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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e047134, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455715

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) decreases the morbidity and mortality risk among patients with cardiac diseases; however, the impact of CR on patients with diabetes remains underexplored. This is a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis methodology to explore if the effect of CR on mortality and morbidity is the same in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with patients without diabetes. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Interventional and non-interventional studies comparing the effect of CR, for at least 1 month, on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes including fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction, revascularisation and rehospitalisation in adults with cardiac diseases will be deemed eligible for inclusion. Studies published between 1990 and 2020 will be searched in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, CINAHL, Scopus and in registries for randomised controlled trials. Eligible studies will be selected using the Covidence software, and their salient details regarding the design, population, tested interventions and outcomes of interest will be gathered. The quality of studies to be deemed eligible and reviewed will be assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's tools. The appraisal process will be based on the study design (interventional and non-interventional). In the meta-analysis step, the pooled effect of CR on the outcomes will be estimated. All meta-analyses will be done using the random-effects model approach (inverse-variance method). I 2 and p value of χ2 statistics will guide the heterogeneity assessment. Subgroup analyses will also be performed. The small study effect will be investigated by generating the funnel plots. The symmetry of the latter will be tested by performing Egger's test. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The systematic review will use data from published literature; hence, no ethical approval will be required. Findings of the systematic review and meta-analysis will be published in peer-reviewed international journals and will be disseminated in local and international scientific meetings. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020148832.


Subject(s)
Cardiac Rehabilitation , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Myocardial Infarction , Adult , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Morbidity , Research Design , Systematic Reviews as Topic
2.
Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics ; 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1270545
3.
J Diabetes Metab Disord ; : 1-12, 2021 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169058

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are at high risk of fatal outcomes. This meta-analysis quantifies the prevalence of mortality among (1) diabetic and (2) non-diabetic, and (3) the prevalence of DM, in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods: Published studies were retrieved from four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and medRxiv) and appraised critically utilizing the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's tool. Meta-analyses were performed using the random-effects model. The measures of heterogeneity were ascertained by I- squared (I 2 ) and Chi-squared (Chi 2 ) tests statistics. Predictors of heterogeneity were quantified using meta-regression models. Results: Of the reviewed 475 publications, 22 studies (chiefly case series (59.09 %)), sourcing data of 45,775 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, were deemed eligible. The weighted prevalence of mortality in hospitlized COVID-19 patients with DM (20.0 %, 95 % CI: 15.0-26.0; I 2 , 96.8 %) was 82 % (1.82-time) higher than that in non-DM patients (11.0 %, 95 % CI: 5.0-16.0; I 2 , 99.3 %). The prevalence of mortality among DM patients was highest in Europe (28.0 %; 95 % CI: 14.0-44.0) followed by the United States (20.0 %, 95 % CI: 11.0-32.0) and Asia (17.0 %, 95 % CI: 8.0-28.0). Sample size and severity of the COVID-19 were associated (p < 0.05) with variability in the prevalence of mortality. The weighted prevalence of DM among hospitalized COVID-19 patients was 20 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 15-25, I 2 , 99.3 %). Overall, the quality of the studies was fair. Conclusions: Hospitalized COVID-19 patients were appreciably burdened with a high prevalence of DM. DM contributed to the increased risk of mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients compared to non-DM patients, particularly among critically ill patients. Registration: PROSPERO (registration no. CRD42020196589). Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40200-021-00779-2.

4.
World J Methodol ; 11(1): 1-14, 2021 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083724

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, when children remain home-confined secondary to the closure of schools, little is known of the burden of the parents being their index case. AIM: To determine the prevalence of parents being the index case of COVID-19 infected children. METHODS: A database search in PubMed and Scopus ensued to recruit studies reporting the index case information of COVID-19 infected individuals aged ≤ 18. The reviewed articles' quality evaluation included the use of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's tool. A random-effect meta-analysis ensued to determine the prevalence of the parent being and not-being the index case. Heterogeneity was assessed by I 2 and Chi 2 statistics. The publication bias was evaluated by funnel plots and Egger's test. RESULTS: Overall, this review included 13 eligible studies sourcing data from 622 children of 33 nations. Study designs were heterogeneous and primarily included descriptive reports (38.4%). The prevalence of parent being the index case was 54% (95%CI: 0.29-0.79; I 2: 62.3%, Chi 2 P < 0.001). In > 70% of children, their index-case parent was symptomatic due to COVID-19 at the time of infection transmitting. Studies for which a risk of bias assessment was possible were of fair quality. CONCLUSION: There is a substantial global burden of parents being the index case of COVID-19 infected children, and frequently these parents are symptomatic. Therefore, from a public health perspective, early detection of these parents is crucial.

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