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1.
Annals of Medicine & Surgery ; : 104635, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027852
3.
Annals of Medicine and Surgery ; 81, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2007400
4.
Psychosomatic Medicine ; 84(5):A141-A142, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003398

ABSTRACT

Background: There is a growing interest in airway inflammation and mental health. Recent genetic and epidemiological evidence supports an association between PTSD and asthma however, contributory immune mediators/mechanisms are unclear. Recent work from our group employs mouse aeroallergen, house dust mite (HDM) models to examine the role of severe asthma linked inflammatory T helper cells, Th17 and interleukin 17 (IL-17A) in regulating PTSD-relevant behaviors. Methods: A combination of behavioral, immunological, transgenic and transcriptomic approaches were used. 1) BALBc-C5a receptor treatment that shifts Th2 mild asthma phenotype to Th17/IL17a expansion and robust airway inflammation;2) IL-17a receptor knockout mice and 3) RNAseq transcriptomics of cortical and blood brain barrier compromised area, subfornical organ (SFO) tissue was performed. Fear conditioning and extinction was assessed as a PTSD-relevant behavior. Results: Induction of Th17/IL-17 in the BALBc/anti-C5aR1 treated mice resulted in compromised fear extinction and increased fear reinstatement. Absence of IL-17 signaling in IL17Ra deficient mice attenuated HDM effects on fear extinction. Preliminary evidence suggests a potential of the SFO in translating HDM effects to the medial prefrontal cortex, an area regulating fear extinction. Transcriptomic analyses revealed modulation of immune T cell-targeted signaling pathways within the SFO in mice with Th17A expansion. Conclusion: Overall, our work provides novel insights on mechanisms by which mediators of severe airway inflammation, Th17/IL17A regulate fear memory of relevance to PTSD. Beyond asthma-PTSD, our findings have relevant implications for other pulmonary (e.g. COVID-19) and autoimmune inflammatory conditions and mental health.

6.
Lung India ; 39(SUPPL 1):S155, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1857584

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has inflated the risks faced by healthcare workersand may increase their susceptibility to sleep and psychological problems. This cross-sectional observational study assessed the sleep and psychological problems due to the COVID-19 pandemic among healthcare workers of Employees State Insurance Corporation, an organized sector under the Ministry of Labour and Employment, India. Method: Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with symptoms of anxiety, depression, insomnia and perceived stress among 492 healthcare workers in Employees State Insurance Corporation hospitals and dispensaries in Delhi and the National Capital Territory Region, India. Results: Logistic regression determined that factors of workplace type and frequency of hand washing were associated with anxiety;workplace type, job profile, occupation, formal COVID-19 training and adequate personal protective equipment were predictors of perceived stress;job profile was a common predictor of depression and insomnia;workplace type and formal COVID-19 training were associated with depression and insomnia, respectively. Limitations: This study was limited to healthcare workers in Employees State Insurance Corporation of Delhi and NCR which limits its generalizability to other regions of India. Conclusions: Healthcare workers are exposed to increased risk in the execution of their duties and require support to secure their wellbeing. Policies, systems for early detection of sleep and psychological problems, training, preparedness and efficacy in crisis management are suggested to reduce and prevent the occurrence of these problems among HCWs.

7.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences ; 90(3):158-173, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1717235

ABSTRACT

After the appearance of first cases of pneumonia of unknown origin in the Wuhan city, China, during late 2019, the disease progressed fast. Its cause was identified as a novel coronavirus, named provisionally 2019-nCoV. Subsequently, an official name was given as SARS-CoV-2 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ICTV study group. The World Health Organization WHO named the Coronavirus disease-2019 as COVID-19. The epidemics of COVID-2019 have been recorded over 113 countries/territories/areas apart from China and filched more than 4,292 humans, affecting severely around 1,18,326 cases in a short span. The status of COVID-2019 emergency revised by the WHO within 42 days from Public Health International Emergency January 30, 2020 to a pandemic March 11, 2020. Nonetheless, the case fatality rate CFR of the current epidemic is on the rise between 2-4%, relatively is lower than the previous SARS-CoV 2002/2003 and MERS-CoV 2012 outbreaks. Even though investigations are on its way, the researchers across the globe have assumptions of animal-origin of current SARS-CoV-2. A recent case report provides evidence of mild COVID-2019 infection in a pet dog that acquired COVID-2019 infection from his owner in Hong Kong. The news on travellers associated spread across the globe have also put many countries on alert with the cancellation of tourist visa to all affected countries and postponement of events where international visits were required. A few diagnostic approaches, including quantitative and differential real-time polymerase chain reaction assays, have been recommended for the screening of the individuals at risk. In the absence of any selective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, re-purposed drugs are advocated in many studies. This article discourse the current worldwide situation of COVID-2019 with information on virus, epidemiology, host, the role of animals, effective diagnosis, therapeutics, preventive and control approaches making people aware on the disease outcomes.

8.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 131, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1611981

ABSTRACT

Background: Strong genetic and epidemiological evidence supports an asthma-PTSD association, however, contributory immune mediators/mechanisms are unclear. Here, we examined a direct role of severe asthma associated Th17/ IL-17A in regulating PTSD-relevant behaviors using mouse aeroallergen house dust mite (HDM) models. Methods: 3 strategies were used: 1) BALBc-C5a receptor treatment that shifts Th2 mild asthma phenotype to Th17/IL17a expansion;2) IL-17a receptor knockout mice and 3) sufficiency testing with intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of recombinant IL17a effects on behavior. Fear conditioning and extinction, maze exploration and social behaviors were assessed. Results: Absence of IL-17 signaling attenuated HDM effects on fear extinction while induction of Th17/IL-17 in the BALBc/anti-C5aR1 treated mice resulted in compromised fear extinction. ICV IL-17a promoted an anxiogenic phenotype and impaired social behaviors. Preliminary evidence suggests a role of cortical mechanisms (under investigation). Conclusion: Overall, our work highlights severe asthma inflammatory mediator IL17a in regulating PTSD-relevant behaviors. Beyond asthma-PTSD, our findings have relevant implications for other pulmonary (e.g. COVID-19) and autoimmune inflammatory conditions and PTSD risk.

9.
Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ; 8(1):261-268, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1402192

ABSTRACT

The course of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly affected the healthcare systems in multiple ways, the programs of control and the management of patients with other infectious diseases as well as with chronic and acute non-communicable diseases, including those conditions requiring blood transfusions. Blood donations have been decreasing over time in multiple countries with their expected consequences. Although the spread of SARS-CoV-2 has not been detected via blood transfusion, the increasing fear and anxiety among communities have led to a substantial decrease in blood donations. Several research groups have raised concerns about the consequences associated with the scarcity of blood. However, it is critical to understand the underlying causes of the sharp decline in blood donations, as well as the consequences. Hence, we discuss the impact of blood scarcity at the blood banks during the COVID-19 pandemic as well as strategies to promote blood donations, given the experience in some countries with this situation. © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

10.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 25(9): 777-778, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395201
11.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 8(Suppl. 1):S219-S245, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1319906

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease - 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus virus - 2 (SARS-CoV-2), set it foots in China during December 2019 as a high-alert public health emergency. This malady had thereafter spread rapidly across the globe in more than 215 countries, affecting more than 50 million people and causing the death of nearly 1.3 million as of 9th November, 2020 and resulted in a massive panic, fear, and economic crashes in most of the world. A better understanding of the disease, the virus, structural biology, clinical manifestations, risk factors, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, and management can be extrapolated from the literature review of the research up to date. In addition, deliberations on animal linkages, spillover and zoonotic implications for exploring the actual origin of the disease and all possible animal-human interfaces, intermediate host;diagnosis for devising specific and sensitive tests of ease, accessibility and affordability;advances in the development of safe and effective vaccines and therapeutics for prevention and treatment;management of COVID-19 practicable in all countries;application of traditional or regularly used modalities including plant-based products and medicinal herbs against SARS-COV-2;nutritious dietary foods against this disease;and socio-economic impacts of COVID-19 can provide valuable information on these various aspects. Most of the research currently focuses on disease, development of a vaccine or therapeutic modalities. But the future mortality rate and virulence of virus not only depends on the evolution of the virus, but also on how we develop preventive measures and effective treatment as well as in advance preparedness. The present review highlights salient aspects of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19, pathology, risk factors, transmission, diagnosis, potential treatment, and alternative/supportive therapeutic options.

12.
Infez Med ; 29(2):167-180, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1248656

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in a very short span of thirteen months has taken a considerable toll on humanity, resulting in over 3 million deaths with more than 150 million confirmed cases as on May 1, 2021. In the scarcity of a potential antiviral and protective vaccine, COVID-19 has posed high public health concerns, panic, and challenges to limit the spread of this pandemic virus. Only recently have a few vaccine candidates been developed, and vaccination programs have started in some countries. Multiple clinical presentations of COVID-19, animal spillover, cross-species jumping, zoonotic concerns, and emergence of virus variants have altogether created havoc during this ongoing pandemic. Several bodies of research are continuously working to elucidate the exact molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis. To develop a prospective antiviral therapy/vaccine for SARSCoV-2, it is quite essential to gain insight into the immunobiology and molecular virology of SARS-CoV-2. A thorough literature search was conducted up to 28th February 2021 in the PubMed and other databases for the articles describing the immunopathology and immune response of SARS-CoV-2 infection, which were critically evaluated and used to compile this article to present an overall update. Some of the information was drawn from studies on previous MERS and SARS viruses. Innate as well as adaptive immunity responses are elicited by exposure to SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 establishes a successful infection by escaping the host immunity as well as over activating the innate immune mechanisms that result in severe disease outcomes, including cytokine storm. This review summarizes the immunopathology and molecular immune mechanisms elicited during SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their similarities with MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV.

14.
Infezioni in Medicina ; 29(1):10-19, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117873

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a pandemic worldwide. On a daily basis the number of deaths associated with COVID-19 is rapidly increasing. The main transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 is through the air (airborne transmission). This review details the airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the aerodynamics, and different modes of transmission (e.g. droplets, droplet nuclei, and aerosol particles). SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted by an infected person during activities such as expiration, coughing, sneezing, and talking. During such activities and some medical procedures, aerosols and droplets contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 particles are formed. Depending on their sizes and the environmental conditions, such particles stay viable in the air for varying time periods and can cause infection in a susceptible host. Very few studies have been conducted to establish the mechanism or the aerodynamics of virus-loaded particles and droplets in causing infection. In this review we discuss the various forms in which SARS-CoV-2 virus particles can be transmitted in air and cause infections.

15.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences ; 90(3):303-317, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1008432

ABSTRACT

After the appearance of first cases of 'pneumonia of unknown origin' in the Wuhan city, China, during late 2019, the disease progressed fast. Its cause was identified as a novel coronavirus, named provisionally 2019-nCoV. Subsequently, an official name was given as SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2) by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) study group. The World Health Organization (WHO) named the Coronavirus disease-2019 as COVID-19. The epidemics of COVID-2019 have been recorded over 113 countries/territories/areas apart from China and filched more than 4,292 humans, affecting severely around 1,18,326 cases in a short span. The status of COVID-2019 emergency revised by the WHO within 42 days from Public Health International Emergency (January 30, 2020) to a pandemic (March 11, 2020). Nonetheless, the case fatality rate (CFR) of the current epidemic is on the rise (between 2-4%), relatively is lower than the previous SARS-CoV (2002/2003) and MERS-CoV (2012) outbreaks. Even though investigations are on its way, the researchers across the globe have assumptions of animal-origin of current SARS-CoV-2. A recent case report provides evidence of mild COVID-2019 infection in a pet dog that acquired COVID-2019 infection from his owner in Hong Kong. The news on travellers associated spread across the globe have also put many countries on alert with the cancellation of tourist visa to all affected countries and postponement of events where international visits were required. A few diagnostic approaches, including quantitative and differential real-time polymerase chain reaction assays, have been recommended for the screening of the individuals at risk. In the absence of any selective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, re-purposed drugs are advocated in many studies. This article discourse the current worldwide situation of COVID-2019 with information on virus, epidemiology, host, the role of animals, effective diagnosis, therapeutics, preventive and control approaches making people aware on the disease outcomes.

16.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 8(Special Issue 1):S219-S245, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1000711

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease – 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus virus – 2 (SARS-CoV-2), set it foots in China during December 2019 as a high-alert public health emergency. This malady had thereafter spread rapidly across the globe in more than 215 countries, affecting more than 50 million people and causing the death of nearly 1.3 million as of 9th November, 2020 and resulted in a massive panic, fear, and economic crashes in most of the world. A better understanding of the disease, the virus, structural biology, clinical manifestations, risk factors, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, and management can be extrapolated from the literature review of the research up to date. In addition, deliberations on animal linkages, spillover and zoonotic implications for exploring the actual origin of the disease and all possible animal-human interfaces, intermediate host;diagnosis for devising specific and sensitive tests of ease, accessibility and affordability;advances in the development of safe and effective vaccines and therapeutics for prevention and treatment;management of COVID-19 practicable in all countries;application of traditional or regularly used modalities including plant-based products and medicinal herbs against SARS-COV-2;nutritious dietary foods against this disease;and socio-economic impacts of COVID-19 can provide valuable information on these various aspects. Most of the research currently focuses on disease, development of a vaccine or therapeutic modalities. But the future mortality rate and virulence of virus not only depends on the evolution of the virus, but also on how we develop preventive measures and effective treatment as well as in advance preparedness. The present review highlights salient aspects of SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19, pathology, risk factors, transmission, diagnosis, potential treatment, and alternative / supportive therapeutic options. © 2020, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

17.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 8(Special Issue 1):S114-S118, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-994749

ABSTRACT

Many unanswered questions remain about COVID-19 infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. One such looming concern is the possibility of reinfection of recovered cases. We conducted a literature review on various aspects of this possibility, including the case presentations of relapsed/re-infected patients, the immune response of production of neutralizing antibodies, immunity in response to coronavirus during SARS-CoV2 and MERS, possibility of false-positive results of real-time polymerase chain reaction. We concluded that further studies are required to establish whether relapse or reinfection is possible firmly. However, these possibilities point towards the needs of change in the protocol of isolation, quarantine, and discharge. It also undermines the role of the upcoming vaccine in disease prevention and treatment. © 2020, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

18.
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences ; 8(Special Issue 1):S57-S65, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-994748

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak originated from Wuhan, China has spread over the world, causing a “Global Pandemic”. We analyzed daily confirmed cases and deaths from different countries to understand the progression of the ongoing pandemic in different parts around the world. The data indicated that the pandemic is in different stages in different countries, where they are either at the end of the second wave or middle or early phase of it or still in the middle of the first wave of infection, and they can be divided into four groups. Type 1 countries such as UK, France, Spain, and the Netherlands are currently witnessing the second wave of infection with an exponential increase in daily cases. Countries such as Australia, United States, Japan, and Poland are currently in the declining stage of second-wave, grouped as Type 2 countries. Type 3 countries such as Germany, Italy, Belgium, and Russia are recently seeing the second wave with slowly rising of confirmed cases. Type 4 countries including India, Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico are currently fighting against the first wave of COVID-19. These countries have a chance to learn from the countries which have overcome the second wave successfully. To be ahead of the epidemic curve and preventing it, countries need to make future plans on family, hospital, and community levels. Isolation of the highly vulnerable elderly people and young children, preventing social or public gathering, following the guidelines of COVID-19 prevention including wearing face masks regularly can save countries from devastating effects of the second wave of pandemic COVID-19. © 2020, Editorial board of Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. All rights reserved.

19.
Le infezioni in medicina ; 28(4):475-485, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-970405

ABSTRACT

While the world is focused on attending, controlling, and mitigating the current pandemic of COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2, other viral threats are possibly emerging and reemerging especially in Asia, posing a risk for the spread in that region and beyond. A predictable threat is the avian influenza virus, especially H5N6, which has recently led to significant outbreaks in China and the Philippines, deserving more attention and control. In the current review, we assess the history of this highly pathogenic reemerging virus, as well as the contemporary implications of poultry outbreaks occurring in some Asian countries. We also look at outbreaks due to other strains not only in Asia but also across Europe and Africa, according to recent reports from the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE).

20.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; 14(3):1675-1679, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-891732
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