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PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275754, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089414


INTRODUCTION: Many developing countries have drastically imbalanced health systems in different regions. The COVID-19 outbreak posed a further challenge as hospital structures, equipped with doctors, critical care units and respirators, were not available to a sufficient extent in all regions. OBJECTIVE: This study is a descriptive study on the efficiency of Malaysian states in facing the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODOLOGY: The efficiency of all Malaysian states was measured using Data Envelopment Analysis in which each state's Score of COVID Index (SCI) was quantified. The SCI of these states were then further compared between the year 2020 and 2021. A greater disparity would indicate a decline in the performance of a state over time, where nearly all the states in Malaysia experienced an increase in the score of COVID Index (SCI). RESULT: This study found that the central region was the most affected, since all the three states in the region (Selangor, Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, and Federal Territory of Putrajaya) showed a situation of inadequacy (SCI: >0.75) due to the COVID-19 outbreak. CONCLUSION: The ranking of Malaysia's states according to their vulnerability to an outbreak of COVID-19 is vitally significant for the purposes of assisting the government and policymakers in planning their responses to the outbreak and ensuring that resources are distributed appropriately.

COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Malaysia/epidemiology
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(46): 66501-66509, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474082


This study intends to deal with the environmental consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia, by providing a summary of the effects of COVID-19 on municipal solid waste (MSW). In this analysis, the data on domestic waste collection were collected from the Solid Waste Management and Public Cleaning Corporation (SWCorp) from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2020 to evaluate the relative changes in MSW percentage via a waste weighing method. The data consisted of the cumulative tonnage of MSW for every local authority in Peninsular Malaysia and was classified according to MCO phases; before the MCO, during the MCO, during the conditional MCO (CMCO) and during the recovery MCO (RMCO) phases. The results indicated that the enforcement of the early MCO showed a positive effect by decreasing the volume of MSW. This decrease was noted across 41 local authorities, which accounts for 87.23% of Peninsular Malaysia. However, the amount of MSW began to increase again when the MCO reached the conditional and recovery stages. From this, it can be concluded that the implementation of the MCO, in its various incarnations, has shown us that our lifestyles can have a harmful impact on our environment. While the pandemic was still spreading and limitations were still in place in Malaysia, local governments and waste management companies had to quickly alter their waste management systems and procedures. The current circumstance allows us to rethink our social and economic structures while improving environmental and social inclusion.

COVID-19 , Refuse Disposal , Waste Management , Humans , Malaysia , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Solid Waste/analysis