seen in the context of COVID-19 in India. Briefly presented is evidence that in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 and injudicious use of corticosteroids may be largely responsible for this malady. OBJECTIVE: To find the possible impact of COVID 19 infection and various co-morbidities on occurrence of ROCM and demonstrate the outcome based on medical and surgical interventions. METHODOLOGY: Prospective longitudinal study included patients diagnosed with acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis after a recent COVID-19 infection. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy (DNE) was performed on each patient and swabs were taken and sent for fungal KOH staining and microscopy. Medical management included Injection Liposomal Amphotericin B, Posaconazole and Voriconazole. Surgical treatment was restricted to patients with RT PCR negative results for COVID-19. Endoscopic, open, and combined approaches were utilized to eradicate infection. Follow-up for survived patients was maintained regularly for the first postoperative month. RESULTS: Out of total 131 patients, 111 patients had prior history of SARS COVID 19 infection, confirmed with a positive RT-PCR report and the rest 20 patients had no such history. Steroids were received as a part of treatment in 67 patients infected with COVID 19. Among 131 patients, 124 recovered, 1 worsened and 6 died. Out of 101 known diabetics, 98 recovered and 3 had fatal outcomes. 7 patients with previous history of COVID infection did not have any evidence of Diabetes mellitus, steroid intake or any other comorbidity. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that ROCM upsurge seen in the context of COVID-19 in India was mainly seen in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 infection and injudicious use of corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Mucormycosis/immunology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diagnostic Imaging , Endoscopy , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Clin Ophthalmol ; 15: 3505-3514, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379902

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To list the clinico-epidemiological profile and possible risk factors of COVID-19 associated rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (CA-ROCM) patients presenting to a COVID dedicated hospital during the second wave of COVID-19 in India. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, single-center study was done on 60 cases of probable CA-ROCM based on clinical features and supportive diagnostic nasal endoscopic findings and/or radiologic findings. Patients with recent or active COVID-19 were included. The demographic profile, clinical features, possible risk factors and diagnostic workup (microbiological, pathological and radiological) were analysed to identify the triggering factors for CA-ROCM. RESULTS: The age of patients ranged from 29 to 75 years and male-female ratio was 3:1. The duration between the first positive COVID report and onset of CA-ROCM was 0 to 47 days. Forty-nine (81.66%) patients had a recent COVID infection and 11 (18.33%) had active COVID infection at presentation. Thirty-five patients (58%) had ocular/orbital involvement at presentation. In the affected eye, 10 had no perception of light and in the rest visual acuity ranged from log MAR 0 to +1.5. Ocular manifestations were ptosis (29), ophthalmoplegia (23), periocular tenderness and edema (33), proptosis (14), black discoloration of eyelids (3), facial palsy (3), endophthalmitis (4), retinal artery occlusion (8), disc edema (4) and disc pallor (5). Twenty-two (25%) patients had neither received steroids nor oxygen. Thirty patients (50%) were managed with oxygen while 38 patients (63.3%) with systemic steroids. The most common risk factor was diabetes in 59 patients. The average glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was 10.31 ± 2.59%. Systemic Amphotericin B was started in all the patients. Radical surgical debridement was performed in 12 patients and the remaining were planned. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 variant with accompanying glycaemic dysregulation was found to be the triggering factor for the epidemic of CA-ROCM.

5.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217396

ABSTRACT

SARS CoV -2 infection is rapidly evolving as a serious global pandemic. The present study describes the clinical characteristics of SARS CoV-2 infection patients. The Samples were subjected to RT - PCR or Rapid Antigen test for diagnosis of SARS CoV- 2. A cohort of 3745 patients with confirmed diagnosis of SARS CoV -2 infection in a tertiary care center in New Delhi, India were included in this study. Data was collected from offline and online medical records over a period of six months. Amongst 3745 SARS CoV -2 infected patients, 2245 (60%) were symptomatic and 1500 (40%) were asymptomatic. Most common presenting symptom was cough (49.3%) followed febrile episodes (47.1%), breathlessness (42.7%) and sore throat (35.1%). Cough along with breathlessness (24.1) was the most common combination of symptoms followed by fever with cough (22.7). The most common comorbidity found among symptomatic group was diabetes (42.5%) followed by hypertension (21.4%) and chronic kidney disease (18%). Comorbidities like diabetes mellitus, chronic diseases of lungs, heart and kidneys were found to be common in symptomatic group and this was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). COVID-19 is an evolving disease and data from our study help in understanding the clinic-epidemiological profile of patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 38(3 & 4): 385-389, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-914616

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: In the absence of effective treatment or vaccine, the current strategy for the prevention of further transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection is early diagnosis and isolation of cases. The diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 is done by detecting viral RNA in the nasopharyngeal and throat swabs by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Many commercial assays are now available for performing the PCR assay. AIMS: The aim was to evaluate the performance of the SD Biosensor nCoV real-time detection kit with the real-time PCR kit provided by the Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Virology (ICMR-NIV), Pune (NIV Protocol). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 253 pairs of nasopharyngeal-oropharyngeal swabs combined in a single viral transport medium were tested for viral RNA by both the protocols. The sensitivity and specificity of the SD Biosensor were calculated considering the ICMR-NIV kit as the gold standard. Matched pairs of recorded cycle threshold values (Ct values) were compared by Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Concordant COVID-19 negative and positive PCR results were reported for 113 and 77 samples, respectively. The SD Biosensor kit additionally detected 62 cases, which were found negative by the NIV protocol. In all discordant positive results by the SD Biosensor kit, the average Ct values were higher than the concordant positive results. A total of forty samples tested positive for E gene by SD Biosensor and having Ct values <25 had 100% concordance with NIV protocol results and 39 samples tested positive for E gene by SD Biosensor having Ct value >32 were all found negative by the NIV protocol. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the need for careful evaluation of commercial kits before being deployed for screening of COVID-19 infections.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Pandemics , Pathology, Molecular/methods , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics
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