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PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270485, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938442


OBJECTIVE: There is a probability that vaccination may lead to reduction in the severity and complications associated with COVID-19 infection among hospitalized patients. This study aimed to determine the characteristics, clinical profiles, and outcomes of COVID-19 infection in vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients. DESIGN AND DATA SOURCES: This prospective observational cohort study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) and recruited COVID-19 patients admitted between June 1st and September 30th, 2021. Patients' demographics, date of admission and discharge, comorbid conditions, immunization status for COVID-19 infection, presenting complaints, lab workup and computed tomography (CT) scan findings were obtained from the medical records. The primary outcome of the study was patients' condition at discharge and the secondary outcomes included level of care, length of stay (LOS), requirement of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and inotropic support. RESULTS: Among a cohort of 434 patients, 37.7% (n = 164), 6.6% (n = 29) and 55.5% (n = 241) were fully vaccinated, partially vaccinated, and unvaccinated, respectively. Around 3% and 42.9% of the patient required inotropic and NIV support respectively; however, there was no discernible difference between them in terms of vaccination status. In case of unvaccinated patients there were significantly increased number of critical care admissions (p-value 0.043). Unvaccinated patients had significantly higher median serum procalcitonin, ferritin, LDH and D-dimer levels. Around 5.3% (n = 23) of the patient required invasive ventilation and it was more common in unvaccinated patients (p-value 0.04). Overall, mortality rate was 12.2% (n = 53) and this was higher (16.2%, n = 39) in unvaccinated patients as compared to fully vaccinated patients (6.1%, n = 10, p-value 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Through this preliminary data, we can conclude that patient can develop severe and critical COVID-19 infection despite being vaccinated but this proportion is low as compared to unvaccinated population. So, uninterrupted endeavors need to be done to vaccinate as many individuals as possible. Furthermore, more effective vaccinations need to be developed to lessen the high death toll of COVID-19 infection.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Critical Care , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 229-239, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544339


Observational studies indicate that pleural effusion has an association with risk and the clinical prognosis of COVID-19 disease; however, the available literature on this area is inconsistent. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the correlation between COVID-19 disease and pleural effusion. A rigorous literature search was conducted using multiple databases. All eligible observational studies were included from around the globe. The pooled prevalence and associated 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using the random effect model. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios were produced to report overall effect size using random effect models for severity and mortality outcomes. Funnel plots, Egger regression tests, and Begg-Mazumdar's rank correlation test were used to appraise publication bias. Data from 23 studies including 6234 COVID-19 patients was obtained. The overall prevalence of pleural effusion in COVID-19 patients was 9.55% (95% CI, I2 = 92%). Our findings also indicated that the presence of pleural effusions associated with increased risk of severity of disease(OR = 5.08, 95% CI 3.14-8.22, I2 = 77.4%) and mortality due to illness(OR = 4.53, 95% CI 2.16-9.49, I2 = 66%) compared with patients without pleural effusion. Sensitivity analyses illustrated a similar effect size while decreasing the heterogeneity. No significant publication bias was evident in the meta-analysis. The presence of pleural effusion can assist as a prognostic factor to evaluate the risk of worse outcomes in COVID-19 patients hence, it is recommended that hospitalized COVID-19 patients with pleural effusion should be managed on an early basis.

COVID-19/complications , Pleural Effusion/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Pleural Effusion/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index