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1.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 20(4): 585-609, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479900

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Up to now, numerous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have examined various drugs as possible treatments for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the results were diverse and occasionally even inconsistent with each other. To this point,we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the comparative effectiveness of pharmacological agents in published RCTs. AREAS COVERED: A literature search was performed using PubMed, SCOPUS, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases. RCTs evaluating mortality and the average length of hospital stay to standard of care (SOC)/placebo/control were included. RCTs mainly were classified into five categories of drugs, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antiparasitic, antibody and antibiotics. Meta-analysis was done on 5 drugs classes and sub-group meta-analysis was done on single drugs and moderate or severe stage of disease. EXPERT OPINION: Mortality and the average length of hospital stay of COVID-19 patients were significantly reduced with anti-inflammatory drugs (odds ratio [OR]: 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69 to 0.85, P<0.00001, and mean difference [MD]: -1.41, CI:-1.75 to -1.07, P<0.00001, respectively) compared to SOC/control/placebo. Furthermore, antiparasitic was associated with reduced length of hospital stay (MD: -0.65, CI: -1.26 to -0.03, P<0.05) in comparison to SOC/placebo/control. However, no effectiveness was found in other pharmacological interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Length of Stay , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
2.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 83(4): 1563-1601, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468319

ABSTRACT

Neurological disorders significantly impact the world's economy due to their often chronic and life-threatening nature afflicting individuals which, in turn, creates a global disease burden. The Group of Twenty (G20) member nations, which represent the largest economies globally, should come together to formulate a plan on how to overcome this burden. The Neuroscience-20 (N20) initiative of the Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT) is at the vanguard of this global collaboration to comprehensively raise awareness about brain, spine, and mental disorders worldwide. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the various brain initiatives worldwide and highlight the need for cooperation and recommend ways to bring down costs associated with the discovery and treatment of neurological disorders. Our systematic search revealed that the cost of neurological and psychiatric disorders to the world economy by 2030 is roughly $16T. The cost to the economy of the United States is $1.5T annually and growing given the impact of COVID-19. We also discovered there is a shortfall of effective collaboration between nations and a lack of resources in developing countries. Current statistical analyses on the cost of neurological disorders to the world economy strongly suggest that there is a great need for investment in neurotechnology and innovation or fast-tracking therapeutics and diagnostics to curb these costs. During the current COVID-19 pandemic, SBMT, through this paper, intends to showcase the importance of worldwide collaborations to reduce the population's economic and health burden, specifically regarding neurological/brain, spine, and mental disorders.


Subject(s)
Global Burden of Disease , International Cooperation , Mental Disorders , Nervous System Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Burden of Disease/organization & administration , Global Burden of Disease/trends , Global Health/economics , Global Health/trends , Humans , Mental Disorders/economics , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Nervous System Diseases/economics , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Neurosciences/methods , Neurosciences/trends , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Inflammopharmacology ; 29(4): 1049-1059, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303332

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can enter the central nervous system and cause several neurological manifestations. Data from cerebrospinal fluid analyses and postmortem samples have been shown that SARS-CoV-2 has neuroinvasive properties. Therefore, ongoing studies have focused on mechanisms involved in neurotropism and neural injuries of SARS-CoV-2. The inflammasome is a part of the innate immune system that is responsible for the secretion and activation of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, and interleukin-18. Since cytokine storm has been known as a major mechanism followed by SARS-CoV-2, inflammasome may trigger an inflammatory form of lytic programmed cell death (pyroptosis) following SARS-CoV-2 infection and contribute to associated neurological complications. We reviewed and discussed the possible role of inflammasome and its consequence pyroptosis following coronavirus infections as potential mechanisms of neurotropism by SARS-CoV-2. Further studies, particularly postmortem analysis of brain samples obtained from COVID-19 patients, can shed light on the possible role of the inflammasome in neurotropism of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Pyroptosis/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Brain/immunology , Brain/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Central Nervous System/immunology , Humans , Inflammasomes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
4.
Bioinform Biol Insights ; 15: 11779322211026728, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277873

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as a global concern involves infections in multiple organs. Much of the research up to now has been descriptive on neurological manifestations followed by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Despite considerable efforts on effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, novel therapeutic options for COVID-19 comorbidities are warranted. One of the fast ways to introduce possible effective drugs for clinical trials is bioinformatics methods. We have conducted a comprehensive enrichment analysis of genes involved in SARS-CoV-2 and neurological disorders associated with COVID-19. For this purpose, gene sets were extracted from the GeneWeaver database. To find out some significant enriched findings for common genes between SARS-CoV-2 and its neurological disorders, several practical databases were used. Finally, to repurpose an efficient drug, DrugBank databases were used. Overall, we detected 139 common genes concerning SARS-CoV-2 and their neurological disorders. Interestingly, our study predicted around 6 existing drugs (ie, carvedilol, andrographolide, 2-methoxyestradiol, etanercept, polaprezinc, and arsenic trioxide) that can be used for repurposing. We found that polaprezinc (zinc l-carnosine) drug is not investigated in the context of COVID-19 till now and it could be used for the treatment of COVID-19 and its neurological manifestations. To summarize, enrichment and network data get us a coherent picture to predict drug repurposing to speed up clinical trials.

5.
J Neurovirol ; 27(2): 348-353, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1111382

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to evaluate whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) can directly target the central nervous system (CNS). We present four patients suffering from the loss of consciousness and seizure during the clinical course of COVID-19 infection. In addition to positive nasopharyngeal swab tests, SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in their cerebrospinal fluid. This report indicates the neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV-2, suggesting the ability of this virus to spread from the respiratory tract to the CNS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seizures/virology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
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