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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 82, 2022 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736380

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antigen tests for SARS-CoV-2 offer advantages over nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs, such as RT-PCR), including lower cost and rapid return of results, but show reduced sensitivity. Public health organizations recommend different strategies for utilizing NAATs and antigen tests. We sought to create a framework for the quantitative comparison of these recommended strategies based on their expected performance. METHODS: We utilized a decision analysis approach to simulate the expected outcomes of six testing algorithms analogous to strategies recommended by public health organizations. Each algorithm was simulated 50,000 times in a population of 100,000 persons seeking testing. Primary outcomes were number of missed cases, number of false-positive diagnoses, and total test volumes. Outcome medians and 95% uncertainty ranges (URs) were reported. RESULTS: Algorithms that use NAATs to confirm all negative antigen results minimized missed cases but required high NAAT capacity: 92,200 (95% UR: 91,200-93,200) tests (in addition to 100,000 antigen tests) at 10% prevalence. Selective use of NAATs to confirm antigen results when discordant with symptom status (e.g., symptomatic persons with negative antigen results) resulted in the most efficient use of NAATs, with 25 NAATs (95% UR: 13-57) needed to detect one additional case compared to exclusive use of antigen tests. CONCLUSIONS: No single SARS-CoV-2 testing algorithm is likely to be optimal across settings with different levels of prevalence and for all programmatic priorities. This analysis provides a framework for selecting setting-specific strategies to achieve acceptable balances and trade-offs between programmatic priorities and resource constraints.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Algorithms , COVID-19 Testing , Decision Support Techniques , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(3): 717-720, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707580

ABSTRACT

We assessed the relationship between antigen and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) test positivity and successful virus isolation. We found that antigen test results were more predictive of virus recovery than RT-PCR results. However, virus was isolated from some antigen-negative and RT-PCR‒positive paired specimens, providing support for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention antigen testing algorithm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reverse Transcription , Antigens, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
3.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(3): ofab664, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692168

ABSTRACT

We quantify antibody and memory B-cell responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 at 6 and 12 months postinfection among 7 unvaccinated US coronavirus disease 2019 cases. All had detectable S-specific memory B cells and immunoglobulin G at both time points, with geometric mean titers of 117.2 BAU/mL and 84.0 BAU/mL at 6 and 12 months, respectively.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295896

ABSTRACT

Background The extent to which vaccinated persons who become infected with SARS-CoV-2 contribute to transmission is unclear. During a SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant outbreak among incarcerated persons with high vaccination rates in a federal prison, we assessed markers of viral shedding in vaccinated and unvaccinated persons. Methods Consenting incarcerated persons with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection provided mid-turbinate nasal specimens daily for 10 consecutive days and reported symptom data via questionnaire. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), viral whole genome sequencing, and viral culture was performed on these nasal specimens. Duration of RT-PCR positivity and viral culture positivity was assessed using survival analysis. Results A total of 978 specimens were provided by 95 participants, of whom 78 (82%) were fully vaccinated and 17 (18%) were not fully vaccinated. No significant differences were detected in duration of RT-PCR positivity among fully vaccinated participants (median: 13 days) versus those not fully vaccinated (median: 13 days;p=0.50), or in duration of culture positivity (medians: 5 days and 5 days;p=0.29). Among fully vaccinated participants, overall duration of culture positivity was shorter among Moderna vaccine recipients versus Pfizer (p=0.048) or Janssen (p=0.003) vaccine recipients. Conclusions As this field continues to develop, clinicians and public health practitioners should consider vaccinated persons who become infected with SARS-CoV-2 to be no less infectious than unvaccinated persons. These findings are critically important, especially in congregate settings where viral transmission can lead to large outbreaks.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293100

ABSTRACT

Background: The extent to which vaccinated persons who become infected with SARS-CoV-2 contribute to transmission is unclear. During a SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant outbreak among incarcerated persons with high vaccination rates in a federal prison, we assessed markers of viral shedding in vaccinated and unvaccinated persons. Methods Consenting incarcerated persons with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection provided mid-turbinate nasal specimens daily for 10 consecutive days and reported symptom data via questionnaire. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), viral whole genome sequencing, and viral culture was performed on these nasal specimens. Duration of RT-PCR positivity and viral culture positivity was assessed using survival analysis. Results A total of 978 specimens were provided by 95 participants, of whom 78 (82%) were fully vaccinated and 17 (18%) were not fully vaccinated. No significant differences were detected in duration of RT-PCR positivity among fully vaccinated participants (median: 13 days) versus those not fully vaccinated (median: 13 days;p=0.50), or in duration of culture positivity (medians: 5 days and 5 days;p=0.29). Among fully vaccinated participants, overall duration of culture positivity was shorter among Moderna vaccine recipients versus Pfizer (p=0.048) or Janssen (p=0.003) vaccine recipients. Conclusions As this field continues to develop, clinicians and public health practitioners should consider vaccinated persons who become infected with SARS-CoV-2 to be no less infectious than unvaccinated persons. These findings are critically important, especially in congregate settings where viral transmission can lead to large outbreaks.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): 1805-1813, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The evidence base for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is nascent. We sought to characterize SARS-CoV-2 transmission within US households and estimate the household secondary infection rate (SIR) to inform strategies to reduce transmission. METHODS: We recruited patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and their household contacts in Utah and Wisconsin during 22 March 2020-25 April 2020. We interviewed patients and all household contacts to obtain demographics and medical histories. At the initial household visit, 14 days later, and when a household contact became newly symptomatic, we collected respiratory swabs from patients and household contacts for testing by SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and sera for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We estimated SIR and odds ratios (ORs) to assess risk factors for secondary infection, defined by a positive rRT-PCR or ELISA test. RESULTS: Thirty-two (55%) of 58 households secondary infection among household contacts. The SIR was 29% (n = 55/188; 95% confidence interval [CI], 23%-36%) overall, 42% among children (aged <18 years) of the COVID-19 patient and 33% among spouses/partners. Household contacts to COVID-19 patients with immunocompromised conditions and household contacts who themselves had diabetes mellitus had increased odds of infection with ORs 15.9 (95% CI, 2.4-106.9) and 7.1 (95% CI: 1.2-42.5), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We found substantial evidence of secondary infections among household contacts. People with COVID-19, particularly those with immunocompromising conditions or those with household contacts with diabetes, should take care to promptly self-isolate to prevent household transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Contact Tracing , Family Characteristics , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Wisconsin
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e1841-e1849, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455251

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Improved understanding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spectrum of disease is essential for clinical and public health interventions. There are limited data on mild or asymptomatic infections, but recognition of these individuals is key as they contribute to viral transmission. We describe the symptom profiles from individuals with mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: From 22 March to 22 April 2020 in Wisconsin and Utah, we enrolled and prospectively observed 198 household contacts exposed to SARS-CoV-2. We collected and tested nasopharyngeal specimens by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) 2 or more times during a 14-day period. Contacts completed daily symptom diaries. We characterized symptom profiles on the date of first positive rRT-PCR test and described progression of symptoms over time. RESULTS: We identified 47 contacts, median age 24 (3-75) years, with detectable SARS-CoV-2 by rRT-PCR. The most commonly reported symptoms on the day of first positive rRT-PCR test were upper respiratory (n = 32 [68%]) and neurologic (n = 30 [64%]); fever was not commonly reported (n = 9 [19%]). Eight (17%) individuals were asymptomatic at the date of first positive rRT-PCR collection; 2 (4%) had preceding symptoms that resolved and 6 (13%) subsequently developed symptoms. Children less frequently reported lower respiratory symptoms (21%, 60%, and 69% for <18, 18-49, and ≥50 years of age, respectively; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Household contacts with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection reported mild symptoms. When assessed at a single timepoint, several contacts appeared to have asymptomatic infection; however, over time all developed symptoms. These findings are important to inform infection control, contact tracing, and community mitigation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Contact Tracing , Fever , Humans , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(38): 1349-1354, 2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436417

ABSTRACT

Incarcerated populations have experienced disproportionately higher rates of COVID-19-related illness and death compared with the general U.S. population, due in part to congregate living environments that can facilitate rapid transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and the high prevalence of underlying medical conditions associated with severe COVID-19 (1,2). The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant has caused outbreaks among vaccinated and unvaccinated persons in congregate settings and large public gatherings (3,4). During July 2021, a COVID-19 outbreak involving the Delta variant was identified in a federal prison in Texas, infecting 172 of 233 (74%) incarcerated persons in two housing units. The Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) partnered with CDC to investigate. CDC analyzed data on infection status, symptom onset date, hospitalizations, and deaths among incarcerated persons. The attack rate was higher among unvaccinated versus fully vaccinated persons (39 of 42, 93% versus 129 of 185, 70%; p = 0.002).† Four persons were hospitalized, three of whom were unvaccinated, and one person died, who was unvaccinated. Among a subset of 70 persons consenting to an embedded serial swabbing protocol, the median interval between symptom onset and last positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test result in fully vaccinated versus unvaccinated persons was similar (9 versus 11 days, p = 0.37). One or more specimens were culture-positive from five of 12 (42%) unvaccinated and 14 of 37 (38%) fully vaccinated persons for whom viral culture was attempted. In settings where physical distancing is challenging, including correctional and detention facilities, vaccination and implementation of multicomponent prevention strategies (e.g., testing, medical isolation, quarantine, and masking) are critical to limiting SARS-CoV-2 transmission (5).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Prisons , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Texas/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
J Infect Dis ; 224(5): 771-776, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410005

ABSTRACT

We aimed to characterize presence of culturable virus in clinical specimens during acute illness, and antibody kinetics up to 6 months after symptom onset, among 14 early patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in the United States. We isolated viable severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction-positive respiratory specimens collected during days 0-8 after onset, but not after. All 13 patients with 2 or more serum specimens developed anti-spike antibodies; 12 developed detectable neutralizing antibodies. We did not isolate virus after detection of neutralizing antibodies. Eight participants provided serum at 6 months after onset; all retained detectable anti-spike immunoglobulin G, and half had detectable neutralizing antibodies. Two participants reported not feeling fully recovered at 6 months.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Seroconversion/physiology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , United States
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S54-S57, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387815

ABSTRACT

Repeating the BinaxNOW antigen test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 using 2 groups of readers within 30 minutes resulted in high concordance (98.9%) in 2110 encounters. Same-day repeat antigen testing did not significantly improve test sensitivity (77.2% to 81.4%) while specificity remained high (99.6%).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity , Wisconsin/epidemiology
12.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 10(12): 1052-1061, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381015

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Performance characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 antigen tests among children are limited despite the need for point-of-care testing in school and childcare settings. We describe children seeking SARS-CoV-2 testing at a community site and compare antigen test performance to real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and viral culture. METHODS: Two anterior nasal specimens were self-collected for BinaxNOW antigen and RT-PCR testing, along with demographics, symptoms, and exposure information from individuals ≥5 years at a community testing site. Viral culture was attempted on residual antigen or RT-PCR-positive specimens. Demographic and clinical characteristics, and the performance of SARS-CoV-2 antigen tests, were compared among children (<18 years) and adults. RESULTS: About 1 in 10 included specimens were from children (225/2110); 16.4% (37/225) were RT-PCR-positive. Cycle threshold values were similar among RT-PCR-positive specimens from children and adults (22.5 vs 21.3, P = .46) and among specimens from symptomatic and asymptomatic children (22.5 vs 23.2, P = .39). Sensitivity of antigen test compared to RT-PCR was 73.0% (27/37) among specimens from children and 80.8% (240/297) among specimens from adults; among specimens from children, specificity was 100% (188/188), positive and negative predictive values were 100% (27/27) and 94.9% (188/198), respectively. Virus was isolated from 51.4% (19/37) of RT-PCR-positive pediatric specimens; all 19 had positive antigen test results. CONCLUSIONS: With lower sensitivity relative to RT-PCR, antigen tests may not diagnose all positive COVID-19 cases; however, antigen testing identified children with live SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antigens, Viral , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(11): e761-e767, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has principally been performed through the use of real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction testing. Results of such tests can be reported as cycle threshold (Ct) values, which may provide semi-quantitative or indirect measurements of viral load. Previous reports have examined temporal trends in Ct values over the course of a SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Using testing data collected during a prospective household transmission investigation of outpatient and mild coronavirus disease 2019 cases, we examined the relationships between Ct values of the viral RNA N1 target and demographic, clinical, and epidemiological characteristics collected through participant interviews and daily symptom diaries. RESULTS: We found that Ct values are lowest (corresponding to a higher viral RNA concentration) soon after symptom onset and are significantly correlated with the time elapsed since onset (P < .001); within 7 days after symptom onset, the median Ct value was 26.5, compared with a median Ct value of 35.0 occurring 21 days after onset. Ct values were significantly lower among participants under 18 years of age (P = .01) and those reporting upper respiratory symptoms at the time of sample collection (P = .001), and were higher among participants reporting no symptoms (P = .05). CONCLUSIONS: These results emphasize the importance of early testing for SARS-CoV-2 among individuals with symptoms of respiratory illness, and allow cases to be identified and isolated when their viral shedding may be highest.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Humans , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/genetics , Viral Load
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S54-S57, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1205576

ABSTRACT

Repeating the BinaxNOW antigen test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 using 2 groups of readers within 30 minutes resulted in high concordance (98.9%) in 2110 encounters. Same-day repeat antigen testing did not significantly improve test sensitivity (77.2% to 81.4%) while specificity remained high (99.6%).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity , Wisconsin/epidemiology
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(42): 1517-1521, 2020 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890757

ABSTRACT

During February 12-October 15, 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in approximately 7,900,000 aggregated reported cases and approximately 216,000 deaths in the United States.* Among COVID-19-associated deaths reported to national case surveillance during February 12-May 18, persons aged ≥65 years and members of racial and ethnic minority groups were disproportionately represented (1). This report describes demographic and geographic trends in COVID-19-associated deaths reported to the National Vital Statistics System† (NVSS) during May 1-August 31, 2020, by 50 states and the District of Columbia. During this period, 114,411 COVID-19-associated deaths were reported. Overall, 78.2% of decedents were aged ≥65 years, and 53.3% were male; 51.3% were non-Hispanic White (White), 24.2% were Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic), and 18.7% were non-Hispanic Black (Black). The number of COVID-19-associated deaths decreased from 37,940 in May to 17,718 in June; subsequently, counts increased to 30,401 in July and declined to 28,352 in August. From May to August, the percentage distribution of COVID-19-associated deaths by U.S. Census region increased from 23.4% to 62.7% in the South and from 10.6% to 21.4% in the West. Over the same period, the percentage distribution of decedents who were Hispanic increased from 16.3% to 26.4%. COVID-19 remains a major public health threat regardless of age or race and ethnicity. Deaths continued to occur disproportionately among older persons and certain racial and ethnic minorities, particularly among Hispanic persons. These results can inform public health messaging and mitigation efforts focused on prevention and early detection of infection among disproportionately affected groups.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Health Status Disparities , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , /statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Vital Statistics , Young Adult
16.
Pediatrics ; 147(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-839914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Limited data exist on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in children. We described infection rates and symptom profiles among pediatric household contacts of individuals with coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: We enrolled individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 and their household contacts, assessed daily symptoms prospectively for 14 days, and obtained specimens for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and serology testing. Among pediatric contacts (<18 years), we described transmission, assessed the risk factors for infection, and calculated symptom positive and negative predictive values. We compared secondary infection rates and symptoms between pediatric and adult contacts using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Among 58 households, 188 contacts were enrolled (120 adults; 68 children). Secondary infection rates for adults (30%) and children (28%) were similar. Among households with potential for transmission from children, child-to-adult transmission may have occurred in 2 of 10 (20%), and child-to-child transmission may have occurred in 1 of 6 (17%). Pediatric case patients most commonly reported headache (79%), sore throat (68%), and rhinorrhea (68%); symptoms had low positive predictive values, except measured fever (100%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 44% to 100%). Compared with symptomatic adults, children were less likely to report cough (odds ratio [OR]: 0.15; 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.57), loss of taste (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.74), and loss of smell (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.96) and more likely to report sore throat (OR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.04 to 11.18). CONCLUSIONS: Children and adults had similar secondary infection rates, but children generally had less frequent and severe symptoms. In two states early in the pandemic, we observed possible transmission from children in approximately one-fifth of households with potential to observe such transmission patterns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Utah/epidemiology , Wisconsin/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(39): 1419-1424, 2020 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809620

ABSTRACT

Although children and young adults are reportedly at lower risk for severe disease and death from infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), than are persons in other age groups (1), younger persons can experience infection and subsequently transmit infection to those at higher risk for severe illness (2-4). Although at lower risk for severe disease, some young adults experience serious illness, and asymptomatic or mild cases can result in sequelae such as myocardial inflammation (5). In the United States, approximately 45% of persons aged 18-22 years were enrolled in colleges and universities in 2019 (6). As these institutions reopen, opportunities for infection increase; therefore, mitigation efforts and monitoring reports of COVID-19 cases among young adults are important. During August 2-September 5, weekly incidence of COVID-19 among persons aged 18-22 years rose by 55.1% nationally; across U.S. Census regions,* increases were greatest in the Northeast, where incidence increased 144.0%, and Midwest, where incidence increased 123.4%. During the same period, changes in testing volume for SARS-CoV-2 in this age group ranged from a 6.2% decline in the West to a 170.6% increase in the Northeast. In addition, the proportion of cases in this age group among non-Hispanic White (White) persons increased from 33.8% to 77.3% during May 31-September 5. Mitigation and preventive measures targeted to young adults can likely reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission among their contacts and communities. As colleges and universities resume operations, taking steps to prevent the spread of COVID-19 among young adults is critical (7).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Age Distribution , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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