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1.
Pathogens ; 11(1)2022 Jan 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238089

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus of swine that causes acute diarrhoea, vomiting, dehydration and mortality in seronegative neonatal piglets. PDCoV was first reported in Hong Kong in 2012 and its etiological features were first characterized in the United States in 2014. Currently, PDCoV is a concern due to its broad host range, including humans. Chickens, turkey poults, and gnotobiotic calves can be experimentally infected by PDCoV. Therefore, as discussed in this review, a comprehensive understanding of the origin, evolution, cross-species transmission and zoonotic potential of epidemic PDCoV strains is urgently needed.

2.
Cell Rep ; 42(5): 112443, 2023 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306918

ABSTRACT

Omicron subvariants continuingly challenge current vaccination strategies. Here, we demonstrate nearly complete escape of the XBB.1.5, CH.1.1, and CA.3.1 variants from neutralizing antibodies stimulated by three doses of mRNA vaccine or by BA.4/5 wave infection, but neutralization is rescued by a BA.5-containing bivalent booster. CH.1.1 and CA.3.1 show strong immune escape from monoclonal antibody S309. Additionally, XBB.1.5, CH.1.1, and CA.3.1 spike proteins exhibit increased fusogenicity and enhanced processing compared with BA.2. Homology modeling reveals the key roles of G252V and F486P in the neutralization resistance of XBB.1.5, with F486P also enhancing receptor binding. Further, K444T/M and L452R in CH.1.1 and CA.3.1 likely drive escape from class II neutralizing antibodies, whereas R346T and G339H mutations could confer the strong neutralization resistance of these two subvariants to S309-like antibodies. Overall, our results support the need for administration of the bivalent mRNA vaccine and continued surveillance of Omicron subvariants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibody Formation , Mutation/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Vaccines, Combined , Antibodies, Viral
3.
Veterinary sciences ; 10(2), 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2251629

ABSTRACT

Simple Summary Porcine deltacoronavirus is a newly emerged coronavirus infecting pigs. Deltacoronaviruses were previously reported mainly in birds. Porcine deltacoronavirus infects the small intestine of pigs and causes diarrhea, dehydration, and anorexia, leading to decreased body weight gain and deaths. Moreover, porcine deltacoronavirus can infect other avian or mammalian species, such as poultry and cattle, respectively. The virus has also been detected in febrile children. However, the pathogenesis in pigs or other animals is unclear. In this study, we infected germ-free piglets oronasally with porcine deltacoronavirus. We investigated the presence of the virus in various tissues, as well as differences in T cell populations (a type of immune cell), and cholesterol levels between infected and control animals. As expected, the infected piglets developed intestinal disease, but we also detected viral RNA in respiratory samples and in bile. Furthermore, the infected piglets showed trends toward lower frequencies of T cells in blood, and had higher levels of serum cholesterol compared with control animals. Our findings contribute to an understanding of porcine deltacoronavirus pathogenesis. Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first identified approximately a decade ago, but much is still obscure in terms of its pathogenesis. We aimed to further characterize PDCoV infection by investigating the presence of virus in respiratory and biliary tissues or fluids;T cell population frequencies in blood;and altered serum cholesterol levels. Twelve, 6-day-old, gnotobiotic piglets were inoculated oronasally with PDCoV OH-FD22 (2.6 × 107 FFU/pig). Six control piglets were not inoculated. Rectal swab (RS), nasal swab (NS), nasal wash (NW), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and biliary fluid (BF) samples were collected at 2, 4, and 7 days post-inoculation (DPI) and tested for PDCoV RNA by RT-qPCR. Blood T cell populations and serum cholesterol levels were determined by flow cytometry and a colorimetric assay, respectively. Moderate to high, and low to moderate titers of PDCoV RNA were detected in RS and in NS, NW, BAL, and BF samples, respectively, of inoculated piglets. There were trends toward decreased CD4+CD8−, CD4−CD8+, and CD4+CD8+ blood T cell frequencies in inoculated piglets. Furthermore, serum cholesterol levels were increased in inoculated piglets. Overall, we found that PDCoV infection does not exclusively involve the intestine, since the respiratory and biliary systems and cholesterol metabolism also can be affected.

4.
Pathogens ; 9(2)2020 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267928

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly virulent re-emerging enteric coronavirus that causes acute diarrhea, dehydration, and up to 100% mortality in neonatal suckling piglets. Despite this, a safe and effective PEDV vaccine against highly virulent strains is unavailable, making PEDV prevention and control challenging. Lactogenic immunity induced via the gut-mammary gland-secretory IgA (sIgA) axis, remains the most promising and effective way to protect suckling piglets from PEDV. Therefore, a successful PEDV vaccine must induce protective maternal IgA antibodies that passively transfer into colostrum and milk. Identifying variables that influence lymphocyte migration and IgA secretion during gestation and lactation is imperative for designing maternal immunization strategies that generate the highest amount of lactogenic immune protection against PEDV in suckling piglets. Because pregnancy-associated immune alterations influence viral pathogenesis and adaptive immune responses in many different species, a better understanding of host immune responses to PEDV in pregnant swine may translate into improved maternal immunization strategies against enteric pathogens for multiple species. In this review, we discuss the role of host factors during pregnancy on antiviral immunity and their implications for generating protective lactogenic immunity in suckling neonates.

5.
Arch Virol ; 168(1): 5, 2022 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243796

ABSTRACT

We isolated 20 SARS-CoV-2 strains from positive clinical samples collected in Columbus, Ohio, and investigated the replication of one pair of isolates: a clade 20G strain and a variant of this strain carrying a Q677H mutation in the spike protein and six other amino acid mutations. The OSU.20G variant replicated to a higher peak infectious titer than the 20G base strain in Vero-E6 cells, but the titers were similar when both strains were grown in Calu-3 cells. These results suggest that the OSU.20G variant has increased replication fitness compared to the 20G base strain. This may have contributed to its emergence in December 2020-January 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Mutation
6.
Viruses ; 15(1)2022 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237152

ABSTRACT

Live attenuated vaccines (LAVs) replicate in the respiratory/oral mucosa, mimic natural infection, and can induce mucosal and systemic immune responses to the full repertoire of SARS-CoV-2 structural/nonstructural proteins. Generally, LAVs produce broader and more durable protection than current COVID-19 vaccines. We generated a temperature-sensitive (TS) SARS-CoV-2 mutant TS11 via cold-adaptation of the WA1 strain in Vero E6 cells. TS11 replicated at >4 Log10-higher titers at 32 °C than at 39 °C. TS11 has multiple mutations, including those in nsp3, a 12-amino acid-deletion spanning the furin cleavage site of the S protein and a 371-nucleotide-deletion spanning the ORF7b-ORF8 genes. We tested the pathogenicity and protective efficacy of TS11 against challenge with a heterologous virulent SARS-CoV-2 D614G strain 14B in Syrian hamsters. Hamsters were randomly assigned to mock immunization-challenge (Mock-C) and TS11 immunization-challenge (TS11-C) groups. Like the mock group, TS11-vaccinated hamsters did not show any clinical signs and continuously gained body weight. TS11 replicated well in the nasal cavity but poorly in the lungs and caused only mild lesions in the lungs. After challenge, hamsters in the Mock-C group lost weight. In contrast, the animals in the TS11-C group continued gaining weight. The virus titers in the nasal turbinates and lungs of the TS11-C group were significantly lower than those in the Mock-C group, confirming the protective effects of TS11 immunization of hamsters. Histopathological examination demonstrated that animals in the Mock-C group had severe pulmonary lesions and large amounts of viral antigens in the lungs post-challenge; however, the TS11-C group had minimal pathological changes and few viral antigen-positive cells. In summary, the TS11 mutant was attenuated and induced protection against disease after a heterologous SARS-CoV-2 challenge in Syrian hamsters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cricetinae , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antigens, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Temperature , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics
7.
JCI Insight ; 8(6)2023 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227780

ABSTRACT

We assessed vaccine-induced antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 ancestral virus and Omicron variant before and after booster immunization in 57 patients with B cell malignancies. Over one-third of vaccinated patients at the pre-booster time point were seronegative, and these patients were predominantly on active cancer therapies such as anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. While booster immunization was able to induce detectable antibodies in a small fraction of seronegative patients, the overall booster benefit was disproportionately evident in patients already seropositive and not receiving active therapy. While ancestral virus- and Omicron variant-reactive antibody levels among individual patients were largely concordant, neutralizing antibodies against Omicron tended to be reduced. Interestingly, in all patients, including those unable to generate detectable antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike, we observed comparable levels of EBV- and influenza-reactive antibodies, demonstrating that B cell-targeting therapies primarily impair de novo but not preexisting antibody levels. These findings support rationale for vaccination before cancer treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antibody Formation , SARS-CoV-2 , Neoplasms/therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral
8.
Cell Host Microbe ; 31(1): 9-17.e3, 2023 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2122385

ABSTRACT

The continued evolution of SARS-CoV-2 has led to the emergence of several new Omicron subvariants, including BQ.1, BQ.1.1, BA.4.6, BF.7, and BA.2.75.2. Here, we examine the neutralization resistance of these subvariants against sera from 3-dose vaccinated healthcare workers, hospitalized BA.1-wave patients, and BA.4/5-wave patients. We found enhanced neutralization resistance in all new subvariants, especially in the BQ.1 and BQ.1.1 subvariants driven by N460K and K444T mutations, as well as the BA.2.75.2 subvariant driven largely by its F486S mutation. All Omicron subvariants maintained their weakened infectivity in Calu-3 cells, with the F486S mutation driving further diminished titer for the BA.2.75.2 subvariant. Molecular modeling revealed the mechanisms of antibody-mediated immune evasion by R346T, K444T, F486S, and D1199N mutations. Altogether, these findings shed light on the evolution of newly emerging SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibodies , Immune Evasion , Mutation , Antibodies, Neutralizing
9.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(11): 1518-1526.e4, 2022 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117599

ABSTRACT

The newly emerged BA.2.75 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant contains 9 additional mutations in its spike (S) protein compared to the ancestral BA.2 variant. Here, we examine the neutralizing antibody escape of BA.2.75 in mRNA-vaccinated and BA.1-infected individuals, as well as the molecular basis underlying functional changes in S. Notably, BA.2.75 exhibits enhanced neutralization resistance over BA.2 but less than the BA.4/5 variant. The G446S and N460K mutations of BA.2.75 are primarily responsible for its enhanced resistance to neutralizing antibodies. The R493Q mutation, a reversion to the prototype sequence, reduces BA.2.75 neutralization resistance. The impact of these mutations is consistent with their locations in common neutralizing antibody epitopes. Further, BA.2.75 shows enhanced cell-cell fusion over BA.2, driven largely by the N460K mutation, which enhances S processing. Structural modeling reveals enhanced receptor contacts introduced by N460K, suggesting a mechanism of potentiated receptor utilization and syncytia formation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Neutralization Tests , Antibodies, Viral , Viral Envelope Proteins
10.
Cell host & microbe ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046473

ABSTRACT

The newly emerged BA.2.75 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant contains 9 additional mutations in its spike (S) protein compared to the ancestral BA.2 variant. Here we examine the neutralizing antibody escape of BA.2.75 in mRNA-vaccinated and BA.1-infected individuals, as well as the molecular basis underlying functional changes in S. Notably, BA.2.75 exhibits enhanced neutralization resistance over BA.2, but less than the BA.4/5 variant. The G446S and N460K mutations of BA.2.75 are primarily responsible for its enhanced resistance to neutralizing antibodies. The R493Q mutation, a reversion to the prototype sequence, also reduces BA.2.75 neutralization resistance. The impact of these mutations is consistent with their locations in common neutralizing antibody epitopes. Further, BA.2.75 shows enhanced cell-cell fusion over BA.2, driven largely by the N460K mutation, which enhances S processing. Structural modeling reveals enhanced receptor contacts introduced by N460K, suggesting a mechanism of potentiated receptor utilization and syncytia formation. Newly emerged Omicron subvariants reignite concerns over escape from existing immunity. Qu and colleagues compare the immunity resistance and fusogenicity of BA.2.75 with prior variants. BA.2.75 exhibits stronger neutralization resistance than BA.2 but weaker than BA.4/5, as well as enhanced fusogenicity, which are largely driven by G446S and N460K, respectively.

11.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024295

ABSTRACT

Rotaviruses (RVs) are a significant cause of severe diarrheal illness in infants and young animals, including pigs. Group C rotavirus (RVC) is an emerging pathogen increasingly reported in pigs and humans worldwide, and is currently recognized as the major cause of gastroenteritis in neonatal piglets that results in substantial economic losses to the pork industry. However, little is known about RVC pathogenesis due to the lack of a robust cell culture system, with the exception of the RVC Cowden strain. Here, we evaluated the permissiveness of porcine crypt-derived 3D and 2D intestinal enteroid (PIE) culture systems for RVC infection. Differentiated 3D and 2D PIEs were infected with porcine RVC (PRVC) Cowden G1P[1], PRVC104 G3P[18], and PRVC143 G6P[5] virulent strains, and the virus replication was measured by qRT-PCR. Our results demonstrated that all RVC strains replicated in 2D-PIEs poorly, while 3D-PIEs supported a higher level of replication, suggesting that RVC selectively infects terminally differentiated enterocytes, which were less abundant in the 2D vs. 3D PIE cultures. While cellular receptors for RVC are unknown, target cell surface carbohydrates, including histo-blood-group antigens (HBGAs) and sialic acids (SAs), are believed to play a role in cell attachment/entry. The evaluation of the selective binding of RVCs to different HBGAs revealed that PRVC Cowden G1P[1] replicated to the highest titers in the HBGA-A PIEs, while PRVC104 or PRVC143 achieved the highest titers in the HBGA-H PIEs. Further, contrasting outcomes were observed following sialidase treatment (resulting in terminal SA removal), which significantly enhanced Cowden and RVC143 replication, but inhibited the growth of PRVC104. These observations suggest that different RVC strains may recognize terminal (PRVC104) as well as internal (Cowden and RVC143) SAs on gangliosides. Finally, several cell culture additives, such as diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-dextran, cholesterol, and bile extract, were tested to establish if they could enhance RVC replication. We observed that only DEAE-dextran significantly enhanced RVC attachment, but it had no effect on RVC replication. Additionally, the depletion of cellular cholesterol by MßCD inhibited Cowden replication, while the restoration of the cellular cholesterol partially reversed the MßCD effects. These results suggest that cellular cholesterol plays an important role in the replication of the PRVC strain tested. Overall, our study has established a novel robust and physiologically relevant system to investigate RVC pathogenesis. We also generated novel, experimentally derived evidence regarding the role of host glycans, DEAE, and cholesterol in RVC replication, which is critical for the development of control strategies.


Subject(s)
Blood Group Antigens , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Animals , Blood Group Antigens/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Humans , Sialic Acids/metabolism , Swine
14.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884381

ABSTRACT

Avian species often serve as transmission vectors and sources of recombination for viral infections due to their ability to travel vast distances and their gregarious behaviors. Recently a novel deltacoronavirus (DCoV) was identified in sparrows. Sparrow deltacoronavirus (SpDCoV), coupled with close contact between sparrows and swine carrying porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) may facilitate recombination of DCoVs resulting in novel CoV variants. We hypothesized that the spike (S) protein or receptor-binding domain (RBD) from sparrow coronaviruses (SpCoVs) may enhance infection in poultry. We used recombinant chimeric viruses, which express S protein or the RBD of SpCoV (icPDCoV-SHKU17, and icPDCoV-RBDISU) on the genomic backbone of an infectious clone of PDCoV (icPDCoV). Chimeric viruses were utilized to infect chicken derived DF-1 cells, turkey poults, and embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) to examine permissiveness, viral replication kinetics, pathogenesis and pathology. We demonstrated that DF-1 cells in addition to the positive control LLC-PK1 cells are susceptible to SpCoV spike- and RBD- recombinant chimeric virus infections. However, the replication of chimeric viruses in DF-1 cells, but not LLC-PK1 cells, was inefficient. Inoculated 8-day-old turkey poults appeared resistant to icPDCoV-, icPDCoV-SHKU17- and icPDCoV-RBDISU virus infections. In 5-day-old ECEs, significant mortality was observed in PDCoV inoculated eggs with less in the spike chimeras, while in 11-day-old ECEs there was no evidence of viral replication, suggesting that PDCoV is better adapted to cross species infection and differentiated ECE cells are not susceptible to PDCoV infection. Collectively, we demonstrate that the SpCoV chimeric viruses are not more infectious in turkeys, nor ECEs than wild type PDCoV. Therefore, understanding the cell and host factors that contribute to resistance to PDCoV and avian-swine chimeric virus infections may aid in the design of novel antiviral therapies against DCoVs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Sparrows , Swine Diseases , Animals , Chickens , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Poultry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Swine , Turkeys
16.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(8): 1093-1102.e3, 2022 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803742

ABSTRACT

Recent reports of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant sub-lineages, BA.1, BA.1.1, and BA.2, have reignited concern over potential escape from vaccine- and infection-induced immunity. We examine the sensitivity of these sub-lineages and other major variants to neutralizing antibodies from mRNA-vaccinated and boosted individuals, as well as recovered COVID-19 patients, including those infected with Omicron. We find that all Omicron sub-lineages, especially BA.1 and BA.1.1, exhibit substantial immune escape that is largely overcome by mRNA vaccine booster doses. While Omicron BA.1.1 escapes almost completely from neutralization by early-pandemic COVID-19 patient sera and to a lesser extent from sera of Delta-infected patients, BA.1.1 is sensitive to Omicron-infected patient sera. Critically, all Omicron sub-lineages, including BA.2, are comparably neutralized by Omicron patient sera. These results highlight the importance of booster vaccine doses for protection against all Omicron variants and provide insight into the immunity from natural infection against Omicron sub-lineages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
17.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(637): eabn8057, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685483

ABSTRACT

The waning efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, combined with the continued emergence of variants resistant to vaccine-induced immunity, has reignited debate over the need for booster vaccine doses. To address this, we examined the neutralizing antibody response against the spike protein of five major SARS-CoV-2 variants, D614G, Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529), in health care workers (HCWs) vaccinated with SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. Serum samples were collected before vaccination, 3 weeks after first vaccination, 1 month after second vaccination, and 6 months after second vaccination. Minimal neutralizing antibody titers were detected against Omicron pseudovirus at all four time points, including for most patients who had SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections. Neutralizing antibody titers against all other variant spike protein-bearing pseudoviruses declined markedly from 1 to 6 months after the second mRNA vaccine dose, although SARS-CoV-2 infection boosted vaccine responses. In addition, mRNA-1273-vaccinated HCWs exhibited about twofold higher neutralizing antibody titers than BNT162b2-vaccinated HCWs. Together, these results demonstrate possible waning of antibody-mediated protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants that is dependent on prior infection status and the mRNA vaccine received. They also show that the Omicron variant spike protein can almost completely escape from neutralizing antibodies elicited in recipients of only two mRNA vaccine doses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
18.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 626785, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573571

ABSTRACT

Deltacoronavirus (DCoV)-the only coronavirus that can infect multiple species of mammals and birds-was initially identified in several avian and mammalian species, including pigs, in China in 2009-2011. Porcine DCoV has since spread worldwide and is associated with multiple outbreaks of diarrheal disease of variable severity in farmed pigs. In contrast, avian DCoV is being reported in wild birds in different countries without any evidence of disease. The DCoV transboundary nature and the recent discovery of its remarkably broad reactivity with its cellular receptor-aminopeptidase N (APN)-from different species emphasize its epidemiological relevance and necessitate additional research. Further, the ability of porcine DCoV to infect and cause disease in chicks and turkey poults and gnotobiotic calves is suggestive of its increased potential for interspecies transmission or of its avian origin. Whether, porcine DCoVs were initially acquired by one or several mammalian species from birds and whether avian and porcine DCoVs continue co-evolving with frequent spillover events remain to be major unanswered questions. In this review, we will discuss the current information on the prevalence, genetic diversity, and pathogenic potential of porcine and avian DCoVs. We will also analyze the existing evidence of the ongoing interspecies transmission of DCoVs that may provide novel insights into their complex evolution.

19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(1)2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599544

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly transmissible coronavirus responsible for the global COVID-19 pandemic. Herein, we provide evidence that SARS-CoV-2 spreads through cell-cell contact in cultures, mediated by the spike glycoprotein. SARS-CoV-2 spike is more efficient in facilitating cell-to-cell transmission than is SARS-CoV spike, which reflects, in part, their differential cell-cell fusion activity. Interestingly, treatment of cocultured cells with endosomal entry inhibitors impairs cell-to-cell transmission, implicating endosomal membrane fusion as an underlying mechanism. Compared with cell-free infection, cell-to-cell transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is refractory to inhibition by neutralizing antibody or convalescent sera of COVID-19 patients. While angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 enhances cell-to-cell transmission, we find that it is not absolutely required. Notably, despite differences in cell-free infectivity, the authentic variants of concern (VOCs) B.1.1.7 (alpha) and B.1.351 (beta) have similar cell-to-cell transmission capability. Moreover, B.1.351 is more resistant to neutralization by vaccinee sera in cell-free infection, whereas B.1.1.7 is more resistant to inhibition by vaccinee sera in cell-to-cell transmission. Overall, our study reveals critical features of SARS-CoV-2 spike-mediated cell-to-cell transmission, with important implications for a better understanding of SARS-CoV-2 spread and pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Cell Fusion , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells , COVID-19 Serotherapy
20.
J Virol ; 96(3): e0197321, 2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532966

ABSTRACT

Waning vaccine-induced immunity coupled with the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants has led to increases in breakthrough infections, prompting consideration for vaccine booster doses. Boosters have been reported to be safe and increase SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibody levels, but how these doses impact the trajectory of the global pandemic and herd immunity is unknown. Information on immunology, epidemiology, and equitable vaccine distribution should be considered when deciding the timing and eligibility for COVID-19 vaccine boosters.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services Needs and Demand/statistics & numerical data , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Immunity, Herd , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Vaccination
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