Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 21
Filter
1.
J Neurochem ; 2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532824

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with encephalitis in critically ill patients and endothelial dysfunction seems to contribute to this life-threatening complication. Our objective was to determine the hallmark of endothelial activation in COVID-19-related encephalitis. In an observational study in intensive care unit (ICU), we compared vascular biomarkers of critically ill COVID-19 patients with or without encephalitis. To be classified in the encephalitis group, patients had to have new onset of central neurologic symptom, and pathological findings on either brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or electroencephalogram (EEG). Among the 32 critically ill COVID-19 consecutive patients, 21 were categorized in the control group and 11 in the encephalitis group. Encephalitis patients had a longer ICU stay than control patients (median length [25th-75th percentile] of 52 [16-79] vs. 20.5 [11-44] days, respectively, p = 0.04). Nine-month overall follow-up mortality reached 21% (7/32 patients), with mortality rates in the encephalitis group and the control group of 27% and 19%, respectively. Encephalitis was associated with significant higher release of soluble endothelial activation markers (sE-selectin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 6, placental growth factor, and thrombomodulin), but these increases were correlated with TNF-α plasmatic levels. The hypoxia-inducible protein angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) was at significantly higher levels in encephalitis patients compared to control patients (p = 0.0099), and in contrary to the other increased factors, was not correlated with TNF-α levels (r = 0.2832, p = 0.1163). Our findings suggest that COVID-19-related encephalitis is a cytokine-associated acute brain dysfunction. ANGPTL4 was the only elevated marker found in encephalitis patients, which was not correlated with systemic inflammation, suggesting that ANGPTL4 might be a relevant factor to predict encephalitis in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

2.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506221

ABSTRACT

Two messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines developed by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna are being rolled out. Despite the high volume of emerging evidence regarding adverse events (AEs) associated with the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, previous studies have thus far been largely based on the comparison between vaccinated and unvaccinated control, possibly highlighting the AE risks with COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Comparing the safety profile of mRNA vaccinated individuals with otherwise vaccinated individuals would enable a more relevant assessment for the safety of mRNA vaccination. We designed a comparative safety study between 18 755 and 27 895 individuals who reported to VigiBase for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with mRNA COVID-19 and influenza vaccines, respectively, from January 1, 2020, to January 17, 2021. We employed disproportionality analysis to rapidly detect relevant safety signals and compared comparative risks of a diverse span of AEFIs for the vaccines. The safety profile of novel mRNA vaccines was divergent from that of influenza vaccines. The overall pattern suggested that systematic reactions like chill, myalgia, fatigue were more noticeable with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, while injection site reactogenicity events were more prevalent with the influenza vaccine. Compared to the influenza vaccine, mRNA COVID-19 vaccines demonstrated a significantly higher risk for a few manageable cardiovascular complications, such as hypertensive crisis (adjusted reporting odds ratio [ROR], 12.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.47-65.54), and supraventricular tachycardia (adjusted ROR, 7.94; 95% CI, 2.62-24.00), but lower risk of neurological complications such as syncope, neuralgia, loss of consciousness, Guillain-Barre syndrome, gait disturbance, visual impairment, and dyskinesia. This study has not identified significant safety concerns regarding mRNA vaccination in real-world settings. The overall safety profile patterned a lower risk of serious AEFI following mRNA vaccines compared to influenza vaccines.

3.
Clin Transl Sci ; 2021 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494654

ABSTRACT

On October 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved remdesivir as the first drug for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), increasing remdesivir prescriptions worldwide. However, potential cardiovascular (CV) toxicities associated with remdesivir remain unknown. We aimed to characterize the CV adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with remdesivir using VigiBase, an individual case safety report database of the World Health Organization (WHO). Disproportionality analyses of CV-ADRs associated with remdesivir were performed using reported odds ratios and information components. We conducted in vitro experiments using cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cell cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) to confirm cardiotoxicity of remdesivir. To distinguish drug-induced CV-ADRs from COVID-19 effects, we restricted analyses to patients with COVID-19 and found that, after adjusting for multiple confounders, cardiac arrest (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-3.29), bradycardia (aOR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.24-3.53), and hypotension (aOR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.03-2.73) were associated with remdesivir. In vitro data demonstrated that remdesivir reduced the cell viability of hPSC-CMs in time- and dose-dependent manners. Physicians should be aware of potential CV consequences following remdesivir use and implement adequate CV monitoring to maintain a tolerable safety margin.

5.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 165, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 diabetic adults are at increased risk of severe forms irrespective of obesity. In patients with type-II diabetes, fat distribution is characterized by visceral and ectopic adipose tissues expansion, resulting in systemic inflammation, which may play a role in driving the COVID-19 cytokine storm. Our aim was to determine if cardiac adipose tissue, combined to interleukin-6 levels, could predict adverse short-term outcomes, death and ICU requirement, in COVID-19 diabetic patients during the 21 days after admission. METHODS: Eighty one consecutive patients with type-II diabetes admitted for COVID-19 were included. Interleukin-6 measurement and chest computed tomography with total cardiac adipose tissue index (CATi) measurement were performed at admission. The primary outcome was death during the 21 days following admission while intensive care requirement with or without early death (ICU-R) defined the secondary endpoint. Associations of CATi and IL-6 and threshold values to predict the primary and secondary endpoints were determined. RESULTS: Of the enrolled patients (median age 66 years [IQR: 59-74]), 73% male, median body mass index (BMI) 27 kg/m2 [IQR: 24-31]) 20 patients had died from COVID-19, 20 required intensive care and 41 were in conventional care at day 21 after admission. Increased CATi and IL-6 levels were both significantly related to increased early mortality (respectively OR = 6.15, p = 0.002; OR = 18.2, p < 0.0001) and ICU-R (respectively OR = 3.27, p = 0.01; OR = 4.86, p = 0.002). These associations remained significant independently of age, sex, BMI as well as troponin-T level and pulmonary lesion extension in CT. We combined CATi and IL-6 levels as a multiplicative interaction score (CATi*IL-6). The cut-point for this score was ≥ 6386 with a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 0.87 (AUC = 0.88) and an OR of 59.6 for early mortality (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac adipose tissue index and IL-6 determination at admission could help physicians to better identify diabetic patients with a potentially severe and lethal short term course irrespective of obesity. Diabetic patients with high CATi at admission, a fortiori associated with high IL-6 levels could be a relevant target population to promptly initiate anti-inflammatory therapies.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue/pathology , COVID-19/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Interleukin-6/blood , Myocardium/pathology , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Size , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(9): 1970-1972.e3, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212376

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir has demonstrated clinical benefits in randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)1-4 and was first approved for COVID-19 patients.5 However, whether remdesivir causes gastrointestinal adverse drug reaction (GI-ADRs) including hepatotoxicity is less clear.1-4,6 Therefore, we aimed to detect a diverse spectrum of GI-ADRs associated with remdesivir using VigiBase, the World Health Organization's international pharmacovigilance database of individual case safety reports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Databases, Factual , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Humans , Pharmacovigilance , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
8.
Bull Cancer ; 108(6): 581-588, 2021 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220743

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with solid cancer or haematologic malignancies have been considered to be more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and to more often develop severe complications. We aimed to compare the differences in clinical features and outcomes of COVID-19 patients with and without cancer. METHODS: This was a prospective observational cohort study of consecutive adult patients hospitalised in a COVID-19 unit at Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris, France (NCT04320017). RESULTS: Among the 262 patients hospitalised in a medical ward during the pandemics with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis, 62 patients had cancer. Clinical presentation, comorbidities, and outcomes were similar between cancer and non-cancer patients. However, cancer patients were more likely to have been contaminated while being hospitalised. CONCLUSIONS: Oncologic and non-oncologic patients hospitalised for COVID-19 shared similar outcomes in terms of death, admission in intensive care, or thrombosis/bleeding. They should benefit from the same therapeutic strategy as the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Neoplasms/complications , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Cross Infection/mortality , Cross Infection/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/mortality , Neoplasms/therapy , Paris/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
9.
Int J Cardiol ; 324: 255-260, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065148

ABSTRACT

The antiretroviral drug lopinavir/ritonavir has been recently repurposed for the treatment of COVID-19. Its empirical use has been associated with multiple cardiac adverse reactions pertaining to its ancillary multi-channel blocking properties, vaguely characterized until now. We aimed to characterize qualitatively the cardiotoxicity associated with lopinavir/ritonavir in the setting of COVID-19. Spontaneous notifications of cardiac adverse drug reactions reported to the national Pharmacovigilance Network were collected for 8 weeks since March 1st 2020. The Nice Regional Center of Pharmacovigilance, whose scope of expertise is drug-induced long QT syndrome, analyzed the cases, including the reassessment of all available ECGs. QTc ≥ 500 ms and delta QTc > 60 ms from baseline were deemed serious. Twenty-two cases presented with 28 cardiac adverse reactions associated with the empirical use of lopinavir/ritonavir in a hospital setting. Most adverse reactions reflected lopinavir/ritonavir potency to block voltage-gated potassium channels with 5 ventricular arrhythmias and 17 QTc prolongations. An average QTc augmentation of 97 ± 69 ms was reported. Twelve QTc prolongations were deemed serious. Other cases were likely related to lopinavir/ritonavir potency to block sodium channels: 1 case of bundle branch block and 5 recurrent bradycardias. The incidence of cardiac adverse reactions of lopinavir/ritonavir was estimated between 0.3% and 0.4%. These cardiac adverse drug reactions offer a new insight in its ancillary multi-channel blocking functions. Lopinavir/ritonavir cardiotoxicity may be of concern for its empirical use during the COVID-19 pandemic. Caution should be exerted relative to this risk where lopinavir/ritonavir summary of product characteristics should be implemented accordingly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiotoxicity/epidemiology , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Pharmacovigilance , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cardiotoxicity/diagnosis , Drug Combinations , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Electrocardiography/trends , Female , France/epidemiology , HIV Protease Inhibitors/administration & dosage , HIV Protease Inhibitors/adverse effects , Humans , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Potassium Channel Blockers/administration & dosage , Potassium Channel Blockers/adverse effects
11.
Therapie ; 76(4): 285-295, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) dosage required to reach circulating levels that inhibit SARS-Cov-2 are extrapolated from pharmacokinetic data in non-COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We performed a population-pharmacokinetic analysis from 104 consecutive COVID-19 hospitalized patients (31 in intensive care units, 73 in medical wards, n=149 samples). Plasma HCQ concentration were measured using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection. Modelling used Monolix-2019R2. RESULTS: HCQ doses ranged from 200 to 800mg/day administered for 1 to 11days and median HCQ plasma concentration was 151ng/mL. Among the tested covariates, only bodyweight influenced elimination oral clearance (CL) and apparent volume of distribution (Vd). CL/F (F for unknown bioavailability) and Vd/F (relative standard-error, %) estimates were 45.9L/h (21.2) and 6690L (16.1). The derived elimination half-life (t1/2) was 102h. These parameters in COVID-19 differed from those reported in patients with lupus, where CL/F, Vd/F and t1/2 are reported to be 68L/h, 2440 L and 19.5h, respectively. Within 72h of HCQ initiation, only 16/104 (15.4%) COVID-19 patients had HCQ plasma levels above the in vitro half maximal effective concentration of HCQ against SARS-CoV-2 (240ng/mL). HCQ did not influence inflammation status (assessed by C-reactive protein) or SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance (assessed by real-time reverse transcription-PCR nasopharyngeal swabs). CONCLUSION: The interindividual variability of HCQ pharmacokinetic parameters in severe COVID-19 patients was important and differed from that previously reported in non-COVID-19 patients. Loading doses of 1600mg HCQ followed by 600mg daily doses are needed to reach concentrations relevant to SARS-CoV-2 inhibition within 72hours in≥60% (95% confidence interval: 49.5-69.0%) of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacokinetics , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 13(10)2020 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006135

ABSTRACT

Tocilizumab, an anti-interleukin-6 receptor, administrated during the right timeframe may be beneficial against coronavirus-disease-2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. All patients admitted for severe COVID-19 pneumonia (SpO2 ≤ 96% despite O2-support ≥ 6 L/min) without invasive mechanical ventilation were included in a retrospective cohort study in a primary care hospital. The treatment effect of a single-dose, 400 mg, of tocilizumab was assessed by comparing those who received tocilizumab to those who did not. Selection bias was mitigated using three statistical methods. Primary outcome measure was a composite of mortality and ventilation at day 28. A total of 246 patients were included (106 were treated with tocilizumab). Overall, 105 (42.7%) patients presented the primary outcome, with 71 (28.9%) deaths during the 28-day follow-up. Propensity-score-matched 84 pairs of comparable patients. In the matched cohort (n = 168), tocilizumab was associated with fewer primary outcomes than the control group (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.49 (95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 0.3-0.81), p-value = 0.005). These results were similar in the overall cohort (n = 246), with Cox multivariable analysis yielding a protective association between tocilizumab and primary outcome (adjusted HR = 0.26 (95%CI = 0.135-0.51, p = 0.0001), confirmed by inverse probability score weighting (IPSW) analysis (p < 0.0001). Analyses on mortality only, with 28 days of follow-up, yielded similar results. In this study, tocilizumab 400 mg in a single-dose was associated with improved survival without mechanical ventilation in patients with severe COVID-19.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242840, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940725

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the initial chest CT to diagnose COVID-19 related pneumonia in a French population of patients with respiratory symptoms according to the time from the onset of country-wide confinement to better understand what could be the role of the chest CT in the different phases of the epidemic. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Initial chest CT of 1064 patients with respiratory symptoms suspect of COVID-19 referred between March 18th, and May 12th 2020, were read according to a standardized procedure. The results of chest CTs were compared to the results of the RT-PCR. RESULTS: 546 (51%) patients were found to be positive for SARS-CoV2 at RT-PCR. The highest rate of positive RT-PCR was during the second week of confinement reaching 71.9%. After six weeks of confinement, the positive RT-PCR rate dropped significantly to 10.5% (p<0.001) and even 2.2% during the two last weeks. Overall, CT revealed patterns suggestive of COVID-19 in 603 patients (57%), whereas an alternative diagnosis was found in 246 patients (23%). CT was considered normal in 215 patients (20%) and inconclusive in 1 patient. The overall sensitivity of CT was 88%, specificity 76%, PPV 79%, and NPV 85%. At week-2, the same figures were 89%, 69%, 88% and 71% respectively and 60%, 84%, 30% and 95% respectively at week-6. At the end of confinement when the rate of positive PCR became extremely low the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of CT were 50%, 82%, 6% and 99% respectively. CONCLUSION: At the peak of the epidemic, chest CT had sufficiently high sensitivity and PPV to serve as a first-line positive diagnostic tool but at the end of the epidemic wave CT is more useful to exclude COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mass Chest X-Ray/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Mass Chest X-Ray/standards , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Reference Standards , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/standards , Young Adult
16.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240711, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874200

ABSTRACT

Prognostic factors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients among European population are lacking. Our objective was to identify early prognostic factors upon admission to optimize the management of COVID-19 patients hospitalized in a medical ward. This French single-center prospective cohort study evaluated 152 patients with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay, hospitalized in the Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology Department, at Pitié-Salpêtrière's Hospital, in Paris, France, a tertiary care university hospital. Predictive factors of intensive care unit (ICU) transfer or death at day 14 (D14), of being discharge alive and severe status at D14 (remaining with ventilation, or death) were evaluated in multivariable logistic regression models; models' performances, including discrimination and calibration, were assessed (C-index, calibration curve, R2, Brier score). A validation was performed on an external sample of 132 patients hospitalized in a French hospital close to Paris, in Aulnay-sous-Bois, Île-de-France. The probability of ICU transfer or death was 32% (47/147) (95% CI 25-40). Older age (OR 2.61, 95% CI 0.96-7.10), poorer respiratory presentation (OR 4.04 per 1-point increment on World Health Organization (WHO) clinical scale, 95% CI 1.76-9.25), higher CRP-level (OR 1.63 per 100mg/L increment, 95% CI 0.98-2.71) and lower lymphocytes count (OR 0.36 per 1000/mm3 increment, 95% CI 0.13-0.99) were associated with an increased risk of ICU requirement or death. A 9-point ordinal scale scoring system defined low (score 0-2), moderate (score 3-5), and high (score 6-8) risk patients, with predicted respectively 2%, 25% and 81% risk of ICU transfer or death at D14. Therefore, in this prospective cohort study of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients hospitalized in a medical ward in France, a simplified scoring system at admission predicted the outcome at D14.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Forecasting/methods , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Patient Transfer/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Paris/epidemiology , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Lancet ; 396(10245): e2-e3, 2020 07 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-661790
20.
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...