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3.
Ann Intensive Care ; 12(1): 37, 2022 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808384

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic tested the capacity of intensive care units (ICU) to respond to a crisis and demonstrated their fragility. Unsurprisingly, higher than usual mortality rates, lengths of stay (LOS), and ICU-acquired complications occurred during the pandemic. However, worse outcomes were not universal nor constant across ICUs and significant variation in outcomes was reported, demonstrating that some ICUs could adequately manage the surge of COVID-19. METHODS: In the present editorial, we discuss the concept of a resilient Intensive Care Unit, including which metrics can be used to address the capacity to respond, sustain results and incorporate new practices that lead to improvement. RESULTS: We believe that a resiliency analysis adds a component of preparedness to the usual ICU performance evaluation and outcomes metrics to be used during the crisis and in regular times. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated the need for a resilient health system. Although this concept has been discussed for health systems, it was not tested in intensive care. Future studies should evaluate this concept to improve ICU organization for standard and pandemic times.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 infection is a major cause of hospital admission and represents a challenge to resource management during ICU stay. We aimed to describe the clinical course, resource use and outcomes of COVID-19 pneumonia requiring ICU admission. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of peer-reviewed publications in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library up to May 10 th , 2020. Preprints and reports were also included if they meet the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted on characteristics of study populations, resource use, and outcomes. FINDINGS: From 31 articles included, a total of 50,881 patients were evaluated and 24,411 patients were admitted in the ICU. Most of patients admitted in ICU were male (57%) and the mean age was 56 (95% IC 48.5 – 59.8) years-old. Hospital and ICU mortality was 8.4% and 30% respectively, and the length of stay was 9.0 (95% IC 6.3 – 12.0) days and 8.0 (95% IC 5.1 – 11.0) days, respectively. Mortality in patients with ARDS was 93%. Mechanical ventilation was used in 10,544 patients (54% of those admitted in ICU) and mortality was 56.4%. The length of MV stay was 8.4 (95% IC 1.6 – 13.7) days. The main resources described was the use of non-invasive ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, renal replacement therapy and vasopressors. INTERPRETATION: This systematic review based on over 50,000 patients demonstrates that COVID-19 infection is associated with substantial resource use in the ICU, high mortality and prolonged length of ICU stay.FUNDING STATEMENT: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. The study was performed with institutional departmental funding.DECLARATION OF INTERESTS: The authors state that they have no competing interest with the subject.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307251

ABSTRACT

Background: The spread of COVID-19 increased the stress of health systems globally, obligating adjustments to improve the management of severe cases. What are the impacts of preparedness measures on the outcomes of the COVID-19 critically ill patients? Our study aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics, resource use, and risk factors associated with 30-day in-hospital mortality of critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 requiring ICU admission in a network of Brazilian hospitals.Methods: A multicenter cohort of COVID-19-confirmed patients requiring ICU admission at 42 Brazilian hospitals between February 27th and June 27th, 2020. The primary outcome was 30-day in-hospital mortality. We evaluated the association of clinical characteristics, ICU resource use, and risk factors using a random-effects multivariable cox regression model, in which the hospital was the random intercept. Secondary outcomes were the length-of-stay, ICU, and in-hospital mortality, and the use of mechanical ventilation during hospitalization.Findings: From 4,942 patients, 713 (14·4%) died 30 days after the ICU admission. The median age was 56 (IQR: [43,72]) years, 38% of patients were over 60 years-old, and 41% were women. Being older than 70 years (70-79, Hazard Ratio [95%CI]: 1·95[1·3-2·93];≥ 80, 3·96[2·66-5·89]), frail (MFI≥3, 1·65 [1·26-2·15]) and requiring, early or late, invasive Mechanical Ventilation (<=48h, 5·42 [4·14-7·10];>48h, 3·26 [2·46-4·32]) were independently associated with 30-day mortality. In 1,400 ventilated patients, 30-day mortality was 44·4% (622/1,400), the median duration of mechanical ventilation was ten days (IQR [6,16]), and ICU length of stay was 17 days (IQR [10,26]). Those who died within 30 days were more often older than 80 years (≥80: 37% vs. 14%) and previously frail (35% vs. 19%) compared to the survivors.Interpretation: In this large cohort, critically ill COVID-19 patients showed reasonable survival rates, including those requiring mechanical ventilation. Factors associated with worse outcome were age, frailty, and early need for invasive ventilation. Adequate preparedness, early hospitalization, and no shortage of critical care resources were probably key to achieve such results.Funding: The National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq);the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES);the Carlos Chagas Filho Foundation for Research Support of the State of Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ);the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro and the D’Or Institute for Research and Education.Declaration of Interests: Dr. Soares and Dr. Salluh are founders and equity shareholders of Epimed Solutions®, which commercializes the Epimed Monitor System®, a cloud-based software for ICU management and benchmarking. The other authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.Ethics Approval Statement: Local Ethics Committee and the Brazilian National Ethics Committee (CAAE: 17079119.7.0000.5249) approved the study without the need for informed consent.

6.
Ann Intensive Care ; 12(1): 9, 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the publication of the 2018 Clinical Guidelines about sedation, analgesia, delirium, mobilization, and sleep deprivation in critically ill patients, no evaluation and adequacy assessment of these recommendations were studied in an international context. This survey aimed to investigate these current practices and if the COVID-19 pandemic has changed them. METHODS: This study was an open multinational electronic survey directed to physicians working in adult intensive care units (ICUs), which was performed in two steps: before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: We analyzed 1768 questionnaires and 1539 (87%) were complete. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, we received 1476 questionnaires and 292 were submitted later. The following practices were observed before the pandemic: the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) (61.5%), the Behavioral Pain Scale (BPS) (48.2%), the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) (76.6%), and the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) (66.6%) were the most frequently tools used to assess pain, sedation level, and delirium, respectively; midazolam and fentanyl were the most frequently used drugs for inducing sedation and analgesia (84.8% and 78.3%, respectively), whereas haloperidol (68.8%) and atypical antipsychotics (69.4%) were the most prescribed drugs for delirium treatment; some physicians regularly prescribed drugs to induce sleep (19.1%) or ordered mechanical restraints as part of their routine (6.2%) for patients on mechanical ventilation; non-pharmacological strategies were frequently applied for pain, delirium, and sleep deprivation management. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the intensive care specialty was independently associated with best practices. Moreover, the mechanical ventilation rate was higher, patients received sedation more often (94% versus 86.1%, p < 0.001) and sedation goals were discussed more frequently in daily rounds. Morphine was the main drug used for analgesia (77.2%), and some sedative drugs, such as midazolam, propofol, ketamine and quetiapine, were used more frequently. CONCLUSIONS: Most sedation, analgesia and delirium practices were comparable before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. During the pandemic, the intensive care specialty was a variable that was independently associated with the best practices. Although many findings are in accordance with evidence-based recommendations, some practices still need improvement.

8.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(12): 1440-1449, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406151

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess whether intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes for patients not affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worsened during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study including prospectively collected information of patients admitted to 165 ICUs in a hospital network in Brazil between 2011 and 2020. Association between admission in 2020 and worse hospital outcomes was performed using different techniques, including assessment of changes in illness severity of admitted patients, a variable life-adjusted display of mortality during 2020, a multivariate mixed regression model with admission year as both fixed effect and random slope adjusted for SAPS 3 score, an analysis of trends in performance using standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and standardized resource use (SRU), and perturbation analysis. RESULTS: A total of 644,644 admissions were considered. After excluding readmissions and patients with COVID-19, 514,219 patients were available for analysis. Non-COVID-19 patients admitted in 2020 had slightly lower age and SAPS 3 score but a higher mortality (6.4%) when compared with previous years (2019: 5.6%; 2018: 6.1%). Variable-adjusted life display (VLAD) in 2020 increased but started to decrease as the number of COVID-19 cases increased; this trend reversed as number of COVID cases reduced but recurred on the second wave. After logistic regression, being admitted in 2020 was associated with higher mortality when compared to previous years from 2016 and 2019. Individual ICUs standardized mortality ratio also increased during 2020 (higher SMR) while resource use remained constant, suggesting worsening performance. A perturbation analysis further confirmed changes in ICU outcomes for non-COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Hospital outcomes of non-COVID-19 critically ill patients worsened during the pandemic in 2020, possibly resulting in an increased number of deaths in critically ill non-COVID patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e042302, 2021 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282095

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Daily multidisciplinary rounds (DMRs) consist of systematic patient-centred discussions aiming to establish joint therapeutic goals for the next 24 hours of intensive care unit (ICU) care. The aim of the present study protocol is to evaluate whether an intervention consisting of guided DMRs, supported by a remote specialist and audit/feedback on care performance will reduce ICU length of stay compared with a control group. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A multicentre, controlled, cluster-randomised superiority trial including 30 ICUs in Brazil (15 intervention and 15 control), from August 2019 to June 2021. In a parallel assignment, ICUs are randomised to a complex-intervention composed by daily rounds carried out through Tele-ICU by a remote ICU physician; development of local quality indicators dashboards coupled with monthly meetings with local leadership; and dissemination of evidence-based clinical protocols versus usual care. Primary outcome is ICU length of stay. Secondary outcomes include classification of the unit according to the profiles defined by the standardised resource use and the standardised mortality rate, hospital mortality, incidence of healthcare-associated infections, ventilator-free days at 28 days, patient-days receiving oral or enteral feeding, patient-days under light sedation or alert and calm, rate of patients under normoxaemia. All adult patients admitted after the beginning of the study in each participant ICU will be enrolled. Inclusion criteria (clusters): public Brazilian ICUs with a minimum of 8 ICU beds interested/committed to participating in the study. Exclusion criteria (clusters): units with fully established DMRs by an intensivist, specialised or step-down units. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol was approved by the institutional review board (IRB) of the coordinator centre, and by IRBs of each enrolled hospital/ICU. Statistical analysis protocol is being prepared for submission before the end of patient's enrolment. Results will be disseminated through conferences, peer-reviewed journals and to each participating unit. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03920501; Pre-results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telescopes , Adult , Brazil , Critical Care , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
11.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(5): 538-548, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182234

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Clinical characteristics and management of COVID-19 patients have evolved during the pandemic, potentially changing their outcomes. We analyzed the associations of changes in mortality rates with clinical profiles and respiratory support strategies in COVID-19 critically ill patients. METHODS: A multicenter cohort of RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted at 126 Brazilian intensive care units between February 27th and October 28th, 2020. Assessing temporal changes in deaths, we identified distinct time periods. We evaluated the association of characteristics and respiratory support strategies with 60-day in-hospital mortality using random-effects multivariable Cox regression with inverse probability weighting. RESULTS: Among the 13,301 confirmed-COVID-19 patients, 60-day in-hospital mortality was 13%. Across four time periods identified, younger patients were progressively more common, non-invasive respiratory support was increasingly used, and the 60-day in-hospital mortality decreased in the last two periods. 4188 patients received advanced respiratory support (non-invasive or invasive), from which 42% underwent only invasive mechanical ventilation, 37% only non-invasive respiratory support and 21% failed non-invasive support and were intubated. After adjusting for organ dysfunction scores and premorbid conditions, we found that younger age, absence of frailty and the use of non-invasive respiratory support (NIRS) as first support strategy were independently associated with improved survival (hazard ratio for NIRS first [95% confidence interval], 0.59 [0.54-0.65], p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Age and mortality rates have declined over the first 8 months of the pandemic. The use of NIRS as the first respiratory support measure was associated with survival, but causal inference is limited by the observational nature of our data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 34(2): 169-174, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112129

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to evaluate the evidence and recommendations for the prescription of corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy in patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia. RECENT FINDINGS: Corticosteroids have been prescribed with the objective to attenuate the marked and persistent activation of the immune system. However, some causes of community-acquired pneumonia, namely viral, are associated with unexpected low levels of cytokines and depressed cellular immunity. As a result, several recent randomized controlled trials and large prospective observational studies repeatedly showed that corticosteroids had no impact on survival, and in some types of pneumonia like influenza, its use was associated with potential harmful effects like invasive aspergillosis. Apart from this, adverse effects, namely hyperglycemia, superinfections and increased length-of-stay, were frequent findings in the corticosteroid-treated patients. SUMMARY: According to the current evidence, corticosteroids are recommended in Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in HIV-infected patients and recommendations are against its use in influenza. In all other forms of severe community-acquired pneumonia, with the exclusion of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, the strength of the evidence does not support the safe and widespread use of corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy. Further studies are needed to identify subgroups of severe community-acquired pneumonia that can benefit or not from corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , Clinical Decision-Making , Combined Modality Therapy , Community-Acquired Infections , Humans , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/pathology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Safety
13.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(4): 470-472, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107752
14.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(3): 282-291, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092644

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has posed unprecedented healthcare system challenges, some of which will lead to transformative change. It is obvious to healthcare workers and policymakers alike that an effective critical care surge response must be nested within the overall care delivery model. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted key elements of emergency preparedness. These include having national or regional strategic reserves of personal protective equipment, intensive care unit (ICU) devices, consumables and pharmaceuticals, as well as effective supply chains and efficient utilization protocols. ICUs must also be prepared to accommodate surges of patients and ICU staffing models should allow for fluctuations in demand. Pre-existing ICU triage and end-of-life care principles should be established, implemented and updated. Daily workflow processes should be restructured to include remote connection with multidisciplinary healthcare workers and frequent communication with relatives. The pandemic has also demonstrated the benefits of digital transformation and the value of remote monitoring technologies, such as wireless monitoring. Finally, the pandemic has highlighted the value of pre-existing epidemiological registries and agile randomized controlled platform trials in generating fast, reliable data. The COVID-19 pandemic is a reminder that besides our duty to care, we are committed to improve. By meeting these challenges today, we will be able to provide better care to future patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Care/trends , Pandemics , Critical Care/organization & administration , Disaster Planning , Humans , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , Surge Capacity , Telemedicine , Workflow
16.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(1): 47-54, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893706

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a major cause of hospital admission and represents a challenge for patient management during intensive care unit (ICU) stay. We aimed to describe the clinical course and outcomes of COVID-19 pneumonia in critically ill patients. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of peer-reviewed publications in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library up to 15th August 2020. Preprints and reports were also included if they met the inclusion criteria. Study eligibility criteria were full-text prospective, retrospective or registry-based publications describing outcomes in patients admitted to the ICU for COVID-19, using a validated test. Participants were critically ill patients admitted in the ICU with COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: From 32 articles included, a total of 69 093 patients were admitted to the ICU and were evaluated. Most patients included in the studies were male (76 165/128 168, 59%, 26 studies) and the mean patient age was 56 (95%CI 48.5-59.8) years. Studies described high ICU mortality (21 145/65 383, 32.3%, 15 studies). The median length of ICU stay was 9.0 (95%CI 6.5-11.2) days, described in five studies. More than half the patients admitted to the ICU required mechanical ventilation (31 213/53 465, 58%, 23 studies) and among them mortality was very high (27 972/47 632, 59%, six studies). The duration of mechanical ventilation was 8.4 (95%CI 1.6-13.7) days. The main interventions described were the use of non-invasive ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, renal replacement therapy and vasopressors. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review, including approximately 69 000 ICU patients, demonstrates that COVID-19 infection in critically ill patients is associated with great need for life-sustaining interventions, high mortality, and prolonged length of ICU stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Care/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
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