Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 5 de 5
Filter
1.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(11): e418-e423, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: School closures are a subject of debate during the present coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Because children are not the main driver of COVID-19 transmission in the community, school education must be prioritized in conjunction with appropriate infection prevention and control measures, as determined by local COVID-19 incidence. METHODS: We investigated the causes and transmission routes of a primary school cluster of COVID-19 that occurred during November and December 2020 in Niigata, Japan. RESULTS: In the cluster, the virus spread among teachers, then from teachers to students, and then to their family members. This primary school cluster comprised 26 infected patients and included teachers (13/33, 39%), students (9/211, 4%), and family members (4/65, 6%). The secondary attack rate from the 3 index teachers to the remaining 30 teachers was 33%; however, the rate to students was only 4%. Factors contributing to cluster formation include the fact that 2 of the index teachers continued working while symptomatic and that the environment and infection prevention measures in the teachers' room were inadequate. CONCLUSIONS: To open schools safely and without interruption, adequate measures to prevent COVID-19 infection in schools should be emphasized not only for children but also for teachers and their environment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Outbreaks , SARS-CoV-2 , School Teachers , Schools , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Female , Humans , Incidence , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health Surveillance , Young Adult
2.
Pediatr Int ; 2021 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299195

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the lives of people of all ages. Most reports on pediatric cases suggest that children experience fewer and milder symptoms than do adults. This is the first nationwide study in Japan focusing on pediatric cases reported by pediatricians, including cases with no or mild symptoms. METHODS: We analyzed the epidemiological and clinical characteristics and transmission patterns of 840 pediatric (<16 years old) COVID-19 cases reported between February and December 2020 in Japan, using a dedicated database which was maintained voluntarily by members of the Japan Pediatric Society. RESULTS: Almost half of the patients (47.7%) were asymptomatic, while most of the others presented mild symptoms. At the time of admission or first outpatient clinic visit, 84.0% of the cases were afebrile (<37.5°C). In total, 609 cases (72.5%) were exposed to COVID-19-positive household members. We analyzed the influence of nationwide school closures that were introduced in March 2020 on COVID-19 transmission routes among children in Japan. Transmission within households occurred most frequently, with no significant difference between the periods before and after declaring nationwide school closures (70.9% and 74.5%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 symptoms in children are less severe than those in adults. School closure appeared to have a limited effect on transmission. Controlling household transmission from adult family members is the most important measure for prevention of COVID-19 among children.

3.
Vaccine ; 39(29): 4006-4012, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240643

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has greatly affected daily life. COVID-19 often causes asymptomatic or mild disease in children; however, delayed routine childhood immunization is a concern, as it could increase the risk of vaccine-preventable disease. No study has evaluated the status of childhood vaccinations in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This retrospective observational study evaluated the number of vaccine doses administered to children in 4 Japanese cities (2 cities in the Tokyo metropolitan area and 2 cities far from Tokyo) during the period from 2016 to 2020. Vaccine doses administered between January and September 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic were compared, by month, with those given during 2016-2019. Age-stratified demographic data were collected to determine whether factors other than change in the child population over time affected vaccination trends. RESULTS: In all cities the decrease in vaccine doses administered was most apparent in March and April 2020, i.e., just before or coincident with the declaration of a nationwide COVID-19 emergency on April 7, 2020. The decrease started as early as February in the Tokyo metropolitan area. As child age increased, the decrease became more apparent. Before the lift of national emergency on May 25, catch-up of the vaccination was observed in all age groups in all cities. Vaccine doses persistently increased in older age groups but not in infants. The overall vaccination trends did not differ significantly among the 4 cities. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected routine childhood immunization in Japan. Thus, a nationwide electronic surveillance system and announcements for guardians to encourage timely routine immunization are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Child , Humans , Immunization Programs , Infant , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
Vaccine ; 39(22): 3018-3024, 2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208593

ABSTRACT

The Japanese immunization program has made considerable progress since 2009: several new vaccines have been introduced and most are included in the National Immunization Program (NIP). In October 2020, the Japanese law on immunization was revised, which resulted in a few laudable achievements. First, rotavirus vaccines were added to the NIP, 10 years after their introduction, and noteworthy studies of vaccine effectiveness and the incidence of intussusception in Japanese children were published. Second, rules on vaccine intervals-which had been a longstanding concern-were withdrawn. In addition to this revision of the law, the Japanese version of the Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) was released by the Japan Pediatric Society in 2018. The VIS provides useful caregiver information on general immunization concepts and individual vaccines. Further challenges for the Japanese immunization program include (1) administering a booster dose of pertussis-containing vaccine to preschool children or teenagers, (2) reestablishing the active recommendation for human papilloma virus vaccines, (3) adding the mumps and influenza vaccines to the NIP, and (4) ensuring optimal dosing of seasonal influenza vaccines. During the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, vaccination rates among children have been decreasing in many countries. In Japan, vaccination rates have been stable in infants, but declining among toddlers and school-aged children, despite public awareness of the need for timely administration of vaccines during the pandemic. Clearly, further action is needed if we are to adequately protect children living in Japan from vaccine-preventable diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Immunization Programs , Infant , Japan , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
J Hosp Med ; 15(5): 262-267, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-213163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is key to preventing healthcare-associated infection and the spread of respiratory viruses like the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19. Unfortunately, hand hygiene adherence of healthcare workers (HCWs) in Japan is suboptimal according to previous studies. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to evaluate hand hygiene adherence among physicians and nurses before touching hospitalized patients and to evaluate changes in hand hygiene adherence after a multimodal intervention was implemented. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a pre- and postintervention study with HCWs at four tertiary hospitals in Niigata, Japan. Hand hygiene observations were conducted from June to August 2018 (preintervention) and February to March 2019 (postintervention). INTERVENTION: The multimodal hand hygiene intervention recommended by the World Health Organization was tailored to each hospital and implemented from September 2018 to February 2019. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We observed hand hygiene adherence before touching patients in each hospital and compared rates before and after intervention. Intervention components were also evaluated. RESULTS: There were 2,018 patient observations preintervention and 1,630 postintervention. Overall, hand hygiene adherence improved from 453 of 2,018 preintervention observations (22.4%) to 548 of 1,630 postintervention observations (33.6%; P < .001). Rates improved more among nurses (13.9 percentage points) than among doctors (5.7 percentage points). Improvement varied among the hospitals: Hospital B (18.4 percentage points) was highest, followed by Hospitals D (11.4 percentage points), C (11.3 percentage points), and Hospital A (6.5 percentage points). CONCLUSIONS: A multimodal intervention improved hand hygiene adherence rates in physicians and nurses in Niigata, Japan; however, further improvement is necessary. Given the current suboptimal hand hygiene adherence rates in Japanese hospitals, the spread of COVID-19 within the hospital setting is a concern.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence , Hand Disinfection/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Hospital Units , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Practice Guidelines as Topic
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...