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1.
Stroke ; 53(11): 3410-3418, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has been frequently associated with an increased risk of thrombotic complications. There have also been reports of an increased likelihood of stroke, although its true incidence in patients with COVID-19 is currently unknown. METHODS: Electronic databases PubMed and Scopus were searched from inception up to July 30, 2021 to identify randomized controlled studies in patients with confirmed COVID-19 undergoing one or more interventions. Studies were screened for eligibility using a predefined inclusion criterion and selected using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A random-effects model meta-analysis was conducted, and heterogeneity was assessed using I-squared test. RESULTS: Out of 3960 potentially eligible articles, 77 randomized studies (38 732 patients) were included. Mean age of the study population was 55±9.3 years. Females constituted 38% of the study population and mean duration of follow-up after study enrollment was 23±12.9 days. Cumulative incidence of stroke in the overall study population was 0.001 (95% CI, 0.001-0.002) with a total of 65 events in 38 732 patients, corresponding to an absolute incidence of 0.168%. Incidence of stroke in the inpatient population was 0.001 (95% CI, 0.001-0.002; 65 events in 37 069 patients), corresponding to an absolute incidence of 0.175%. No strokes were observed in the outpatient setting. CONCLUSIONS: The overall incidence of stroke in patients with COVID-19 appears to be lower than that reported in previous observational reports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Incidence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Stroke/epidemiology
2.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786081

ABSTRACT

Risk stratification of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients by simple markers is critical to guide treatment. We studied the predictive value of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) for the early identification of patients at risk of developing severe clinical outcomes. sIL-2R levels were measured in 197 patients (60.9% males; median age 61 years; moderate disease, n = 65; severe, n = 132, intubated and/or died, n = 42). All patients received combined immunotherapies (anakinra ± corticosteroids ± intravenous immunoglobulin ± tocilizumab) according to our local treatment algorithm. The endpoint was the composite event of intubation due to severe respiratory failure (SRF) or mortality. Median (interquartile range) sIL-2R levels were significantly higher in patients with severe disease, compared with those with moderate disease (6 (6.2) vs. 5.2 (3.4) ng/mL, p = 0.017). sIL-2R was the strongest laboratory predictive factor for intubation/death (hazard ratio 1.749, 95%CI 1.041-2.939, p = 0.035) after adjustment for other known risk factors. Youden's index revealed optimal sIL-2R cut-off for predicting intubation/death at 9 ng/mL (sensitivity: 67%; specificity: 86%; positive and negative predictive value: 57% and 91%, respectively). Delta sIL-2R between the day of event or discharge minus admission date was higher in patients that intubated/died than in those who did not experience an event (2.91 (10.42) vs. 0.44 (2.88) ng/mL; p = 0.08)). sIL-2R on admission and its dynamic changes during follow-up may reflect disease severity and predict the development of SRF and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Receptors, Interleukin-2 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Biomarkers , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Receptors, Interleukin-2/blood , Receptors, Interleukin-2/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/metabolism
3.
Eur J Intern Med ; 101: 41-48, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778106

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of IL-6 inhibitors compared to standard of care (SOC) in COVID-19 patients. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of the MEDLINE and Scopus databases (last search: October 8th, 2021) was performed according to the PRISMA statement. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized control trials (RCTs) comparing IL-6 inhibitors to SOC in hospitalized COVID-19 patients were deemed eligible. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Individual patient data were extracted from the Kaplan-Meier curves or were obtained from authors of included studies. Additionally, the reviewers independently abstracted data and assessed study quality of each eligible report. RESULTS: Eleven studies were identified, incorporating 7467 patients (IL-6 inhibitors: 4103, SOC: 3364). IL-6 inhibitors were associated with decreased risk for death compared to SOC at the one-stage meta-analysis (Hazard Ratio [HR]: 0.75, 95% Confidence interval [CI]: 0.69-0.82, p<0.0001) and the two-stage meta-analysis (HR: 0.85, 95%CI: 0.77-0.93, p<0.001, I2 = 0.0%). Meta-regression analysis revealed that the difference in OS between the two groups was not influenced by the mean age of patients. At secondary meta-analyses, IL-6 inhibitors were associated with decreased odds for intubation OR:0.74, 95%CI:0.65-0.85, p<0.001, I2=0.0%). IL-6 inhibitors were associated with increased odds for discharge compared to SOC (OR:1.28, 95% CI:1.15-1.42, p<0.001, I2=0.0%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized trials shows that IL-6 inhibitors significantly reduce the risk of death compared to SOC. IL-6 inhibitors are also associated with better outcomes in terms of intubation and discharge rates compared to SOC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Interleukin Inhibitors , Interleukin-6 , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
4.
J Clin Med ; 10(22)2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524043

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the potential beneficial effect of immunomodulation therapy on the thromboembolic risk in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Scopus for randomized trials reporting the outcomes of venous thromboembolism (VTE), ischemic stroke or systemic embolism, myocardial infarction, any thromboembolic event, and all-cause mortality in COVID-19 patients treated with immunomodulatory agents. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel random effects method. RESULTS: Among 8499 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 4638 were treated with an immunomodulatory agent, 3861-with usual care only. Among the patients prescribed immunomodulatory agents, there were 1.77 VTEs per 100 patient-months compared to 2.30 among those treated with usual care (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.61-1.16; I2: 0%). Among the patients who received an interleukin 6 (IL-6) antagonist, VTEs were reported in 12 among the 1075 patients compared to 20 among the 848 receiving the usual care (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.22-1.20; I2: 6%). Immunomodulators as an add-on to usual care did not reduce the risk of stroke or systemic embolism (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.50-2.40; I2: 0%) or of myocardial infarction (OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.47-2.39; I2: 0%) and there was a nonsignificant reduction in any thromboembolic event (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.65-1.14; I2: 0%). CONCLUSIONS: We did not identify a statistically significant effect of immunomodulation on prevention of thromboembolic events in COVID-19. However, given the large effect estimate for VTE prevention, especially in the patients treated with IL-6 antagonists, we cannot exclude a potential effect of immunomodulation.

5.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(11): 3826-3836, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316884

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, a substantial proportion of COVID-19 patients had documented thrombotic complications and ischemic stroke. Several mechanisms related to immune-mediated thrombosis, the renin angiotensin system and the effect of SARS-CoV-2 in cardiac and brain tissue may contribute to the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19. Simultaneously, significant strains on global healthcare delivery, including ischemic stroke management, have made treatment of stroke in the setting of COVID-19 particularly challenging. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on epidemiology, clinical manifestation, and pathophysiology of ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19 to bridge the gap from bench to bedside and clinical practice during the most challenging global health crisis of the last decades.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
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