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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 959567, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022984

ABSTRACT

Responding rapidly to emerging public health crises is vital to reducing their escalation, spread, and impact on population health. These responses, however, are challenging and disparate processes for researchers and practitioners. Researchers often develop new interventions that take significant time and resources, with little exportability. In contrast, community-serving systems are often poorly equipped to properly adopt new interventions or adapt existing ones in a data-driven way during crises' onset and escalation. This results in significant delays in deploying evidence-based interventions (EBIs) with notable public health consequences. This prolonged timeline for EBI development and implementation results in significant morbidity and mortality that is costly and preventable. As public health emergencies have demonstrated (e.g., COVID-19 pandemic), the negative consequences often exacerbate existing health disparities. Implementation science has the potential to bridge the extant gap between research and practice, and enhance equity in rapid public health responses, but is underutilized. For the field to have a greater "real-world" impact, it needs to be more rapid, iterative, participatory, and work within the timeframes of community-serving systems. This paper focuses on rapid adaptation as a developing implementation science area to facilitate system responses during public health crises. We highlight frameworks to guide rapid adaptation for optimizing existing EBIs when responding to urgent public health issues. We also explore the economic implications of rapid adaptation. Resource limitations are frequently a central reason for implementation failure; thus, we consider the economic impacts of rapid adaptation. Finally, we provide examples and propose directions for future research and application.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Implementation Science , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health
2.
Tob Induc Dis ; 19: 46, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282772

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The perceived health risks of tobacco products may change during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to examine the perceived risks of tobacco use on COVID-19 infection and severity, and possible COVID-related changes in perceptions of tobacco use and overall health. METHODS: We conducted an online survey of adults in the United States in June 2020 (n=2097). The survey covered cigarettes, cigars, e-cigarettes, and hookah. We also assessed changes in the use of any of the four tobacco products. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds of agreeing with the perceived risks for each risk and each product, with the adjustment of demographic and COVID-19 related variables. RESULTS: For all four tobacco products, the perceived risks to general health were slightly higher during the pandemic than before the pandemic (77% vs 79.5% for cigarettes) and the perceived risk of COVID-19 severity was larger than the perceived risk of COVID-19 infection (73.3% vs 56.2% for cigarettes). All risk measures varied with tobacco products consistently, with the risks highest for cigarettes, then cigars, followed by e-cigarettes and hookah. Females and people with higher income or education were more likely to endorse the risks of tobacco use than their counterparts. People who perceived higher risks of using cigarettes (OR=1.65; 95% CI: 1.20-2.27) and cigars (OR=1.63; 95% CI: 1.17-2.27) to COVID-19 severity were more likely to have decreased or quit their use. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco/nicotine use was perceived to increase the risk of COVID-19 severity and the perceived risk of tobacco/nicotine use to general health was high during the pandemic, particularly for cigarettes. The change of perceived risks appeared to be prompting harm-reducing changes in tobacco product use.

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