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1.
HLA ; 99(4): 281-312, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642778

ABSTRACT

HLA is crucial for appropriate immune responses in several viral infections, as well as in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2). The unpredictable nature of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19), observed in both inter-individual and inter-population level, raises the question, to what extent the HLA, as part of host genetic factors, contribute to disease susceptibility and prognosis. We aimed to identify significant HLAs, those were investigated till now, for their association with COVID-19. Three databases were searched (PubMed, Cochrane library, and Web of Science) and articles published between January 2020 and May 2021 were included for in-depth analysis. Two separate teams including four observers independently extracted the summary data, with discrepancies resolved by consensus. This study is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42021251670). Of 1278 studies identified, 36 articles were included consisting of 794,571 participants. Countries from the European region appeared in the highest number of studies and vice versa for countries from South East Asia. Among 117 significantly altered alleles, 85 (72.65%) were found to have a positive correlation with COVID-19 and 33 (27.35%) alleles were observed having a negative correlation. HLA A*02 is the most investigated allele (n = 18) and showed contradictory results. Non-classical HLA E was explored by only one study and it showed that E*01:01 is associated with severity. Both in silico and wet lab data were considered and contrasting results were found from two approaches. Although several HLAs depicted significant association, nothing conclusive could be drawn because of heterogeneity in study designs, HLA typing methods, and so forth. This systematic review shows that, though HLAs play role in COVID-19 susceptibility, severity, and mortality, more uniformly designed, interrelated studies with the inclusion of global data, for use in evidence-based medicine are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Alleles , COVID-19/genetics , HLA Antigens/genetics , Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 21(9): 779-787, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329003

ABSTRACT

Advance care planning is considered an important issue in end-of-life care for older adults. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has interrupted the healthcare system and end-of-life care tremendously. This review aimed to explore available articles on advance care planning amid the pandemic and analyze qualitatively. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched on February 2021 using the relevant keywords. Retrieved articles were screened applying inclusion criteria. Any article describing advance care planning during the COVID-19 era was included. A qualitative content analysis was conducted. In total, 20 articles incorporating 5542 participants from five countries were included. Among the articles, eight were primary studies and the rest were perspective papers or secondary analysis. From the qualitative content analysis six major themes emerged namely palliative care, lack of coordination among acute care, hospital palliative care, and long-term care, community-based advance care planning, real-time dissemination of scientific information on the regional pandemic situation, online system and legislation. The COVID-19 pandemic had decreased the uptake of advance care planning. Findings of the review suggested simplification of the procedure regarding advance care planning, implementation of community-based advance care planning and utilization of online resources to enhance the process. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2021; 21: 779-787.


Subject(s)
Advance Care Planning , COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , Palliative Care , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Infect Prev Pract ; 3(2): 100134, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103980

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As evidence is mounting regarding irrational and often unnecessary use of antibiotics during the COVID-19 pandemic a cross-sectional Point Prevalence Survey (PPS) (in accordance with WHO guideline) was conducted across COVID-19 dedicated wards in Dhaka Medical College and Hospital (DMCH). METHODOLOGY: Antibiotic usage data were collected from 193 patients at different COVID-19 dedicated wards at DMCH on 11 June 2020. Comparisons in antibiotic usage were made between different groups using Pearson chi-square and Fisher's exact test. RESULT: Findings reveal all surveyed patients (100%) were receiving at least one antibiotic with 133 patients (68.91%) receiving multiple antibiotics. Overall, patients presenting with the severe disease received more antibiotics. Third-generation cephalosporins (i.e. ceftriaxone) (53.8%), meropenem (40.9%), moxifloxacin (29.5%), and doxycycline (25.4%) were the four most prescribed antibiotics among surveyed patients. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was independently associated with multiple antibiotic prescribing. Abnormal C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum d-dimer were linked with higher odds of multiple antibiotic prescribing among study patients. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of multiple antibiotic prescriptions was high among severely ill patients and those with abnormal CRP and d-dimer levels. Data regarding the quality of antibiotic prescribing were lacking.

5.
Biosaf Health ; 3(2): 87-91, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071126

ABSTRACT

With the number of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases soaring worldwide and limited vaccine availability for the general population in most countries, the monoclonal antibody (mAb) remains a viable therapeutic option to treat COVID-19 disease and its complications, especially in the elderly individuals. More than 50 monoclonal antibody-related clinical trials are being conducted in different countries around the world, with few of them nearing the completion of the third and fourth phase clinical trial. In view of recent emergency use authorization (EUA) from the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) of casirivimab and imdevimab, it is of importance that mAbs, already used to treat diseases such as Ebola and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, are discussed in scientific communities. This brief review discusses the mechanism of action and updates to clinical trials of different monoclonal antibodies used to treat COVID-19, with special attention paid to SARS-CoV-2 immune response in host cells, target viral structures, and justification of developing mAbs following the approval and administration of potential effective vaccine among vulnerable populations in different countries.

6.
J Peripher Nerv Syst ; 25(4): 335-343, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966993

ABSTRACT

Several published reports have described a possible association between Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This systematic review aimed to summarize and meta-analyze the salient features and prognosis of SARS-CoV-2-associated GBS. We searched the PubMed (Medline), Web of Science and Cochrane databases for articles published between 01 January 2020 and 05 August 2020 using SARS-CoV-2 and GBS-related keywords. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, antecedent symptoms, clinical, serological and electrophysiological features, and hospital outcomes were recorded. We included 45 articles from 16 countries reporting 61 patients with SARS-CoV-2-associated GBS. Most (97.7%) articles were from high- and upper-middle-income countries. Forty-two (68.9%) of the patients were male; median (interquartile range) age was 57 (49-70) years. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 was positive in 90.2% of patients. One report of SARS-CoV-2-associated familial GBS was found which affected a father and daughter of a family. Albuminocytological dissociation in cerebrospinal fluid was found in 80.8% of patients. The majority of patients (75.5%) had a demyelinating subtype of GBS. Intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis were given to 92.7% and 7.3% of patients, respectively. Around two-thirds (65.3%) of patients had a good outcome (GBS-disability score ≤ 2) on discharge from hospital. Two patients died in hospital. SARS-CoV-2-associated GBS mostly resembles the classical presentations of GBS that respond to standard treatments. Extensive surveillance is required in low- and lower-middle-income countries to identify and report similar cases/series. Further large-scale case-control studies are warranted to strengthen the current evidence. PROSPERO Registration Number CRD42020201673.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
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