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1.
Lasers in Engineering ; 52(1-3):107-116, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1743607

ABSTRACT

COVID 19, a furious virus, exploded across the globe in 2020. Treatment, tracing and testing are the only way to retain a normal life. But the biggest obstacle is the shortage of proper testing kits which makes life horrendous. As a consequence it demands time to ramp up the development of a suitable test kit. In this scenario we propose a kit that is made up of a two-dimensional (2-D) Si-based photonic crystal structure (PCS) that could distinguish the novel coronaviruses (n-CoV) from ordinary coronaviruses. The principle of identification relies on the reflectance, absorbance and transmittance characteristics at the signal of 412 nm wavelength obtained from a laser diode (LD);moreover, the operational mechanism deals with the manipulation of the signal with the proposed PCS structure which contains the virus solution. Finally, the output transmitted energy differentiates the viruses pertaining to their nature;for example, an output with visible light energy gives an indication of normal flu;on the other hand, output energy within the infrared (IR) range confirms the case of novel coronavirus infection.

2.
Chemosphere ; : 134271, 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729626

ABSTRACT

The world's worst outbreak, the second COVID-19 wave, in Indian capital not only unleashed unprecedented devastation of human life, but also made impact of lockdown in particulate matter (PM: PM2.5 and PM10) virtually ineffective during April to May 2021. The air quality not only remained unabated but also marred by some unusual extreme pollution events. SAFAR-framework model simulations with different sensitivity experiments were conducted using the newly developed lockdown emission inventory to understand various processes responsible for these anomalies in PM. Model results well captured the magnitude and variations of the observed PM before and after the lockdown but significantly underestimated their levels in the initial period of lockdown followed by the first high pollution event when the mortality counts were at their peak (∼400 deaths/day). It is believed that an unaccounted emission source was playing a leading role after balancing off the impact of curtailed lockdown emissions. Model suggest that the unprecedented surge in PM10 (690 µg/m3) on 23rd May, while Delhi was still under lockdown, was associated with large scale dust transport originating from the north west part of India combined with thunderstorm. The rainfall and local dust lifting played decisive roles in other unusual events. Obtained results and the proposed interpretation are likely to enhance our understanding and envisaged to help policy makers to frame strategies in such kind of future emergencies.

3.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 8(4):702-708, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1414264

ABSTRACT

Introduction: As the global severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic expands, genomic epidemiology and whole genome sequencing are being constantly used to investigate its transmissions and evolution. Aims and Objectives: To ensure that best use is made of the whole genome sequencing programmes for SARS-CoV-2 results, in improving public health. Analyze and establish a correlation of demographic features and vaccination status with clinical outcome of VOC's. Material and Method: 478 samples (December 15, 2020- June 15, 2021) were shortlisted as per state government policy of sample selection criteria for genome sequencing, packed in triple layer according to standard transportation protocol and sent to the National Public Health Laboratory (NPHL) for whole genome sequencing.. The data collected by us were analyzed and correlated with the results of whole genome sequencing, shared by the NPHL to enhance public health impact of the variant identified. Observation and Results: In our study we found 92% of B.1.617.2 (Delta) variants and 8% of B.1.1.7 (Alpha) variant. We found significantly high mortality (25%) in age group > 60 years compared to other age group (20-40years, 40-60years) with Delta variant (p value < .05). We also found that Delta variant is significantly more transmissible (p value < .05) than Alpha variant. Mortality was significantly higher among unvaccinated patients having co-morbid conditions rather than vaccinated patients having co-morbid conditions with delta variant (p value <0.05). Conclusion: B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant has emerged as a common VOC among SARS-COV-2 patients in southern Rajasthan. Vaccination has a very high level of protective role in decreasing mortality, especially old age patients with associated co-morbidities among Delta variant.

4.
Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases ; : 11, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1272871

ABSTRACT

The pediatric population is relatively less affected by novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) compared with adults, both in numbers and severity. However, evolution of a new entity, named multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), has led to significant number of children being admitted to hospital, especially to intensive care units. Case definitions of MIS-C have been defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) separately. Autoantibodies and antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) are the key factors proposed in pathogenesis, leading to immune dysregulation, and cytokine storm. Three distinct clinical types are observed as follows: (1) fever and elevated inflammatory markers with no end-organ damage;(2) shock with severe myocardial dysfunction similar to toxic shock syndrome (155);and (3) with mucocutaneous features like Kawasaki's disease (KD). Cardiovascular and gastrointestinal symptoms are the predominant presentations. Inflammatory markers like C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, and interleukin (IL)-6 are raised along with high D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Echocardiography may demonstrate low left ventricular ejection fraction (<50%) and/or coronary aneurysms. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is usually negative, with most having antibodies against the virus. KD, KD shock syndrome (KDSS), and toxic shock syndrome (TSS) are the important differential diagnoses to be considered. Immunomodulatory therapy is the cornerstone of the management. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is preferred, the next option being steroids. Supportive care, antiplatelet, and anticoagulation medications, when indicated, are also vital aspects of treatment plan. The prognosis is favorable with low mortality but meticulous cardiac monitoring and follow-up by a multidisciplinary team is very important. Being an evolving disease, future research may reveal different manifestations, newer diagnostic modalities, and better treatment options.

5.
Heliyon ; 7(2): e06142, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188587

ABSTRACT

Air pollution is linked to higher rates of human mortality especially those infected with COVID 19. Ozone is a harmful pollutant and is responsible for many health issues. However, some reports suggest that ozone is a strong disinfectant, and can kill the viruses. We hereby, report on the vulnerability of ozone due to COVID-19 lockdown whose levels flutter from surging to saturation in a highly polluted Indian capital, due to significant decline in anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors. Average observed levels stabilized at 30 ppb, 12 ppb, 740 ppb, and 900 ppb for ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) respectively during lockdown period from 27th March to 10th April 2020. The NO2, CO and VOC declined by 50 %, 37 %, 38 % respectively during the lockdown period of 2020 as compared to similar period in 2019. The anomalous response of ozone during the lockdown is explained by resolving the poorly known complex O3-NOx-VOCs mechanism with the help of data from air monitoring stations in Delhi, India. The data obtained from this study advances the fundamental understanding of ozone chemistry that may lead to improved ozone parameterization in chemical transport models and better planning of ozone risk management strategies for any global mega cities.

6.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 7(7):2899-2914, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1006476

ABSTRACT

Corona virus (CoV) are a big family of viruses (single stranded RNA infection) that cause ill reaching from the common colds to more severe disease, for case, (MERSCoV) “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome” and (SARS-CoV)“Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome”. Coronaviruses disease (COVID-19) is one more strain that be located originates in 2019 and has not stood of late illustrious in individuals. Corona virus be situated zoonotic, which means they are transmitted among animal and people. Seven Coronaviruses are recognized to origin human sickness. Four are mild: virus HKU1, 229E, OC43, NL63 and OC43. Three have caused serious diseases / outbreaks in people. SARS emerged from China in 2002 it cleared over the globe to a great extent through air travel causing lethal sickness. In excess of 8,000 individuals became sick and 774 died. The diseases vanished in 2004 likely because of isolation and quarantine measure and no instances of SARS have been accounted for since. These primary cytopathic changes spread through the cell monolayers, leading to cell disinterestedness within 24 to 48 h. SARS-CoV has a complex level of strength in the earth than other known human corona viruses. It can get by for at any rate 2 to 3 days on dry superficial at room temperature and 2 to 4 day in stool.

7.
Urban Climate ; 34:100729, 2020.
Article | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-907194

ABSTRACT

A drastic decline in the sources of emissions of pollutants under COVID-19 induced lockdown resulted in an unprecedented trends in most hazardous pollutants PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 in India. To realize the impact of lockdown in the concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and NO2, we compared the trend of lockdown period (20nd March to 15th April) with several (3–7) years of past data in four Indian mega cities (Delhi, Pune, Mumbai, and Ahmedabad) of different micro-climate and geography. The significant reduction in the concentrations of NO2 in the ranges of ~60–65% is noticed in four megacities within the lockdown period when compared with the averaged data of past years. However, relatively low reduction in PM2.5 (~25–50%) and PM10 (~36–50%) is observed and city to city variation is found to be significant. The prevailing secondary aerosol formation and enhancement of any natural source of emissions could be some factors preventing PM2.5 levels to go down significantly. Under near negligible fossil fuel emission, contrary to the expectation, an increase in the ratio as compared to normal scenario is observed in Delhi on some days whereas on some selected days, PM2.5/PM10 ratio is found to decline significantly.

8.
Current Science ; 119(7):1178-1184, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-903132

ABSTRACT

The Megacity of Delhi, home to 19 million inhabitants, is infamous for its poor air quality mainly due to anthropogenic emissions. While the COVID-19 pandemic is a health emergency, lockdown due to it saw an unprecedented decline in emission sources of pollutants by ~85%-90% in Delhi, resulting in sharp decline in the concentration of majority of pollutants. Here we report the experimental estimate of baseline level that is defined as the minimum level reached after lockdown under consistent fair weather condi-tion of major criteria pollutants. This may be consi-dered as an indicator of the background levels to which the population is chronically exposed. The con-sequences of such chronic air pollution exposure are excess respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality which are reported to be more serious than severe pollution episodes by epidemiologists. As the lockdown which was imposed on 24 March 2020, was extended during April and May, we present the pre-vailing ambient pollution levels and compare them with the baseline levels. Results are based on India’s largest monitoring network of 34 stations in Delhi. The findings are critical for policymakers to fine-tune ambient air quality standards and regulations leading to the development of effective risk management poli-cies and control strategies. © 2020. All rights reserved.

9.
Environ Res ; 191: 110121, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726518

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is rapidly spreading across the globe due to its contagion nature. We hereby report the baseline permanent levels of two most toxic air pollutants in top ranked mega cities of India. This could be made possible for the first time due to the unprecedented COVID-19 lockdown emission scenario. The study also unfolds the association of COVID-19 with different environmental and weather markers. Although there are numerous confounding factors for the pandemic, we find a strong association of COVID-19 mortality with baseline PM2.5 levels (80% correlation) to which the population is chronically exposed and may be considered as one of the critical factors. The COVID-19 morbidity is found to be moderately anti-correlated with maximum temperature during the pandemic period (-56%). Findings although preliminary but provide a first line of information for epidemiologists and may be useful for the development of effective health risk management policies.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Air Pollution/analysis , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cities , Humans , India , SARS-CoV-2 , Weather
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