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1.
Sustainability ; 15(11):8545, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20243654

ABSTRACT

This study examined psychological health and coping strategies among faculty and staff at a Saudi Arabian university. A web-based self-administered survey was used to assess probable anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and coping strategies by using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and Brief-COPE scale, respectively. Of 502 participants (mean age 36.04 ± 10.32 years, male: 66.3%), 24.1% (GAD-7 ≥ 10) had probable anxiety. Anxiety score was significantly higher in females (p < 0.001), those with a history of COVID-19 infection (p = 0.036), and participants with less work experience (p = 0.019). Approximately 40% of participants met the criteria of probable depression, with females (p < 0.001) and participants with less experience having more depressive symptoms. Around one-fourth (27.7%) of study participants indicated probable PTSD (score ≥ 33), with higher symptoms in females (p <0.001), less experienced staff (p < 0.001), and academic staff (p = 0.006). Correlation analysis indicated a significant positive correlation between anxiety and depression (r = 0.844, p < 0.001), anxiety and PTSD (r = 0.650, p < 0.001), and depression and PTSD (r = 0.676, p < 0.001). Active coping, religious/spiritual coping, and acceptance were common coping strategies, while substance use was the least adopted coping method among the study participants. This study indicated a high prevalence of probable psychological ailments among university staff.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(5)2023 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232283

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy continues to be a widespread problem in Pakistan due to various conspiracy beliefs, myths and misconceptions. Since the hemodialysis population is at a higher risk of contracting infections, we sought to investigate the current COVID-19 immunization status and reasons for any vaccine hesitancy among these patients in Pakistan. This cross-sectional study was conducted among maintenance hemodialysis patients at six hospitals in the Punjab Province of Pakistan. Data were collected anonymously using a questionnaire. A total of 399 hemodialysis patients took part in the survey, the majority of them were male (56%) and aged 45-64 years. A calculated 62.4% of the patients reported receiving at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. Of those vaccinated (249), 73.5% had received two doses and 16.9% had received a booster dose. The most common reasons for vaccination were "being aware they were at high risk" (89.6%), "fear of getting infected" (89.2%) and "willingness to fight against COVID-19-pandemic" (83.9%). Of the 150 patients who had not yet been vaccinated, only 10 showed a willingness to take the COVID-19 vaccine. The major reasons for refusal included "COVID-19 is not a real problem" (75%), the "corona vaccine is a conspiracy (72.1%)" and "I don't need the vaccine" (60.7%). Our study revealed that only 62% patients receiving hemodialysis were partially or completely vaccinated against COVID-19. Consequently, there is a need to initiate aggressive approaches to educate this high-risk population in order to address their concerns with vaccine safety and efficacy as well as correct current myths and misconceptions to improve the COVID-19 immunization status in this population.

3.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 56: e0044, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Safety and efficacy concerns regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are common among the public and have a negative impact on their uptake. We aimed to report the adverse effects currently associated with the vaccine in Pakistan to build confidence among the population for its adoption. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of the Punjab province of Pakistan between January and March 2022. The participants were recruited using convenience sampling. All data were analyzed using SPSS 22. RESULTS: We recruited 1622 people with the majority aged between 25-45 years. Of these, 51% were female, including 27 pregnant women and 42 lactating mothers. Most participants had received the Sinopharm (62.6%) or Sinovac (17.8%) vaccines. The incidences of at least one side effect after the first (N = 1622), second (N = 1484), and booster doses (N = 219) of the COVID-19 vaccine were 16.5%, 20.1%, and 32%, respectively. Inflammation/erythema at the injection site, pain at the injection site, fever, and bone/muscle pain were common side effects of vaccination. No significant differences were observed in the adverse effect scores between all demographic variables except for pregnancy (P = 0.012) after the initial dose. No significant association was observed between any variable and the side effect scores of the second and booster doses of the vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed a 16-32% prevalence of self-reported side effects after the first, second, and booster COVID-19 vaccinations. Most adverse effects were mild and transient, indicating the safety of different COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pakistan/epidemiology , Lactation , COVID-19/prevention & control
4.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 12: e43193, 2023 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression are common in the perinatal period and negatively affect the health of the mother and baby. Our group has developed "Happy Mother-Healthy Baby" (HMHB), a cognitive behavioral therapy-based psychosocial intervention to address risk factors specific to anxiety during pregnancy in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to examine biological mechanisms that may be linked to perinatal anxiety in conjunction with a randomized controlled trial of HMHB in Pakistan. METHODS: We are recruiting 120 pregnant women from the Holy Family Hospital, a public facility in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Participants are assessed for at least mild anxiety symptoms using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (ie, a score ≥8 on the anxiety scale is necessary for inclusion in the anxiety groups and <8 for inclusion in the healthy control group). Women who meet the criteria for an anxiety group are randomized into either the HMHB intervention group or an enhanced usual care (EUC) control group. Participants receive HMHB or EUC throughout pregnancy and undergo blood draws at 4 time points (baseline, second trimester, third trimester, and 6 weeks post partum). We will assess peripheral cytokine concentrations using a multiplex assay and hormone concentrations using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The statistical analysis will use generalized linear models and mixed effects models to assess the relationships across time among anxiety, immune dysregulation, and hormone levels, and to assess whether these biological factors mediate the relationship between anxiety and birth and child development outcomes. RESULTS: Recruitment started on October 20, 2020, and data collection was completed on August 31, 2022. The start date for recruitment for this biological supplement study was delayed by approximately half a year due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03880032) on September 22, 2020. The last blood samples were shipped to the United States on September 24, 2022, where they will be processed for analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study is an important addition to the HMHB randomized controlled trial of an intervention for antenatal anxiety. The intervention itself makes use of nonspecialist providers and, if effective, will represent an important new tool for the treatment of antenatal anxiety in LMICs. Our biological substudy is one of the first attempts to link biological mechanisms to antenatal anxiety in an LMIC in the context of a psychosocial intervention, and our findings have the potential to significantly advance our knowledge of the biological pathways of perinatal mental illness and treatment efficacy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03880032; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03880032. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/43193.

5.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 12(4)2023 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300598

ABSTRACT

There are concerns with excessive antibiotic prescribing among patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Most studies have been conducted in adults with limited data on neonates and children, including in Pakistan. A retrospective study was conducted among four referral/tertiary care hospitals, including the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, the prevalence of bacterial co-infections or secondary bacterial infections and antibiotics prescribed among neonates and children hospitalized due to COVID-19. Among 1237 neonates and children, 511 were admitted to the COVID-19 wards and 433 were finally included in the study. The majority of admitted children were COVID-19-positive (85.9%) with severe COVID-19 (38.2%), and 37.4% were admitted to the ICU. The prevalence of bacterial co-infections or secondary bacterial infections was 3.7%; however, 85.5% were prescribed antibiotics during their hospital stay (average 1.70 ± 0.98 antibiotics per patient). Further, 54.3% were prescribed two antibiotics via the parenteral route (75.5%) for ≤5 days (57.5), with most being 'Watch' antibiotics (80.4%). Increased antibiotic prescribing was reported among patients requiring mechanical ventilation and high WBCs, CRP, D-dimer and ferritin levels (p < 0.001). Increased COVID-19 severity, length of stay and hospital setting were significantly associated with antibiotic prescribing (p < 0.001). Excessive antibiotic prescribing among hospitalized neonates and children, despite very low bacterial co-infections or secondary bacterial infections, requires urgent attention to reduce AMR.

6.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 12(3)2023 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273392

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of COVID-19, several different medicines including antimicrobials have been administered to patients to treat COVID-19. This is despite limited evidence of the effectiveness of many of these, fueled by misinformation. These utilization patterns have resulted in concerns for patients' safety and a rise in antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Healthcare workers (HCWs) were required to serve in high-risk areas throughout the pandemic. Consequently, they may be inclined towards self-medication. However, they have a responsibility to ensure any medicines recommended or prescribed for the management of patients with COVID-19 are evidence-based. However, this is not always the case. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among HCWs in six districts of the Punjab to assess their knowledge, attitude and practices of self-medication during the ongoing pandemic. This included HCWs working a range of public sector hospitals in the Punjab Province. A total of 1173 HCWs were included in the final analysis. The majority of HCWs possessed good knowledge regarding self-medication and good attitudes. However, 60% were practicing self-medication amid the COVID-19 pandemic. The most frequent medicines consumed by the HCWs under self-medication were antipyretics (100%), antibiotics (80.4%) and vitamins (59.9%). Azithromycin was the most commonly purchase antibiotic (35.1%). In conclusion, HCWs possess good knowledge of, and attitude regarding, medicines they purchased. However, there are concerns that high rates of purchasing antibiotics, especially "Watch" antibiotics, for self-medication may enhance AMR. This needs addressing.

7.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 950406, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266173

ABSTRACT

Background: The acceptance of vaccination against COVID-19 among parents of young children plays a significant role in controlling the current pandemic. A wide range of factors that influence vaccine hesitancy in adults has been reported worldwide, but less attention has been given to COVID-19 vaccination among children. Vaccine hesitancy is considered a major challenge in achieving herd immunity, and it is more challenging among parents as they remain deeply concerned about their child's health. In this context, a systematic review of the current literature is inevitable to assess vaccine hesitancy among parents of young children to ensure a successful ongoing vaccination program. Method: A systematic search of peer-reviewed English literature indexed in Google Scholar, PubMed, Embase, and Web of science was performed using developed keywords between 1 January 2020 and August 2022. This systematic review included only those studies that focused on parental concerns about COVID-19 vaccines in children up to 12 years without a diagnosis of COVID-19. Following PRISMA guidelines, a total of 108 studies were included. The quality appraisal of the study was performed by Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Results: The results of 108 studies depict that vaccine hesitancy rates differed globally with a considerably large number of factors associated with it. The highest vaccine hesitancy rates among parents were reported in a study from the USA (86.1%) and two studies from Saudi Arabia (>85%) and Turkey (89.6%). Conversely, the lowest vaccine hesitancy rates ranging from 0.69 and 2% were found in two studies from South Africa and Switzerland, respectively. The largest study (n = 227,740) was conducted in Switzerland while the smallest sample size (n = 12) was represented by a study conducted in the USA. The most commonly reported barriers to childhood vaccination were mothers' lower education level (N = 46/108, 43%), followed by financial instability (N = 19/108, 18%), low confidence in new vaccines (N = 13/108, 12%), and unmonitored social media platforms (N = 5/108, 4.6%). These factors were significantly associated with vaccine refusal among parents. However, the potential facilitators for vaccine uptake among respondents who intended to have their children vaccinated include higher education level (N = 12/108, 11%), followed by information obtained through healthcare professionals (N = 9/108, 8.3%) and strong confidence in preventive measures taken by the government (N = 5/81, 4.6%). Conclusion: This review underscores that parents around the globe are hesitant to vaccinate their kids against COVID-19. The spectrum of factors associated with vaccine hesitancy and uptake varies across the globe. There is a dire need to address vaccine hesitancy concerns regarding the efficacy and safety of approved vaccines. Local context is inevitable to take into account while developing programs to reduce vaccine hesitancy. There is a dire need to devise strategies to address vaccine hesitancy among parents through the identification of attributing factors.

8.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-6, 2021 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279487

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 outbreak has been accompanied by a massive infodemic, however, many vulnerable individuals such as illiterate or low-literate, older adults and rural populations have limited access to health information. In this context, these individuals are more likely to have poor knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices related to COVID-19. The current study was aimed to investigate COVID-19's awareness of the illiterate population of Pakistan. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among illiterate Pakistanis of ages ≥ 18 years through a convenient sampling approach. The study participants were interviewed face to face by respecting the defined precautionary measures and all data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 22 (IBM, Armonk, NY). RESULTS: The mean age of the study participants' (N = 394) was 37.2 ± 9.60 years, with the majority being males (80.7%). All participants were aware of the COVID-19 outbreak and television news channels (75.1%) were the primary source of information. The mean knowledge score was 5.33 ± 1.88, and about 27% of participants had a good knowledge score (score ≥ 7) followed by moderate (score 4 - 6) and poor (score ≤ 3) knowledge in 41.6%, and 31.5% of respondents, respectively. The attitude score was 4.42 ± 1.22 with good (score ≥ 6), average (score 4 - 5), and poor attitude (score ≤ 3) in 19%, 66%, and 15% of the participants, respectively. The average practice-related score was 12.80 ± 3.34, with the majority of participants having inadequate practices. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices of the illiterate population in Pakistan are unsatisfactory. This study highlights the gaps in specific aspects of knowledge and practice that should be addressed through awareness campaigns targeting this specific population.

9.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 10: 940863, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241308

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The perpetual appearance of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2), and its new variants devastated the public health and social fabric around the world. Understanding the genomic patterns and connecting them to phenotypic attributes is of great interest to devise a treatment strategy to control this pandemic. Materials and Methods: In this regard, computational methods to understand the evolution, dynamics and mutational spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 and its new variants are significantly important. Thus, herein, we used computational methods to screen the genomes of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from Pakistan and connect them to the phenotypic attributes of spike protein; we used stability-function correlation methods, protein-protein docking, and molecular dynamics simulation. Results: Using the Global initiative on sharing all influenza data (GISAID) a total of 21 unique mutations were identified, among which five were reported as stabilizing while 16 were destabilizing revealed through mCSM, DynaMut 2.0, and I-Mutant servers. Protein-protein docking with Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and monoclonal antibody (4A8) revealed that mutation G446V in the receptor-binding domain; R102S and G181V in the N-terminal domain (NTD) significantly affected the binding and thus increased the infectivity. The interaction pattern also revealed significant variations in the hydrogen bonding, salt bridges and non-bonded contact networks. The structural-dynamic features of these mutations revealed the global dynamic trend and the finding energy calculation further established that the G446V mutation increases the binding affinity towards ACE2 while R102S and G181V help in evading the host immune response. The other mutations reported supplement these processes indirectly. The binding free energy results revealed that wild type-RBD has a TBE of -60.55 kcal/mol while G446V-RBD reported a TBE of -73.49 kcal/mol. On the other hand, wild type-NTD reported -67.77 kcal/mol of TBE, R102S-NTD reported -51.25 kcal/mol of TBE while G181V-NTD reported a TBE of -63.68 kcal/mol. Conclusions: In conclusion, the current findings revealed basis for higher infectivity and immune evasion associated with the aforementioned mutations and structure-based drug discovery against such variants.

10.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 17: e298, 2023 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243613

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Infection prevention and control (IPC) measures are easily adoptable activities to prevent the spread of infection to patients as well as among health-care workers (HCWs). METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated the adherence to IPC measures among HCWs working at coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment centers in Punjab, Pakistan. HCWs were recruited by means of convenient sampling through Google Form® using the World Health Organization risk assessment tool. All data were analyzed using SPSS 20. RESULTS: A total of 414 HCWs completed the survey (response rate = 67.8%), and majority of them were males (56.3%). Most of the HCWs were nurses (39.6%) followed by medical doctors (27.3%). Approximately 53% reported insufficiency of personal protective equipment (PPE), 58.2% did not receive IPC training and 40.8% did not have functional IPC team at their health facilities. The majority of HCWs (90%) used disposable gloves and N95 facemasks while interacting with COVID-19 patients. Nearly 45% used protective face shields and gowns before providing care to their patients. Hand hygiene practices while touching, and performing any aseptic procedure was adopted by 70.5% and 74.1% of HCWs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the adherence to IPC measures among Pakistani HCWs working in COVID-19 treatment centers is good despite the limited availability of PPEs. Their practices can be optimized by establishing institutional IPC teams, periodic provision of IPC training, and necessary PPE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pakistan , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Personal Protective Equipment , Health Personnel , Infection Control/methods
11.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-13, 2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221629

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the psychological impacts of COVID-19 among the Pakistani healthcare workers (HCWs) and their coping strategies. METHODS: This web-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among HCWs (N=398) from Punjab province of Pakistan. The generalized anxiety scale (GAD-7), patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Brief-COPE were used to assess anxiety, depression and coping strategies, respectively. RESULTS: The average age of respondents was 28.67 years (SD=4.15), with the majority of medical doctors (52%). The prevalence of anxiety and depression were 21.4% and 21.9%, respectively. There was no significant difference in anxiety and depression scores among doctors, nurses and pharmacists. Females had significantly higher anxiety (p=0.003) and depression (p=0.001) scores than males. Moreover, frontline HCWs had significantly higher depression scores (p=0.010) than others. The depression, not anxiety, score were significantly higher among those who did not receive the infection prevention training (p=0.004). Most frequently adopted coping strategy were religious coping (M=5.98, SD=1.73), acceptance (M=5.59, SD=1.55) and coping planning (M=4.91, SD=1.85). CONCLUSION: A considerable proportion of HCWs are having generalized anxiety and depression during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings call for interventions to mitigate mental health risks in HCWs.

12.
Frontiers in cell and developmental biology ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2218675

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The perpetual appearance of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2), and its new variants devastated the public health and social fabric around the world. Understanding the genomic patterns and connecting them to phenotypic attributes is of great interest to devise a treatment strategy to control this pandemic. Materials and Methods: In this regard, computational methods to understand the evolution, dynamics and mutational spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 and its new variants are significantly important. Thus, herein, we used computational methods to screen the genomes of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from Pakistan and connect them to the phenotypic attributes of spike protein;we used stability-function correlation methods, protein-protein docking, and molecular dynamics simulation. Results: Using the Global initiative on sharing all influenza data (GISAID) a total of 21 unique mutations were identified, among which five were reported as stabilizing while 16 were destabilizing revealed through mCSM, DynaMut 2.0, and I-Mutant servers. Protein-protein docking with Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and monoclonal antibody (4A8) revealed that mutation G446V in the receptor-binding domain;R102S and G181V in the N-terminal domain (NTD) significantly affected the binding and thus increased the infectivity. The interaction pattern also revealed significant variations in the hydrogen bonding, salt bridges and non-bonded contact networks. The structural-dynamic features of these mutations revealed the global dynamic trend and the finding energy calculation further established that the G446V mutation increases the binding affinity towards ACE2 while R102S and G181V help in evading the host immune response. The other mutations reported supplement these processes indirectly. The binding free energy results revealed that wild type-RBD has a TBE of −60.55 kcal/mol while G446V-RBD reported a TBE of −73.49 kcal/mol. On the other hand, wild type-NTD reported −67.77 kcal/mol of TBE, R102S-NTD reported −51.25 kcal/mol of TBE while G181V-NTD reported a TBE of −63.68 kcal/mol. Conclusions: In conclusion, the current findings revealed basis for higher infectivity and immune evasion associated with the aforementioned mutations and structure-based drug discovery against such variants.

13.
Curr Drug Saf ; 18(2): 122-124, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2215031

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak is marked by infodemic amid conspiracy theories, false claims, rumors, and misleading narratives, which have had a significant impact on the global campaign against COVID-19. The drug repurposing provides a hope to curb the growing encumbrance of the disease but at the same time, it poses various challenges such as selfmedication using repurposed drugs and its associated harms. During the continuing pandemic, this perspective piece explores the potential hazards of self-medication and its attributing factors along with possible countermeasures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharmacovigilance , Humans , Self Medication , Administrative Personnel
16.
Frontiers in pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2156821

ABSTRACT

Background The acceptance of vaccination against COVID-19 among parents of young children plays a significant role in controlling the current pandemic. A wide range of factors that influence vaccine hesitancy in adults has been reported worldwide, but less attention has been given to COVID-19 vaccination among children. Vaccine hesitancy is considered a major challenge in achieving herd immunity, and it is more challenging among parents as they remain deeply concerned about their child's health. In this context, a systematic review of the current literature is inevitable to assess vaccine hesitancy among parents of young children to ensure a successful ongoing vaccination program. Method A systematic search of peer-reviewed English literature indexed in Google Scholar, PubMed, Embase, and Web of science was performed using developed keywords between 1 January 2020 and August 2022. This systematic review included only those studies that focused on parental concerns about COVID-19 vaccines in children up to 12 years without a diagnosis of COVID-19. Following PRISMA guidelines, a total of 108 studies were included. The quality appraisal of the study was performed by Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS). Results The results of 108 studies depict that vaccine hesitancy rates differed globally with a considerably large number of factors associated with it. The highest vaccine hesitancy rates among parents were reported in a study from the USA (86.1%) and two studies from Saudi Arabia (>85%) and Turkey (89.6%). Conversely, the lowest vaccine hesitancy rates ranging from 0.69 and 2% were found in two studies from South Africa and Switzerland, respectively. The largest study (n = 227,740) was conducted in Switzerland while the smallest sample size (n = 12) was represented by a study conducted in the USA. The most commonly reported barriers to childhood vaccination were mothers' lower education level (N = 46/108, 43%), followed by financial instability (N = 19/108, 18%), low confidence in new vaccines (N = 13/108, 12%), and unmonitored social media platforms (N = 5/108, 4.6%). These factors were significantly associated with vaccine refusal among parents. However, the potential facilitators for vaccine uptake among respondents who intended to have their children vaccinated include higher education level (N = 12/108, 11%), followed by information obtained through healthcare professionals (N = 9/108, 8.3%) and strong confidence in preventive measures taken by the government (N = 5/81, 4.6%). Conclusion This review underscores that parents around the globe are hesitant to vaccinate their kids against COVID-19. The spectrum of factors associated with vaccine hesitancy and uptake varies across the globe. There is a dire need to address vaccine hesitancy concerns regarding the efficacy and safety of approved vaccines. Local context is inevitable to take into account while developing programs to reduce vaccine hesitancy. There is a dire need to devise strategies to address vaccine hesitancy among parents through the identification of attributing factors.

17.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(12)2022 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155405

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The vaccination of children against Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a prime area of focus around the globe and is considered a pivotal challenge during the ongoing pandemic. This study aimed to assess parents' intentions to vaccinate their children and the barriers related to pediatric COVID-19 vaccination. Methodology: An online web-based survey was conducted to recruit parents with at least one child under the age of 12 years from Saudi Arabia's Al-Jouf region. The parental intentions to vaccinate children were assessed via six items, while barriers against vaccination were assessed through seven items in validated study instrument. A 5-point Likert scale was used to record the responses of parents regarding both their intentions and barriers. Results: In total, 444 parents (28.41 ± 7.4 years, 65% females) participated in this study. Almost 90% of parents were vaccinated against COVID-19 but only 42% of parents intended to vaccinate their children. The mean intention score was 2.9 ± 1.36. More than one-third of study participants had no plan to vaccinate their children against COVID-19. The majority of the respondents agreed to vaccinate their children if vaccination was made compulsory by the government (relative index: 0.76, 73%). Out of seven potential barriers analyzed, concerns over vaccine safety and side effects were ranked highest (RII: 0.754), reported by 290 (65%) participants. In multivariate logistic regression, significant predictors of parental intention to vaccinate children were the increased education level of the parents (secondary education: OR = 3.617, p = 0.010; tertiary education: OR = 2.775, p = 0.042), COVID-19 vaccination status (vaccinated: OR = 7.062, p = 0.003), mother's involvement in decisions regarding the child's healthcare (mother: OR 4.353, p < 0.001; both father and mother: OR 3.195, p < 0.001) and parents' trust in the vaccine's safety (OR = 2.483, p = 0.022). Conclusions: This study underscored the low intention among parents to vaccinate their children against COVID-19. Vaccination intention was found to be associated with education, parents' vaccination status, the mother's involvement in healthcare decisions, and parents' trust in the vaccine's safety. On the other hand, parents' concerns over the safety and efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccine were widely reported as barriers to childhood vaccination. The health authorities should focus on addressing parental concerns about vaccines to improve their COVID-19 vaccination coverage.

18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(12)2022 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155200

ABSTRACT

Background: Individuals with underlying chronic illnesses have demonstrated considerable hesitancy towards COVID-19 vaccines. These concerns are primarily attributed to their concerns over the safety profile. Real-world data on the safety profile among COVID-19 vaccinees with comorbid conditions are scarce. This study aimed to ascertain the side-effects profile after two doses of COVID-19 vaccines among chronic-disease patients. Methodology: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted among faculty members with comorbid conditions at a public educational institute in Saudi Arabia. A 20-item questionnaire recorded the demographics and side effects after the two doses of COVID-19 vaccines. The frequency of side effects was recorded following each dose of vaccine, and the association of the side-effects score with the demographics was ascertained through appropriate statistics. Results: A total of 204 patients with at least one comorbid condition were included in this study. A total of 24 side effects were reported after the first dose and 22 after second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. The incidence of at least one side effect was 88.7% and 95.1% after the first and second doses of the vaccine, respectively. The frequent side effects after the first dose were pain at the injection site (63.2%), fatigue (58.8%), fever (47.5%), muscle and joint pain (38.7%), and headache (36.3%). However, pain at the injection site (71.1%), muscle and joint pain (62.7%), headache (49.5%), fever (45.6%), and stress (33.3%) were frequent after the second dose. The average side-effects score was 4.41 ± 4.18 (median: 3, IQR: 1, 6) and 4.79 ± 3.54 (median 4, IQR: 2, 6) after the first and second dose, respectively. Female gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, comorbidity > 2, family history of COVID-19, and the AstraZeneca vaccine were significantly associated with higher side-effect scores. Only 35.8% of study participants were satisfied with the safety of COVID-19 vaccines. Conclusions: Our analysis showed a high proportion of transient and short-lived side effects of Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccines among individuals with chronic illnesses. However, the side-effects profile was comparable with the safety reports of phase 3 clinical trials of these vaccines. The frequency of side effects was found to be associated with certain demographics, necessitating the need for further investigations to establish a causal relationship. The current study's findings will help instill confidence in the COVID-19 vaccines among people living with chronic conditions, overcome vaccine hesitancy, and increase vaccine coverage in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Humans , Female , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Comorbidity , Pain , Headache/chemically induced , Headache/epidemiology , Arthralgia
19.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(12)2022 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163214

ABSTRACT

Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) have a considerable impact on morbidity, mortality and costs. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in an appreciable number of hospitalized patients being admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) globally with a greater risk of HAIs. Consequently, there is a need to evaluate predictors and outcomes of HAIs among COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs. A retrospective study of patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICUs of three tertiary care hospitals in the Punjab province over a five-month period in 2021 was undertaken to ascertain predictors and outcomes of HAIs. Of the 4534 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 678 were admitted to ICUs, of which 636 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Overall, 67 HAIs were identified among the admitted patients. Ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections and catheter-related urinary tract infections were the most frequent HAIs. A significantly higher number of patients who developed HAIs were on anticoagulants (p = 0.003), antithrombotic agents (p < 0.001), antivirals (p < 0.001) and IL-6 inhibiting agents (p < 0.001). Secondary infections were significantly higher in patients who were on invasive mechanical ventilation (p < 0.001), had central venous access (p = 0.023), and urinary catheters (p < 0.001). The mortality rate was significantly higher in those with secondary infections (25.8% vs. 1.2%, p < 0.001). Our study concluded that COVID-19 patients admitted to ICUs have a high prevalence of HAIs associated with greater mortality. Key factors need to be addressed to reduce HAIs.

20.
Salud ment ; 45(5): 253-260, Sep.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2145734

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Disease phobia may impose distressing manifestations along with compromised quality of life, particularly in young age. COVID-19 caused substantial psychological concerns in general population which required the attention of health authorities to address the issue as soon as possible. Objective This study was aimed to determine COVID-19 phobia in Pakistani youth during the current pandemic. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted to ascertain the extent of fear of COVID-19 among university students in Lahore, Pakistan using the COVID-19 Phobia Scale (C19P-S). Psychological, somatic, social, and economic factors were ascertained among students. The relationship of demographics with the phobia score was determined through appropriate statistical tests. Result This study included 374 students with a male preponderance (64.7%). The mean C19P-S score was 59.08 ± 14.44 (IQR: 50 - 70), with no significant difference among demographics except gender (male 57.65 ± 14.77 vs female 61.70 ± 13.47; p = .009). The mean psychological, psycho-somatic, economic, and social subscale scores were 19.59 ± 5.00 (25th percentile = 16 and 75th percentile = 24), 12.29 ± 4.56 (25th percentile = 10 and 75th percentile = 15), 11.22 ± 3.67 (25th percentile = 8 and 75th percentile = 14) and 15.97 ± 4.04 (25th percentile = 13.75 and 75th percentile = 19), respectively. Male students had a significantly lower score on social and psychological subscales than females (p< .05). Discussion and conclusion One fourth of the students achieved a fear score > 70 on C19P-S. These results indicate the need of dire maneuvers for reducing corona-phobia among university students.


Resumen Introducción La fobia a las enfermedades puede imponer malestar psicológico y comprometer la calidad de vida, particularmente en edades tempranas. El COVID-19 causó serias preocupaciones psicológicas en la población en general y éstas requieren la atención de las autoridades de salud para abordar el problema cuanto antes. Objetivo Este estudio buscó determinar la fobia al COVID-19 en jóvenes paquistaníes durante la pandemia actual. Método Se realizó un estudio transversal basado en la web para evaluar el miedo al COVID-19 entre los estudiantes universitarios en Lahore; para esto se utilizó la Escala de Fobia COVID-19 (C19P-S). Se evaluaron factores psicológicos, somáticos, sociales y económicos entre los estudiantes. La relación de la demografía con la puntuación de fobia se determinó mediante pruebas estadísticas apropiadas. Resultados Este estudio incluyó a 374 estudiantes con preponderancia masculina (64.7%). La puntuación media de C19P-S fue 59.08 ± 14.44 (IQR: 50 - 70), sin diferencias significativas entre los datos demográficos, excepto el género (hombres 57.65 ± 14.77 versus mujeres 61.70 ± 13.47; p = .009). Las puntuaciones medias de las subescalas psicológicas, psicosomáticas, económicas y sociales fueron 19.59 ± 5.00 (percentil 25 = 16 y percentil 75 = 24), 12.29 ± 4.56 (percentil 25 = 10 y percentil 75 = 15), 11.22 ± 3.67 (percentil 25) = percentil 8 y 75 = 14) y 15.97 ± 4.04 (percentil 25 = 13.75 y percentil 75 = 19), respectivamente. Los estudiantes varones obtuvieron una puntuación significativamente menor en las subescalas sociales y psicológicas que las mujeres (p< .05). Discusión y conclusión Una cuarta parte de los estudiantes obtuvo una puntuación de miedo > 70 en la C19P-S. Estos resultados indican la necesidad de aplicar medidas extremas para reducir la fobia al Coronavirus entre los estudiantes universitarios.

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