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1.
J Crit Care ; 71: 154115, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015608

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Death is common in intensive care units, and integrating palliative care enhances outcomes. Most research has been conducted in high-income countries. The aim is to understand what is known about the type and topics of research on the provision of palliative care within intensive care units in low- and middle-income countries MATERIALS AND METHODS: Scoping review with nine databases systematically searched for literature published in English on palliative care in intensive care units in low- and middle- income settings (01/01/1990 to 31/05/2021). Two reviewers independently checked search results and extracted textual data, which were analyzed and represented as themes. RESULTS: Thirty papers reported 19 empirical studies, two clinical case reports and six discussion papers. Papers originated from Asia and Africa, primarily using observational designs and qualitative approaches, with no trials or other robust evaluative or comparative studies. No studies directly sought data from patients or families. Five areas of research focus were identified: withholding and withdrawing treatment; professional knowledge and skills; patient and family views; culture and context; and costs of care. CONCLUSIONS: Palliative care in intensive care units in low-and middle-income countries is understudied. Research focused on the specific needs of intensive care in low- and middle-income countries is required to ensure optimal patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Hospice and Palliative Care Nursing , Terminal Care , Developing Countries , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Palliative Care
2.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 28(3): 272-279, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1998154

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Palliative care (PC) referral in serious and critical COVID-19 improves decision-making, health resource utilisation, end-of-life symptom management and family support. In this study, we explored developing a systematic decision-making matrix for PC referral in COVID-19 and audited its outcomes. Materials and Methods: A team of interdisciplinary experts developed a hospital COVID-19 PC plan. PC referral and outcomes of PC referral in hospitalised COVID-19 patients were audited. Results: Out of 1575 inpatients, 1066 (67.7%) had mild and 509 (32.3%) had serious and critical COVID-19 illness. Among 50 (3.1%) referred to PC, 5 (0.4%) had mild and 45 (8.8%) had serious and critical COVID-19 illness. Out of 45 serious and critical COVID-19 patients referred to PC, 38 (84%) received end-of-life care (EOLC), 4 (9%) self-discharged against medical advice and 3 (7%) recovered. Forty-seven (94%) were referred for goals-of-care discussion. About 78% received opioids, 70% benzodiazepines and 42% haloperidol for symptom management. Among 45 serious and critical COVID-19 patients referred to PC, foregoing life-sustaining treatment was documented in 43 (96%) but implemented only in 23 (53%). Out of 38 who received EOLC, ICU was the place of death in 31 (82%) and ward in 7 (18%). Conclusion: Despite interdisciplinary experts developing a hospital COVID-19 PC, low referral of serious and critical COVID-19 patients to PC was observed. PC referral enabled access to management of end-of-life symptoms and facilitated limitation of life-sustaining treatment in some COVID-19 patients with serious illness. Educating critical care physicians about the scope of PC in the COVID-19 setting might improve PC referral.

3.
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 72(2):39-40, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1503056

ABSTRACT

This article provides an overview of ethics based decision-making during a COVID-19 pandemic crisis. COVID-19 pandemic has presented an unprecedented health crisis that has tested our ability to make appropriate choices and health decisions. These decisions are not limited to an individual but have an all-encompassing influence on the broader population. Therefore, these health decisions have to be moral and ethics based. This article provides an overview of ethics based decision-making during a COVID-19 pandemic crisis. Seven ethical principles guide decision-making in a pandemic crisis which includes minimizing harm, proportionality, solidarity, fairness, duty to provide, reciprocity, and privacy.

5.
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics ; 55:1-13, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1245805

ABSTRACT

With the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) being declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization, the Indian healthcare sector is at the forefront to deliver optimal care. Patients with cancer especially are at serious risk for increased chances of morbidity and mortality due to their immunocompromised state. Currently there is a paucity of definitive guidelines for the management of sarcomas during the pandemic in a resource-constrained and diverse population setting like India. Health care professionals from various specialties involved in the management of sarcomas have collaborated to discuss various aspects of evidence-based sarcoma management during the COVID-19 pandemic. This article provides structured recommendations for HCP to adapt to the situation, optimize treatment protocols with judicious use of all resources while providing evidence-based treatment for sarcoma patients. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Indian Journal of Orthopaedics is the property of Springer Nature and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

6.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 27(1): 152-171, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has been causing a high burden of suffering for patients and families. There is limited evidence on the preparedness of Indian palliative care services for the pandemic. AIM: This study aimed to assess the preparedness and capacity of Indian palliative care services in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was developed based on prior evidence and international health regulations. It was emailed to the Indian Palliative Care Association members and investigators' professional networks in India. One participant per palliative care service was requested. Descriptive analysis was used. RESULTS: Representatives of 78 palliative care services completed the survey. Three in four services had COVID-19 case definition and adapted their protocols for infection control (75%). About half of the services (55%) reported concerns about achieving appropriate hand hygiene in the community. More than half of the services (59%) had capacity to train nonspecialists for symptom control and psychological support. About half of the services reported that they had plans to redeploy staff (56%) and resources (53%) in the case of outbreaks. Two-fifths of the services used paper records to store an updated contact list of staff (40%) and did not have designated focal contacts for information update (40%). Staff anxiety related to personal infection risk and family care was relatively high (median score = 7 on a 1-10 scale). CONCLUSION: We recommend the following resource allocation to enable palliative care services to support the Indian health system in delivering essential care in this and future pandemics: (1) infection control, especially in the community; (2) training using existing clinical protocols to strengthen palliative care across the health system; and (3) redeployment plans.

7.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(7): 3169-3175, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890557

ABSTRACT

Novel Coronavirus (COVID 19) has usurped human peace and mobility. Since December 2019, the virus has claimed the lives of 87,816 people across the globe as of April 9, 2020 with India reporting a high case fatality of 3.4%. Among the vulnerable population, elderly people, and patients with comorbidities such as diabetes, chronic life-threatening illnesses, such as COPD and advanced malignancies are susceptible to COVID-19 infection and may have poor clinical outcomes. Considering the imbalance in demand and supply of healthcare resources, initiating palliative care will be essential to alleviate the suffering of such patients. The current paper deliberates on the following aspects of palliative care delivery in the community; the need for palliative care in a pandemic crisis, the role of telemedicine in palliative care delivery in the community, the vital role of a family physician in providing primary palliative care in the community and a "wholistic" community palliative care package to serve the needy in the community.

8.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 26(Suppl 1): S106-S115, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704928

ABSTRACT

Novel corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic that has impacted the entire world. The Indian government has responded strongly and very stringently to the crisis, through a nationwide lockdown. The health-care (HC) systems in the country are striving hard to maintain equitable care across illness spectra, while responding the emergencies imposed by the COVID-19 crisis. Under these circumstances, guidelines for managing several diseases including that for cancer care have been modified. As modified guidelines for cancer care have their focus on disease management, cancer pain management and maintaining continuity of care for patients with advanced progressive disease have taken a backseat in the available cancer care guidelines. This article describes the challenges, approaches to solutions with evidence-based practices that can be utilized to ensure competent management of cancer pain during the COVID-19 pandemic in India. It provides an overview of adapting to telehealth consultations for identification, evaluation and management of cancer pain, safe and rational use of analgesics and adjuvant drugs, recognizing and responding to holistic care needs and addressing the total pain, ensuring continuity of pain management, and strategies when complying with narcotic drug regulations, while ensuring safety of patients and HC providers.

9.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 26(Suppl 1): S3-S7, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704927

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic involving severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 has brought new challenges to clinical practice and care in the provision of palliative care. This position statement of the Indian Association of Palliative Care (IAPC) represents the collective opinion of the experts chosen by the society and reports on the current situation based on recent scientific evidence. It purports to guide all health-care professionals caring for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and recommends palliative care principles into government decisions and policies. The statement provides recommendations for palliative care for both adults and children with severe COVID-19 illness, cancer, and chronic end-stage organ impairment in the hospital, hospice, and home setting. Holistic care incorporating physical, psychological, social, and spiritual support for patients and their families together with recommendations on the rational use of personal protective equipment has been discussed in brief. Detailed information can be accessed freely from the website of the IAPC http://www.palliativecare.in/. We hope that this position statement will serve as a guiding light in these uncertain times.

10.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 24(6): 435-444, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-698802

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is causing a worldwide humanitarian crisis. Old age, comorbid conditions, end-stage organ impairment, and advanced cancer, increase the risk of mortality in serious COVID-19. A subset of serious COVID-19 patients with serious acute respiratory illness may be triaged not to receive aggressive intensive care unit (ICU) treatment and ventilation or may be discontinued from ventilation due to their underlying conditions. Those not eligible for aggressive ICU measures should receive appropriate symptom management. Early warning scores (EWS), oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate, can facilitate categorizing COVID-19 patients as stable, unstable, and end of life. Breathlessness, delirium, respiratory secretions, and pain, are the key symptoms that need to be assessed and palliated. Palliative sedation measures are needed to manage intractable symptoms. Goals of care should be discussed, and advance care plan should be made in patients who are unlikely to benefit from aggressive ICU measures and ventilation. For patients who are already in an ICU, either ventilated or needing ventilation, a futility assessment is made. If there is a consensus on futility, a family meeting is conducted either virtually or face to face depending on the infection risk and infection control protocol. The family should be sensitively communicated about the futility of ICU measures and foregoing life-sustaining treatment. Family meeting outcomes are documented, and consent for foregoing life-sustaining treatment is obtained. Appropriate symptom management enables comfort at the end of life to all serious COVID-19 patients not receiving or not eligible to receive ICU measures and ventilation. How to cite this article: Salins N, Mani RK, Gursahani R, Simha S, Bhatnagar S. Symptom Management and Supportive Care of Serious COVID-19 Patients and their Families in India. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(6):435-444.

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