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2.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):690-691, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564969

ABSTRACT

Background Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), such as sanitary measures and travel restrictions, aimed at controlling the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), may affect the transmission dynamics of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV). We aimed to quantify the contribution of the sales of hand hygiene products and the number of international and domestic airline passenger arrivals on HRSV epidemic in Japan. Methods The monthly number of HRSV cases per sentinel site (HRSV activity) in 2020 was compared with the average of the corresponding period in the previous 6 years (from January 2014 to December 2020) using a monthly paired t-test. A generalized linear Poisson regression model was used to regress the time-series of the monthly HRSV activity against NPI indicators, including sale of hand hygiene products and the number of domestic and international airline passengers, while controlling for meteorological conditions (monthly average temperature and relative humidity) and seasonal variations between years (2014–2020). Results The average number of monthly HRSV case notifications in 2020 decreased by approximately 85% (P < 0.001) compared to those in the preceding 6 years (2014–2019) (Figure 1A). For every average ¥1 billion (approximately &9,000,000/£6,800,00) spent on hand hygiene products during the current month and 1 month before (lag 0-1 months) there was a 0.22% (P = 0.02) decrease in HRSV infections (Table 1). An increase of average 1,000 domestic and international airline passenger arrivals during the previous 1–2 months (lag 1–2 months) was associated with a 4.6×10−4% (P < 0.001) and 1.1×10−3% (P = 0.007) increase in the monthly number of HRSV infections, respectively. Figure 1. Monthly seasonal variations of number of HRSV activity, NPI indicators, and meteorological conditions during 2014-2020. (A) Monthly seasonal variations of number of HRSV cases per sentinel sites based on national HRSV surveillance data during 2014-2020. (B) Monthly seasonal variations of retail sales of hand hygiene products per ¥1 billion (unit: yen) during 2014-2020. (C) Monthly seasonal variations of number of domestic airline passengers per 1,000 population (unit: person) during 2014-2020. (D) Monthly seasonal variations of number of international airline passengers per 1,000 population (unit: person) during 2014-2020. (E) Monthly seasonal variations of average temperature (unit: ℃) throughout Japan during 2014-2020. (F) Monthly seasonal variations of relative humidity (unit: %) throughout Japan during 2014-2020. Table 1. Generalized linear Poisson regression model for the monthly number of human respiratory syncytial virus cases among prefectures in Japan. Conclusion This study suggests that there is an association between the decrease in the monthly number of HRSV cases and improved hygiene and sanitary measures and travel restrictions for COVID-19 in Japan, indicating that these public health interventions can contribute to the suppression of HRSV activity. These findings may help in public health policy and decision making. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

3.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 749149, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518505

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a serious disease burden and poses a tremendous public health challenge worldwide. Here, we report a comprehensive epidemiological and genomic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 from 63 patients in Niigata City, a medium-sized Japanese city, during the early phase of the pandemic, between February and May 2020. Among the 63 patients, 32 (51%) were female, with a mean (±standard deviation) age of 47.9 ± 22.3 years. Fever (65%, 41/63), malaise (51%, 32/63), and cough (35%, 22/63) were the most common clinical symptoms. The median C t value after the onset of symptoms lowered within 9 days at 20.9 cycles (interquartile range, 17-26 cycles), but after 10 days, the median C t value exceeded 30 cycles (p < 0.001). Of the 63 cases, 27 were distributed in the first epidemic wave and 33 in the second, and between the two waves, three cases from abroad were identified. The first wave was epidemiologically characterized by a single cluster related to indoor sports activity spread in closed settings, which included mixing indoors with families, relatives, and colleagues. The second wave showed more epidemiologically diversified events, with most index cases not related to each other. Almost all secondary cases were infected by droplets or aerosols from closed indoor settings, but at least two cases in the first wave were suspected to be contact infections. Results of the genomic analysis identified two possible clusters in Niigata City, the first of which was attributed to clade S (19B by Nexstrain clade) with a monophyletic group derived from the Wuhan prototype strain but that of the second wave was polyphyletic suggesting multiple introductions, and the clade was changed to GR (20B), which mainly spread in Europe in early 2020. These findings depict characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the early stages in local community settings during February to May 2020 in Japan, and this integrated approach of epidemiological and genomic analysis may provide valuable information for public health policy decision-making for successful containment of chains of infection.

4.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(11): e418-e423, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: School closures are a subject of debate during the present coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Because children are not the main driver of COVID-19 transmission in the community, school education must be prioritized in conjunction with appropriate infection prevention and control measures, as determined by local COVID-19 incidence. METHODS: We investigated the causes and transmission routes of a primary school cluster of COVID-19 that occurred during November and December 2020 in Niigata, Japan. RESULTS: In the cluster, the virus spread among teachers, then from teachers to students, and then to their family members. This primary school cluster comprised 26 infected patients and included teachers (13/33, 39%), students (9/211, 4%), and family members (4/65, 6%). The secondary attack rate from the 3 index teachers to the remaining 30 teachers was 33%; however, the rate to students was only 4%. Factors contributing to cluster formation include the fact that 2 of the index teachers continued working while symptomatic and that the environment and infection prevention measures in the teachers' room were inadequate. CONCLUSIONS: To open schools safely and without interruption, adequate measures to prevent COVID-19 infection in schools should be emphasized not only for children but also for teachers and their environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Outbreaks , SARS-CoV-2 , School Teachers , Schools , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Female , Humans , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health Surveillance , Young Adult
5.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-9, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488125

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy regarding the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is widespread during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many recent studies have reported that the confidence of the vaccination and perceived risk were associated with vaccination intent, yet few studies have focused on other psychological factors. This study aimed to clarify the trends in COVID-19 vaccination intent and to identify the association between the 5C psychological antecedents and COVID-19 vaccination intent by sex and age in Japan. This was a longitudinal study conducted through an Internet-based survey from January 2021 to April 2021 before and after vaccine distribution in Japan, including 2,655 participants recruited by quota sampling. Participants were asked to indicate how likely they were to get vaccinated against COVID-19. In the second survey, the participants responded to questions regarding the 5C psychological antecedents: confidence, complacency, constraints (structural and psychological barriers), calculation (engagement in extensive information searching), and collective responsibility (willingness to protect others). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to clarify the association between the 5C psychological antecedents and COVID-19 vaccination intent in the second wave survey. COVID-19 vaccination intent improved from 62.1% to 72.4% after vaccine distribution, but no significant difference was found in young men. Confidence and collective responsibility were positively associated with vaccination intent, and calculation was negatively associated among all generations. COVID-19 vaccination intent may be affected not only by confidence and constraints but also by calculation and collective responsibility, and further research is needed.

6.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(5): 405-410, 2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436356

ABSTRACT

We aimed to clarify the status of hand hygiene practices among ordinary citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, as well as the frequency of daily hand hygiene as an indicator of education and evaluation. This cross-sectional study was based on an internet survey completed by 2,149 participants (age range: 20-79 years, men: 51.0%, response rate: 89.5%), selected from June 23 to 28, 2020. The participants responded regarding the frequency of implementing hand hygiene at 5 moments (after returning from a public place, after using the toilet, after touching something outside, before eating food, and after blowing the nose, coughing, or sneezing). Additionally, the participants responded to the number of daily hand hygiene events. The cutoff value of the total number of daily hand hygiene events to determine whether hand hygiene was performed at all 5 time points was determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. The mean number of hand hygiene events was 10.2 times/day. The prevalence of implementing hand hygiene at each moment ranged from 30.2% to 76.4%; only 21.1% of respondents practiced hand hygiene at all times. Both Youden Index and specificity were high when the cut-off value was 11 times/day. Therefore, the criterion of hand hygiene (≥11 times/day) may be useful in education and evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
Public Health Pract (Oxf) ; 2: 100125, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188966

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We aimed to identify the concerns, current implementation status and correct usage, and factors inhibiting implementation and correct use of a COVID-19 contact tracing application among the ordinary citizens in Japan. Study design: This was a cross-sectional study based on an internet survey completed by 2013 participants who were selected among registrants of an Internet research company between September 8 and 13, 2020. Methods: Participants completed an online survey that included thoughts and concerns about the application, status of use, and questions about whether the application was being used correctly. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis to clarify the association between the use of the app and sociodemographic factors and user concerns. Results: Of the 2013 respondents, 429 (21.3%) participants reported using this application, but only 60.8% of them used it correctly. The percentage of those having some concerns about the application ranged from 45.9% to 75.5%, with the highest percentage being 'doubts about effectiveness of apps for preventing spread of infection'. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed, the main concerns inhibiting application use were insufficient knowledge of how to use it, privacy concerns, doubts about the effectiveness of the app, and concerns about battery consumption and communication costs. Additionally, the prevalence of the application was lower for lower-income individuals. Conclusions: The findings suggest that income may create inequalities in the efficacy and effectiveness of COVID-19 contact tracing applications. Awareness activity strategies to dispel such concerns and support low-income individuals may be needed.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248932, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150551

ABSTRACT

Few studies have examined the effects of inbound overseas travelers and meteorological conditions on the shift in human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) season in Japan. This study aims to test whether the number of inbound overseas travelers and meteorological conditions are associated with the onset week of HRSV epidemic season. The estimation of onset week for 46 prefectures (except for Okinawa prefecture) in Japan for 4-year period (2014-2017) was obtained from previous papers based on the national surveillance data. We obtained data on the yearly number of inbound overseas travelers and meteorological (yearly mean temperature and relative humidity) conditions from Japan National Tourism Organization (JNTO) and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), respectively. Multi-level mixed-effects linear regression analysis showed that every 1 person (per 100,000 population) increase in number of overall inbound overseas travelers led to an earlier onset week of HRSV epidemic season in the year by 0.02 week (coefficient -0.02; P<0.01). Higher mean temperature and higher relative humidity were also found to contribute to an earlier onset week by 0.30 week (coefficient -0.30; P<0.05) and 0.18 week (coefficient -0.18; P<0.01), respectively. Additionally, models that included the number of travelers from individual countries (Taiwan, South Korea, and China) except Australia showed that both the number of travelers from each country and meteorological conditions contributed to an earlier onset week. Our analysis showed the earlier onset week of HRSV epidemic season in Japan is associated with increased number of inbound overseas travelers, higher mean temperature, and relative humidity. The impact of international travelers on seasonality of HRSV can be further extended to investigations on the changes of various respiratory infectious diseases especially after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/pathology , Travel , Epidemics , Humans , Humidity , Japan/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Seasons , Temperature
9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125918

ABSTRACT

Vaccination could be a key protective measure against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and it is important to understand the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine among the general public. However, there is no study on the acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine in Japan. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy situation in Japan and assess the factors associated with such issues. This was a cross-sectional study based on an internet survey completed by 2956 people. Participants were asked to indicate how likely they were to get vaccinated for COVID-19. In addition, the participants responded to questions regarding sociodemographic factors, attitudes, and beliefs regarding COVID-19 infection and vaccination. The proportion of participants with a high likelihood of getting a COVID-19 vaccine was 62.1%. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that vaccine acceptance was lower among several sociodemographic groups, such as women, adults aged 20-49 years, and those with a low-income level. Several psychological factors, especially the perceived effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccine, and willingness to protect others by getting oneself vaccinated, were associated with vaccine acceptance. Our results indicate that the perceived effectiveness of the vaccine and willingness to protect others may play an important role in the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine.

10.
BJPsych Open ; 7(2): e50, 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been indicated that the health impact of COVID-19 is potentially greater in individuals from lower socioeconomic status than in the overall population. AIMS: To examine how the spread of COVID-19 has altered the general public's mental health, and whether such changes differ in relation to individual income. METHOD: An online longitudinal survey was conducted at three different time periods during the pandemic. We recruited 1993 people aged 20-70 years, living in the Tokyo metropolitan area in Japan. Participants' mental health was measured with the six-item version of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale; the existence of severe psychological distress was ascertained through the cut-off data. Multiple logistic and mixed-model ordinal logistic regression analyses were performed, with income as the independent variable. RESULTS: Of the participants, 985 were male, with a mean age of 50.5 (±15.8) years. Severe psychological distress percentages for each tested period were 9.3%, 11.2% and 10.7% for phases 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Between phases 1 and 2 or phases 2 and 3, the group that earned <£15 000 had significantly higher propensity to develop severe psychological distress than the group that earned ≥£45 000 (odds ratio 2.09, 95% CI 0.95-4.56 between phases 1 and 2; odds ratio 3.00, 95% CI 1.01-9.58 between phases 2 and 3). CONCLUSIONS: Although there has been significant deterioration in mental health among citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic, this was more significant among those with lower income. Therefore, mental health measures that focus on low socioeconomic groups may be necessary.

11.
J Epidemiol ; 30(11): 522-528, 2020 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-789070

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This longitudinal study aimed to examine the changes in psychological distress of the general public from the early to community-transmission phases of the COVID-19 pandemic and to investigate the factors related to these changes. METHODS: An internet-based survey of 2,400 Japanese people was conducted in two phases: early phase (baseline survey: February 25-27, 2020) and community-transmission phase (follow-up survey: April 1-6, 2020). The presence of severe psychological distress (SPD) was measured using the Kessler's Six-scale Psychological Distress Scale. The difference of SPD percentages between the two phases was examined. Mixed-effects ordinal logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the factors associated with the change of SPD status between the two phases. RESULTS: Surveys for both phases had 2,078 valid respondents (49.3% men; average age, 50.3 years). In the two surveys, individuals with SPD were 9.3% and 11.3%, respectively, demonstrating a significant increase between the two phases (P = 0.005). Significantly higher likelihood to develop SPD were observed among those in lower (ie, 18,600-37,200 United States dollars [USD], odds ratio [OR] 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-3.46) and the lowest income category (ie, <18,600 USD, OR 2.12; 95% CI, 1.16-3.86). Furthermore, those with respiratory diseases were more likely to develop SPD (OR 2.56; 95% CI, 1.51-4.34). CONCLUSIONS: From the early to community-transmission phases of COVID-19, psychological distress increased among the Japanese. Recommendations include implementing mental health measures together with protective measures against COVID-19 infection, prioritizing low-income people and those with underlying diseases.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychological Distress , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Depression/psychology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Young Adult
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(18)2020 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750677

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of face masks by healthy individuals for prevention has been attracting public attention. However, efficacy depends on proper usage. We set out to determine the prevalence of wearing masks to prevent COVID-19 and compliance with appropriate measures for the correct use of face masks among the general public in Japan where wearing medical masks is a "cultural" normality. This cross-sectional study was based on an internet-based survey completed by 2141 people (50.8% men, aged 20-79 years) who were selected among registrants of an Internet research company between 1 April and 6 April 2020. Participants were asked to indicate how often they wore masks for prevention and to what extent they practiced appropriate measures suggested by the World Health Organization. The prevalence of wearing masks was 80.9% and compliance rates with appropriate measures ranged from 38.3% to 83.5%. Only 23.1% complied with all recommendations. Compliance rates were overall low in men and persons with low household incomes. Our results, hence show that many citizens implement inaccurate measures when using face masks. Therefore, providing guidance on correct usage is essential when encouraging the use of face masks to prevent COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Equipment Failure , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
13.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(2): 157-160, 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736878

ABSTRACT

Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, it has rapidly spread worldwide, and the number of cases is also increasing in Japan. The number of COVID-19 cases in Japan in the early stages was not uniform, and cases were largely concentrated in several prefectures. There was a strong, positive correlation between the distribution of COVID-19 cases and the number of foreign travelers as well as Chinese travelers, at prefectural level, with coefficients of 0.68 (P < 0.0001) and 0.60 (P < 0.0001), respectively. Moreover, phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that all the registered SARS-CoV-2 detected from January 23 to February 29, 2020, belonged to Chinese lineage, while those detected in March 2020 belonged to American and European lineages. Only 14 (20.3%) were infected outside Japan; however, the majority of the cases (79.7%) were infected domestically. In conclusion, a higher number of COVID-19 cases were identified in prefectures with more Chinese travelers, supporting the importance of enforcing policies that restrict the entry of overseas travelers to control COVID-19 spread. These findings highlight the risk of secondary transmission in the community caused by apparent or silently imported cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel-Related Illness , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
Trop Med Health ; 48: 63, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-692310

ABSTRACT

Background: Self-isolation is an important personal protective measure in inhibiting the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as people carry out economic and social activities amid its spread. Yet few studies have clarified the actual implementation status of self-isolation during an outbreak. This study aimed to reveal the actual implementation of self-isolation among Japanese workers during the COVID-19 outbreak and the factors inhibiting this measure. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on an internet survey completed by 1,226 workers (60.0% men) living in 7 prefectures (i.e., Tokyo, Kanagawa, Saitama, Chiba, Ibaraki, Tochigi, and Gunma) who were selected among registrants of an Internet research company, between May 12 and 17, 2020. Participants were asked whether they had experienced fever or other cold symptoms between February 17, 2020 and the date of the survey. Those who responded affirmatively were asked where they had visited (e.g., hospital, work, and shopping for groceries or necessities) to clarify whether they had left the house within 7 days after symptom onset. We performed multivariate logistic regression analysis to clarify the relationship between going to work within 7 days after symptom onset and both sociodemographic factors and employment-related constraints. Results: Of the survey participants, 82 had experienced fever or other cold symptoms (6.7%). Among these participants, 51 (62.2%) went to work within 7 days after symptom onset. A mere 17.1% practiced strict self-isolation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that those living outside the metropolitan area (i.e., Ibaraki, Tochigi, and Gunma), working as a company employee, and being unable to work from home were associated with going to work within 7 days after symptom onset. Conclusions: The prevalence of strict self-isolation among participants who experienced cold-like symptoms during the COVID-19 outbreak was extremely low, and 62.2% of these participants went to work within 7 days after symptom onset. This study highlights the need for further public awareness regarding self-isolation and countermeasures against factors that obstruct it.

15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 96: 371-375, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276444

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To clarify changes in the implementation of personal protective measures among ordinary Japanese citizens from the early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak to the community transmission phase. METHODS: This longitudinal, internet-based survey included 2141 people (50.8% men; 20-79 years). The baseline and follow-up surveys were conducted from February 25-27, 2020, and April 1-6, 2020, respectively. Participants were asked how often they implemented the five personal protective measures recommended by the World Health Organization (hand hygiene, social distancing, avoiding touching the eyes, nose and mouth, respiratory etiquette, and self-isolation) in the baseline and follow-up surveys. RESULTS: Three of the five personal protective measures' availability significantly improved during the community transmission phase compared to the early phase. Social distancing measures showed significant improvement, from 67.4% to 82.2%. However, the prevalence of avoiding touching the eyes, nose, and mouth, which had the lowest prevalence in the early phase, showed no significant improvement (approximately 60%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that men and persons of low-income households made fewer improvements than women and persons of high-income households. CONCLUSIONS: The availability of personal protective measures by ordinary citizens is improving; however, there is potential for improvement, especially concerning avoiding touching eyes, nose, and mouth.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Isolation , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 94: 139-144, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-46641

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To clarify the implementation status of personal protective measures by ordinary citizens in Japan during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study based on internet-based survey. A total of 2400 people (50% male: 20-79 years) were selected between February 25 and 27, 2020, from registrants of an Internet research company, to complete a questionnaire. Participants were asked to indicate how often they implemented the following five personal protective measures recommended by the World Health Organization (hand hygiene, social distancing measures, avoiding touching the eyes, nose and mouth, respiratory etiquette, and self-isolation). In addition, the participants responded to questions regarding the daily frequency of hand hygiene events. RESULTS: The prevalence of the five personal protective measures ranged from 59.8% to 83.8%, with the lowest being avoiding touching the eyes, nose, and mouth. In total, 34.7% implemented all personal protective measures. The median daily hand hygiene events were 5 per day (25th percentile, 75th percentile: 3,8). CONCLUSIONS: The protective measures implemented by ordinary citizens are insufficient and further public awareness activities are required.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Behavior , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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