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Indian J Public Health ; 66(4): 494-497, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229280


Postsecond wave of COVID-19 pandemic in the year 2021, rhino-orbital mucormycosis (ROM) was seen as an epidemic in the Indian community. Severe ROM disease has poor prognosis and requires a multidisciplinary approach for treatment. Hence, its prevention is better than cure. Studies done during the epidemic assessed predisposing factors, but this was a novel study which focused on assessing risk factors for severe disease of ROM. Ninety-four consecutive patients of ROM admitted at our designated nodal tertiary hospital of North India were enrolled, and data were collected and analyzed. Facial edema was the most common presenting complaint. Subclinical and mild COVID-19 infection was associated with severe ROM. Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and prophylactic zinc supplementation were other significant risk factors for severe ROM. Public awareness among the general population for the above risk factors can prevent a debilitating disease like severe ROM.

COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Humans , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , India/epidemiology , Risk Factors
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 71(1): 101-108, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201792


Purpose: TO report the corneal manifestations in patients with COVID-19-associated rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM). Methods: This study was a retrospective, observational, and record-based analysis of patients of ROCM with corneal involvement. Results: A total of 220 patients were diagnosed with ROCM over a period of 3 months. Thirty-two patients had developed corneal manifestations. The mean age at diagnosis was 52.84 ± 12.8 years. The associated risk factors were systemic mucormycosis, uncontrolled diabetes, recent COVID-19 infection, and injudicious use of systemic steroids. Twenty-nine patients were known diabetics, 32 had recent COVID-19 infection, and 13 gave a history of injudicious use of steroids. The right eye (RE) was affected in nine patients, the left eye (LE) in 20 patients, and both eyes in three patients. Nine patients had a round-oval corneal ulcer. One patient each had a perforated corneal ulcer with uveal prolapse, sealed perforated corneal ulcer, spontaneously healed limbal perforation, diffuse corneal haze with hyphemia, panophthalmitis, diffuse corneal stromal abscess, limbal ischemia, anterior uveitis with posterior synechiae, inferior corneal facet, and filamentary keratitis. Three patients each had a corneal melt and inferior conjunctival xerosis with chemosis. Orbital exenteration was performed in six patients. Five patients with corneal ulcers healed. Topical eye drops of amphotericin (0.5 mg/ml) cycloplegic, antiglaucoma medications, and lubricant eye drops were started along with systemic antifungals. Conclusion: Central corneal ulcer was the most common manifestation of mucormycosis. A concentration as low as 0.5 mg/ml of amphotericin eye drops was effective in the treatment.

COVID-19 , Corneal Ulcer , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Mucormycosis/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Amphotericin B , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Cornea , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy
Pan Afr Med J ; 42: 312, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090890


Introduction: Rhino-orbito-cerebral-mucormycosis (ROCM) is the most common form of mucormycosis observed during the second wave of COVID-19 where a steep rise in the number of cases was seen. The orbital form is almost always associated with fungal sinusitis. Among the various treatment modalities available, the role of retrobulbar Amphotericin-B injections is under-reported. This study is conducted to determine the role of transcutaneous retrobulbar amphotericin-B (TRAMB) in the management of COVID-19 associated ROCM. Methods: a retrospective analysis of 61 patients of COVID-19 associated ROCM was done, who met the inclusion criteria and presented to a tertiary care center, between May to August 2021. These patients were administered TRAMB (deoxycholate/emulsion form) along-with systemic amphotericin B. All the patients were evaluated for clinical improvement. Results: out of 61 patients, 58 (95.08%) showed overall improvement. 40 patients (65.57%) stabilized or improved clinically and 3 patients succumbed to the illness due to advanced systemic mucormycosis and acute kidney failure. Sixteen out of 58 patients underwent orbital exenteration. Out of remaining 43 patients, 35 showed complete recovery of orbital and ocular disease and the disease stabilized in eight patients. Seven patients demonstrated TRAMB associated ocular complications which however completely resolved in six patients. Conclusion: to the best of the author´s knowledge, regression of orbital mucormycosis with improvement in ptosis, proptosis, ocular motility and stabilization of visual acuity are scarcely reported in literature. Further TRAMB as a globe non-deforming treatment modality is an option available for ROCM.

COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Humans , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Amphotericin B , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , Nose