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1.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 42(6): e190-e196, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288273

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a 2020 pilot case-control study using medical records, we reported that non-Hispanic Black children were more likely to develop multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) after adjustment for sociodemographic factors and underlying medical conditions. Using structured interviews, we investigated patient, household, and community factors underlying MIS-C likelihood. METHODS: MIS-C case patients hospitalized in 2021 across 14 US pediatric hospitals were matched by age and site to outpatient controls testing positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) within 3 months of the admission date. Caregiver interviews queried race/ethnicity, medical history, and household and potential community exposures 1 month before MIS-C hospitalization (case-patients) or after SARS-CoV-2 infection (controls). We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) using mixed-effects multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Among 275 case patients and 496 controls, race/ethnicity, social vulnerability and patient or family history of autoimmune/rheumatologic disease were not associated with MIS-C. In previously healthy children, MIS-C was associated with a history of hospitalization for an infection [aOR: 4.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-11.0]. Household crowding (aOR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2-2.6), large event attendance (aOR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.1), school attendance with limited masking (aOR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.1-6.6), public transit use (aOR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.4-2.4) and co-resident testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (aOR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3-3.7) were associated with increased MIS-C likelihood, with risk increasing with the number of these factors. CONCLUSIONS: From caregiver interviews, we clarify household and community exposures associated with MIS-C; however, we did not confirm prior associations between sociodemographic factors and MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Case-Control Studies , Crowding , Family Characteristics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Risk Factors
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Aug 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), linked to antecedent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, is associated with considerable morbidity. Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by vaccination might also decrease MIS-C likelihood. METHODS: In a multicenter case-control public health investigation of children ages 5-18 years hospitalized from July 1, 2021 to April 7, 2022, we compared the odds of being fully vaccinated (two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine ≥28 days before hospital admission) between MIS-C case-patients and hospital-based controls who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. These associations were examined by age group, timing of vaccination, and periods of Delta and Omicron variant predominance using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: We compared 304 MIS-C case-patients (280 [92%] unvaccinated) with 502 controls (346 [69%] unvaccinated). MIS-C was associated with decreased likelihood of vaccination (aOR, 0.16 95% CI, 0.10-0.26), including among children ages 5-11 years (aOR, 0.22 95% CI, 0.10-0.52), ages 12-18 years (aOR, 0.10 95% CI, 0.05-0.19), and during the Delta (aOR, 0.06 95% CI, 0.02-0.15) and Omicron (aOR, 0.22 95% CI, 0.11-0.42) variant-predominant periods. This association persisted beyond 120 days after the second dose (aOR, 0.08, 95% CI, 0.03-0.22) in 12-18 year-olds. Among all MIS-C case-patients, 187 (62%) required intensive care unit admission and 280 (92%) vaccine-eligible patients were unvaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with two doses of BNT162b2 is associated with reduced likelihood of MIS-C in children ages 5-18 years. Most vaccine eligible hospitalized patients with MIS-C were unvaccinated.

3.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine received emergency use authorization for persons ≥16 years in December 2020 and for adolescents 12-15 years in May 2021. Despite the clear benefits and favorable safety profile, vaccine uptake in adolescents has been suboptimal. We sought to assess factors associated with COVID-19 non-vaccination in adolescents 12-18 years of age. METHODS: Between June 1, 2021 and April 29, 2022, we assessed factors associated with COVID-19 non-vaccination in hospitalized adolescents ages 12-18 years enrolled in the Overcoming COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness network. Demographic characteristics and clinical information were captured through parent interview and/or electronic medical record abstraction; COVID-19 vaccination was assessed through documented sources. We assessed associations between receipt of COVID-19 vaccine and demographic and clinical factors using univariate and multivariable logistic regression and estimated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for each factor associated with non-vaccination. RESULTS: Among 1,665 hospitalized adolescents without COVID-19, 56% were unvaccinated. Unvaccinated adolescents were younger (median age 15.1 years vs. 15.4 years, p<0.01) and resided in areas with higher social vulnerability index (SVI) scores (median 0.6 vs 0.5, p<0.001) than vaccinated adolescents. Residence in the Midwest [aOR 2.60 (95% CI: 1.80, 3.79)] or South [aOR 2.49 (95% CI: 1.77, 3.54)] US census regions, rarely or never receiving influenza vaccine [aOR 5.31 (95% CI: 3.81, 7.47)], and rarely or never taking precautions against COVID-19 [aOR 3.17 (95% CI: 1.94, 5.31)] were associated with non-vaccination against COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to increase COVID-19 vaccination of adolescents should focus on persons with geographic, socioeconomic, and medical risk factors associated with non-vaccination.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(2): e2254909, 2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234746

ABSTRACT

Importance: Rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses, which continued to circulate during the COVID-19 pandemic, are commonly detected in pediatric patients with acute respiratory illness (ARI). Yet detailed characterization of rhinovirus and/or enterovirus detection over time is limited, especially by age group and health care setting. Objective: To quantify and characterize rhinovirus and/or enterovirus detection before and during the COVID-19 pandemic among children and adolescents seeking medical care for ARI at emergency departments (EDs) or hospitals. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN), a multicenter, active, prospective surveillance platform, for pediatric patients who sought medical care for fever and/or respiratory symptoms at 7 EDs or hospitals within NVSN across the US between December 2016 and February 2021. Persons younger than 18 years were enrolled in NVSN, and respiratory specimens were collected and tested for multiple viruses. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of patients in whom rhinovirus and/or enterovirus, or another virus, was detected by calendar month and by prepandemic (December 1, 2016, to March 11, 2020) or pandemic (March 12, 2020, to February 28, 2021) periods. Month-specific adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for rhinovirus and/or enterovirus-positive test results (among all tested) by setting (ED or inpatient) and age group (<2, 2-4, or 5-17 years) were calculated, comparing each month during the pandemic to equivalent months of previous years. Results: Of the 38 198 children and adolescents who were enrolled and tested, 11 303 (29.6%; mean [SD] age, 2.8 [3.7] years; 6733 boys [59.6%]) had rhinovirus and/or enterovirus-positive test results. In prepandemic and pandemic periods, rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses were detected in 29.4% (9795 of 33 317) and 30.9% (1508 of 4881) of all patients who were enrolled and tested and in 42.2% (9795 of 23 236) and 73.0% (1508 of 2066) of those with test positivity for any virus, respectively. Rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses were the most frequently detected viruses in both periods and all age groups in the ED and inpatient setting. From April to September 2020 (pandemic period), rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses were detectable at similar or lower odds than in prepandemic years, with aORs ranging from 0.08 (95% CI, 0.04-0.19) to 0.76 (95% CI, 0.55-1.05) in the ED and 0.04 (95% CI, 0.01-0.11) to 0.71 (95% CI, 0.47-1.07) in the inpatient setting. However, unlike some other viruses, rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses soon returned to prepandemic levels and from October 2020 to February 2021 were detected at similar or higher odds than in prepandemic months in both settings, with aORs ranging from 1.47 (95% CI, 1.12-1.93) to 3.01 (95% CI, 2.30-3.94) in the ED and 1.36 (95% CI, 1.03-1.79) to 2.44 (95% CI, 1.78-3.34) in the inpatient setting, and in all age groups. Compared with prepandemic years, during the pandemic, rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses were detected in patients who were slightly older, although most (74.5% [1124 of 1508]) were younger than 5 years. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this study show that rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses persisted and were the most common respiratory virus group detected across all pediatric age groups and in both ED and inpatient settings. Rhinoviruses and/or enteroviruses remain a leading factor in ARI health care burden, and active ARI surveillance in children and adolescents remains critical for defining the health care burden of respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus Infections , Enterovirus , Male , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Rhinovirus , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enterovirus Infections/diagnosis , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(40): 1253-1259, 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056547

ABSTRACT

The New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) is a prospective, active, population-based surveillance platform that enrolls children with acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) at seven pediatric medical centers. ARIs are caused by respiratory viruses including influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs), and most recently SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19), which result in morbidity among infants and young children (1-6). NVSN estimates the incidence of pathogen-specific pediatric ARIs and collects clinical data (e.g., underlying medical conditions and vaccination status) to assess risk factors for severe disease and calculate influenza and COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness. Current NVSN inpatient (i.e., hospital) surveillance began in 2015, expanded to emergency departments (EDs) in 2016, and to outpatient clinics in 2018. This report describes demographic characteristics of enrolled children who received care in these settings, and yearly circulation of influenza, RSV, HMPV, HPIV1-3, adenovirus, human rhinovirus and enterovirus (RV/EV),* and SARS-CoV-2 during December 2016-August 2021. Among 90,085 eligible infants, children, and adolescents (children) aged <18 years† with ARI, 51,441 (57%) were enrolled, nearly 75% of whom were aged <5 years; 43% were hospitalized. Infants aged <1 year accounted for the largest proportion (38%) of those hospitalized. The most common pathogens detected were RV/EV and RSV. Before the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, detected respiratory viruses followed previously described seasonal trends, with annual peaks of influenza and RSV in late fall and winter (7,8). After the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and implementation of associated pandemic nonpharmaceutical interventions and community mitigation measures, many respiratory viruses circulated at lower-than-expected levels during April 2020-May 2021. Beginning in summer 2021, NVSN detected higher than anticipated enrollment of hospitalized children as well as atypical interseasonal circulation of RSV. Further analyses of NVSN data and continued surveillance are vital in highlighting risk factors for severe disease and health disparities, measuring the effectiveness of vaccines and monoclonal antibody-based prophylactics, and guiding policies to protect young children from pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2, influenza, and RSV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Metapneumovirus , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Adolescent , Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
7.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(11): 891-898, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a postinfectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related complication that has disproportionately affected racial/ethnic minority children. We conducted a pilot study to investigate risk factors for MIS-C aiming to understand MIS-C disparities. METHODS: This case-control study included MIS-C cases and SARS-CoV-2-positive outpatient controls less than 18 years old frequency-matched 4:1 to cases by age group and site. Patients hospitalized with MIS-C were admitted between March 16 and October 2, 2020, across 17 pediatric hospitals. We evaluated race, ethnicity, social vulnerability index (SVI), insurance status, weight-for-age and underlying medical conditions as risk factors using mixed effects multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: We compared 241 MIS-C cases with 817 outpatient SARS-CoV-2-positive at-risk controls. Cases and controls had similar sex, age and U.S. census region distribution. MIS-C patients were more frequently previously healthy, non-Hispanic Black, residing in higher SVI areas, and in the 95th percentile or higher for weight-for-age. In the multivariable analysis, the likelihood of MIS-C was higher among non-Hispanic Black children [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.07; 95% CI: 1.23-3.48]. Additionally, SVI in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles (aOR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.18-2.97 and aOR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.19-3.47, respectively) were independent factors along with being previously healthy (aOR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.18-2.28). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, non-Hispanic Black children were more likely to develop MIS-C after adjustment for sociodemographic factors, underlying medical conditions, and weight-for-age. Investigation of the potential contribution of immunologic, environmental, and other factors is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Ethnicity , Humans , Minority Groups , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
8.
J Clin Virol ; 156: 105274, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute viral respiratory infections are a major health burden in children worldwide. In recent years, rapid and sensitive multiplex nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have replaced conventional methods for routine virus detection in the clinical laboratory. OBJECTIVE/STUDY DESIGN: We compared BioFire® FilmArray® Respiratory Panel (FilmArray V1.7), Luminex NxTag® Respiratory Pathogen Panel (NxTag RPP) and Applied Biosystems TaqMan Array Card (TAC) for the detection of eight viruses in pediatric respiratory specimens. Results from the three platforms were analyzed with a single-plex real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assay for each virus. RESULTS: Of the 170/210 single-plex virus-positive samples, FilmArray detected a virus in 166 (97.6%), TAC in 163 (95.8%) and NxTag RPP in 160 (94.1%) samples. The Positive Percent Agreement (PPA) of FilmArray, NxTag RPP and TAC was highest for influenza B (100%, 100% and 95.2% respectively) and lowest for seasonal coronaviruses on both FilmArray (90.2%) and NxTag RPP (81.8%), and for parainfluenza viruses 1- 4 on TAC (84%). The Negative Percent Agreement (NPA) was lowest for rhinovirus/enterovirus (92.9%, 96.7% and 97.3%) on FilmArray, NxTag RPP and TAC respectively. NPA for all three platforms was highest (100%) for both parainfluenza viruses 1- 4 and influenza A and B, and 100% for human metapneumovirus with TAC as well. CONCLUSION: All three multiplex platforms displayed high overall agreement (>90%) and high NPA (>90%), while PPA was pathogen dependent and varied among platforms; high PPA (>90%) was observed for FilmArray for all eight viruses, TAC for six viruses and NxTag RPP for 4 viruses.


Subject(s)
Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Child , Coronavirus , Humans , Influenza, Human , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Virus Diseases/diagnosis
9.
N Engl J Med ; 387(2): 109-119, 2022 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900734

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infants younger than 6 months of age are at high risk for complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and are not eligible for vaccination. Transplacental transfer of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after maternal Covid-19 vaccination may confer protection against Covid-19 in infants. METHODS: We used a case-control test-negative design to assess the effectiveness of maternal vaccination during pregnancy against hospitalization for Covid-19 among infants younger than 6 months of age. Between July 1, 2021, and March 8, 2022, we enrolled infants hospitalized for Covid-19 (case infants) and infants hospitalized without Covid-19 (control infants) at 30 hospitals in 22 states. We estimated vaccine effectiveness by comparing the odds of full maternal vaccination (two doses of mRNA vaccine) among case infants and control infants during circulation of the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant (July 1, 2021, to December 18, 2021) and the B.1.1.259 (omicron) variant (December 19, 2021, to March 8, 2022). RESULTS: A total of 537 case infants (181 of whom had been admitted to a hospital during the delta period and 356 during the omicron period; median age, 2 months) and 512 control infants were enrolled and included in the analyses; 16% of the case infants and 29% of the control infants had been born to mothers who had been fully vaccinated against Covid-19 during pregnancy. Among the case infants, 113 (21%) received intensive care (64 [12%] received mechanical ventilation or vasoactive infusions). Two case infants died from Covid-19; neither infant's mother had been vaccinated during pregnancy. The effectiveness of maternal vaccination against hospitalization for Covid-19 among infants was 52% (95% confidence interval [CI], 33 to 65) overall, 80% (95% CI, 60 to 90) during the delta period, and 38% (95% CI, 8 to 58) during the omicron period. Effectiveness was 69% (95% CI, 50 to 80) when maternal vaccination occurred after 20 weeks of pregnancy and 38% (95% CI, 3 to 60) during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal vaccination with two doses of mRNA vaccine was associated with a reduced risk of hospitalization for Covid-19, including for critical illness, among infants younger than 6 months of age. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , mRNA Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Mothers , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines/therapeutic use
10.
N Engl J Med ; 386(20): 1899-1909, 2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant, which led to increased U.S. hospitalizations for coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), generated concern about immune evasion and the duration of protection from vaccines in children and adolescents. METHODS: Using a case-control, test-negative design, we assessed vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 leading to hospitalization and against critical Covid-19 (i.e., leading to receipt of life support or to death). From July 1, 2021, to February 17, 2022, we enrolled case patients with Covid-19 and controls without Covid-19 at 31 hospitals in 23 states. We estimated vaccine effectiveness by comparing the odds of antecedent full vaccination (two doses of BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine) at least 14 days before illness among case patients and controls, according to time since vaccination for patients 12 to 18 years of age and in periods coinciding with circulation of B.1.617.2 (delta) (July 1, 2021, to December 18, 2021) and omicron (December 19, 2021, to February 17, 2022) among patients 5 to 11 and 12 to 18 years of age. RESULTS: We enrolled 1185 case patients (1043 [88%] of whom were unvaccinated, 291 [25%] of whom received life support, and 14 of whom died) and 1627 controls. During the delta-predominant period, vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization for Covid-19 among adolescents 12 to 18 years of age was 93% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89 to 95) 2 to 22 weeks after vaccination and was 92% (95% CI, 80 to 97) at 23 to 44 weeks. Among adolescents 12 to 18 years of age (median interval since vaccination, 162 days) during the omicron-predominant period, vaccine effectiveness was 40% (95% CI, 9 to 60) against hospitalization for Covid-19, 79% (95% CI, 51 to 91) against critical Covid-19, and 20% (95% CI, -25 to 49) against noncritical Covid-19. During the omicron period, vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization among children 5 to 11 years of age was 68% (95% CI, 42 to 82; median interval since vaccination, 34 days). CONCLUSIONS: BNT162b2 vaccination reduced the risk of omicron-associated hospitalization by two thirds among children 5 to 11 years of age. Although two doses provided lower protection against omicron-associated hospitalization than against delta-associated hospitalization among adolescents 12 to 18 years of age, vaccination prevented critical illness caused by either variant. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Illness/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Vaccine Efficacy , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , mRNA Vaccines/therapeutic use
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(42): 1483-1488, 2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727005

ABSTRACT

Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine is authorized for use in children and adolescents aged 12-15 years and is licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for persons aged ≥16 (1). A randomized placebo-controlled trial demonstrated an efficacy of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 75.3%-100%) in preventing outpatient COVID-19 in persons aged 12-15 years (2); however, data among adolescents on vaccine effectiveness (VE) against COVID-19 in real-world settings are limited, especially among hospitalized patients. In early September 2021, U.S. pediatric COVID-19 hospitalizations reached the highest level during the pandemic (3,4). In a test-negative, case-control study at 19 pediatric hospitals in 16 states during June 1-September 30, 2021, the effectiveness of 2 doses of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine against COVID-19 hospitalization was assessed among children and adolescents aged 12-18 years. Among 464 hospitalized persons aged 12-18 years (179 case-patients and 285 controls), the median age was 15 years, 72% had at least one underlying condition, including obesity, and 68% attended in-person school. Effectiveness of 2 doses of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine against COVID-19 hospitalization was 93% (95% CI = 83%-97%), during the period when B.1.617.2 (Delta) was the predominant variant. This evaluation demonstrated that 2 doses of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine are highly effective at preventing COVID-19 hospitalization among persons aged 12-18 years and reinforces the importance of vaccination to protect U.S. youths against severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(7): 264-270, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689712

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination is recommended for persons who are pregnant, breastfeeding, trying to get pregnant now, or who might become pregnant in the future, to protect them from COVID-19.§ Infants are at risk for life-threatening complications from COVID-19, including acute respiratory failure (1). Evidence from other vaccine-preventable diseases suggests that maternal immunization can provide protection to infants, especially during the high-risk first 6 months of life, through passive transplacental antibody transfer (2). Recent studies of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy suggest the possibility of transplacental transfer of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies that might provide protection to infants (3-5); however, no epidemiologic evidence currently exists for the protective benefits of maternal immunization during pregnancy against COVID-19 in infants. The Overcoming COVID-19 network conducted a test-negative, case-control study at 20 pediatric hospitals in 17 states during July 1, 2021-January 17, 2022, to assess effectiveness of maternal completion of a 2-dose primary mRNA COVID-19 vaccination series during pregnancy against COVID-19 hospitalization in infants. Among 379 hospitalized infants aged <6 months (176 with COVID-19 [case-infants] and 203 without COVID-19 [control-infants]), the median age was 2 months, 21% had at least one underlying medical condition, and 22% of case- and control-infants were born premature (<37 weeks gestation). Effectiveness of maternal vaccination during pregnancy against COVID-19 hospitalization in infants aged <6 months was 61% (95% CI = 31%-78%). Completion of a 2-dose mRNA COVID-19 vaccination series during pregnancy might help prevent COVID-19 hospitalization among infants aged <6 months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , United States/epidemiology
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(2): 52-58, 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622893

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a severe postinfectious hyperinflammatory condition, which generally occurs 2-6 weeks after a typically mild or asymptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1-3). In the United States, the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) COVID-19 vaccine is currently authorized for use in children and adolescents aged 5-15 years under an Emergency Use Authorization and is fully licensed by the Food and Drug Administration for persons aged ≥16 years (4). Prelicensure randomized trials in persons aged ≥5 years documented high vaccine efficacy and immunogenicity (5),§ and real-world studies in persons aged 12-18 years demonstrated high vaccine effectiveness (VE) against severe COVID-19 (6). Recent evidence suggests that COVID-19 vaccination is associated with lower MIS-C incidence among adolescents (7); however, VE of the 2-dose Pfizer-BioNTech regimen against MIS-C has not been evaluated. The effectiveness of 2 doses of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine received ≥28 days before hospital admission in preventing MIS-C was assessed using a test-negative case-control design¶ among hospitalized patients aged 12-18 years at 24 pediatric hospitals in 20 states** during July 1-December 9, 2021, the period when most MIS-C patients could be temporally linked to SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant predominance. Patients with MIS-C (case-patients) and two groups of hospitalized controls matched to case-patients were evaluated: test-negative controls had at least one COVID-19-like symptom and negative SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or antigen-based assay results, and syndrome-negative controls were hospitalized patients without COVID-19-like illness. Among 102 MIS-C case-patients and 181 hospitalized controls, estimated effectiveness of 2 doses of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine against MIS-C was 91% (95% CI = 78%-97%). All 38 MIS-C patients requiring life support were unvaccinated. Receipt of 2 doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is associated with a high level of protection against MIS-C in persons aged 12-18 years, highlighting the importance of vaccination among all eligible children.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Vaccine Efficacy , Adolescent , Case-Control Studies , Child , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
14.
N Engl J Med ; 386(8): 713-723, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621316

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of pediatric hospitalizations associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) caused by the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the United States has offered an opportunity to assess the real-world effectiveness of the BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine in adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age. METHODS: We used a case-control, test-negative design to assess vaccine effectiveness against Covid-19 resulting in hospitalization, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of life-supporting interventions (mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation), or death. Between July 1 and October 25, 2021, we screened admission logs for eligible case patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 at 31 hospitals in 23 states. We estimated vaccine effectiveness by comparing the odds of antecedent full vaccination (two doses of BNT162b2) in case patients as compared with two hospital-based control groups: patients who had Covid-19-like symptoms but negative results on testing for SARS-CoV-2 (test-negative) and patients who did not have Covid-19-like symptoms (syndrome-negative). RESULTS: A total of 445 case patients and 777 controls were enrolled. Overall, 17 case patients (4%) and 282 controls (36%) had been fully vaccinated. Of the case patients, 180 (40%) were admitted to the ICU, and 127 (29%) required life support; only 2 patients in the ICU had been fully vaccinated. The overall effectiveness of the BNT162b2 vaccine against hospitalization for Covid-19 was 94% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90 to 96); the effectiveness was 95% (95% CI, 91 to 97) among test-negative controls and 94% (95% CI, 89 to 96) among syndrome-negative controls. The effectiveness was 98% against ICU admission and 98% against Covid-19 resulting in the receipt of life support. All 7 deaths occurred in patients who were unvaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized adolescent patients, two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine were highly effective against Covid-19-related hospitalization and ICU admission or the receipt of life support. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccine Efficacy , Adolescent , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Case-Control Studies , Child , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Intensive Care Units , Life Support Care , Male , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(47): 1623-1628, 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534933

ABSTRACT

Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is associated with a broad spectrum of illnesses, including mild to severe acute respiratory illness (ARI) and acute flaccid myelitis (AFM). Enteroviruses, including EV-D68, are typically detected in the United States during late summer through fall, with year-to-year fluctuations. Before 2014, EV-D68 was infrequently reported to CDC (1). However, numbers of EV-D68 detection have increased in recent years, with a biennial pattern observed during 2014-2018 in the United States, after the expansion of surveillance and wider availability of molecular testing. In 2014, a national outbreak of EV-D68 was detected (2). EV-D68 was also reported in 2016 via local (3) and passive national (4) surveillance. EV-D68 detections were limited in 2017, but substantial circulation was observed in 2018 (5). To assess recent levels of circulation, EV-D68 detections in respiratory specimens collected from patients aged <18 years* with ARI evaluated in emergency departments (EDs) or admitted to one of seven U.S. medical centers† within the New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN) were summarized. This report provides a provisional description of EV-D68 detections during July-November in 2018, 2019 and 2020, and describes the demographic and clinical characteristics of these patients. In 2018, a total of 382 EV-D68 detections in respiratory specimens obtained from patients aged <18 years with ARI were reported by NVSN; the number decreased to six detections in 2019 and 30 in 2020. Among patients aged <18 years with EV-D68 in 2020, 22 (73%) were non-Hispanic Black (Black) persons. EV-D68 detections in 2020 were lower than anticipated based on the biennial circulation pattern observed since 2014. The circulation of EV-D68 in 2020 might have been limited by widespread COVID-19 mitigation measures; how these changes in behavior might influence the timing and levels of circulation in future years is unknown. Ongoing monitoring of EV-D68 detections is warranted for preparedness for EV-D68-associated ARI and AFM.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks , Enterovirus D, Human/isolation & purification , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Enterovirus D, Human/genetics , Enterovirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , United States/epidemiology
16.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(Supplement_1):S170-S171, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1387986

ABSTRACT

Background: A state of emergency was declared in the United States (US) on March 13, 2020 in response to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Healthcare providers had to alter practice patterns and research priorities. We assessed the frequency of acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) in children, notably those due to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza, before and during the pandemic. Methods: We conducted multi-center active prospective ARI surveillance in children as part of the New Vaccine Surveillance Network. Children < 18 years with fever and/or respiratory symptoms were enrolled in emergency department and inpatient settings at seven US medical centers over four respiratory seasons during 2016-2020 (Fig 1). Pandemic-related restrictions to patient access limited enrollment in some sites beginning March 2020. Respiratory specimens were collected and tested at each site for RSV and influenza by qRT-PCR. Data were analyzed by calendar weeks. We compared the cumulative proportions of RSV and influenza detection after week 13 in 2020 to the previous seasons using Fisher's exact test. Results: Of 44,247 eligible children, 25,375 (57%) were enrolled and tested for RSV and/or influenza. A total of 6351/25375 (25%) and 3446/25372 (14%) children were RSV and influenza-positive over the four seasons, respectively. In 2020, we noted a rapid drop in eligible and enrolled ARI subjects after weeks 11-13 (Fig 1). During weeks 13-18 in 2016-2019, the three-year average of eligible and enrolled subjects was 1802 and 978, respectively. However, over the same period in 2020, there were 675 eligible and 278 enrolled subjects, representing declines of 62.5% and 71.6% respectively (Fig 1). In 2020, there were no RSV or influenza cases detected in weeks 15-18, and the cumulative proportions of RSV and influenza detection after week 13 were lower compared to previous seasons (p< 0.001) (Figs 1 and 2). Conclusion: There was a considerable decline in ARI visits and the proportion of RSV and influenza detection across seven distinct geographic sites during the pandemic compared with previous seasons. These findings might be attributable to social distancing measures to lessen the spread of SARS-CoV-2, changes in healthcare-seeking behaviors, and limited access to medical care. (Table Presented).

17.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(8): 872-879, 2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal (NP) specimen testing by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the standard of care for detecting SARS-CoV-2. Data comparing the sensitivity and specificity of the NP specimen to the less invasive, mid-turbinate (MT) nasal specimen in children are limited. METHODS: Paired clinical NP and research MT specimens were collected from children <18 years with respiratory symptoms and tested by molecular assays to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Sensitivity, specificity, and agreement (Cohen's kappa [κ]) were calculated for research MT specimens compared to the clinical NP specimens. RESULTS: Out of 907 children, 569 (62.7%) had parental consent and child assent when appropriate to participate and provided paired MT and NP specimens a median of 4 days after symptom onset (range 1-14 days). 16.5% (n = 94) of MT specimens were positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared with 20.0% (n = 114) of NP specimens. The sensitivity of research MT compared to clinical NP specimens was 82.5% (95% CI: 74.2%, 88.9%), specificity was 100.0% (95% CI: 99.2%, 100.0%), and overall agreement was 96.1% (κ = 0.87). The sensitivity of MT specimens decreased with time from 100% (95% CI: 59.0%, 100.0%) on day 1 of illness to 82.1% (95% CI: 73.8%, 88.7%) within 14 days of illness onset; sensitivity was generally >90% when specimens were collected within the first week of illness. CONCLUSION: MT specimens, particularly those collected within the first week of illness, have moderately reduced sensitivity and equivalent specificity to less-tolerated NP specimens in pediatric outpatients. MT specimen use in children may represent a viable alternative to NP specimen collection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , Outpatients , RNA, Viral , Turbinates
18.
Pediatrics ; 148(2)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229068

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Nonpharmaceutical interventions against coronavirus disease 2019 likely have a role in decreasing viral acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs). We aimed to assess the frequency of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza ARIs before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: This study was a prospective, multicenter, population-based ARI surveillance, including children seen in the emergency departments and inpatient settings in 7 US cities for ARI. Respiratory samples were collected and evaluated by molecular testing. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the association between community mitigation and number of eligible and proportion of RSV and influenza cases. RESULTS: Overall, 45 759 children were eligible; 25 415 were enrolled and tested; 25% and 14% were RSV-positive and influenza-positive, respectively. In 2020, we noted a decrease in eligible and enrolled ARI subjects after community mitigation measures were introduced, with no RSV or influenza detection from April 5, 2020, to April 30, 2020. Compared with 2016-2019, there was an average of 10.6 fewer eligible ARI cases per week per site and 63.9% and 45.8% lower odds of patients testing positive for RSV and influenza, respectively, during the 2020 community mitigation period. In all sites except Seattle, the proportions of positive tests for RSV and influenza in the 2020 community mitigation period were lower than predicted. CONCLUSIONS: Between March and April 2020, rapid declines in ARI cases and the proportions of RSV and influenza in children were consistently noted across 7 US cities, which could be attributable to community mitigation measures against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Male , Prospective Studies , United States/epidemiology
19.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(5): 609-612, 2020 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-919288

ABSTRACT

Previous reports of coronavirus disease 2019 among children in the United States have been based on health jurisdiction reporting. We performed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing on children enrolled in active, prospective, multicenter surveillance during January-March 2020. Among 3187 children, only 4 (0.1%) SARS-CoV-2-positive cases were identified March 20-31 despite evidence of rising community circulation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance , Adolescent , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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