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1.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732243

ABSTRACT

(1) Objective: This systematic review summarizes current knowledges about maternal and neonatal outcomes following COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy and breastfeeding. (2) Study design: PubMed, Cochrane Library, and the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) were searched up to 27 October 2021. The primary outcome was to estimate how many pregnant and lactating women were reported to be vaccinated and had available maternal and neonatal outcomes. (3) Results: Forty-five studies sourcing data of 74,908 pregnant women and 5098 lactating women who received COVID-19 vaccination were considered as eligible. No major side-effects were reported, especially during the second and third trimester of pregnancy and during breastfeeding. Conversely, available studies revealed that infants received specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies after maternal vaccination. (4) Conclusions: Vaccination against the SARS-CoV-2 virus should be recommended for pregnant women, after the pros and cons have been adequately explained. In particular, given the still limited evidence and considering that fever during the first months of gestation increases the possibility of congenital anomalies, they should be carefully counseled. The same considerations apply to breastfeeding women, also considering the immune responses that mRNA vaccines can generate in their human milk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Breast Feeding , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Lactation , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438527

ABSTRACT

Specific memory B cells and antibodies are a reliable read-out of vaccine efficacy. We analysed these biomarkers after one and two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine. The second dose significantly increases the level of highly specific memory B cells and antibodies. Two months after the second dose, specific antibody levels decline, but highly specific memory B cells continue to increase, thus predicting a sustained protection from COVID-19. We show that although mucosal IgA is not induced by the vaccination, memory B cells migrate in response to inflammation and secrete IgA at mucosal sites. We show that the first vaccine dose may lead to an insufficient number of highly specific memory B cells and low concentration of serum antibodies, thus leaving vaccinees without the immune robustness needed to ensure viral elimination and herd immunity. We also clarify that the reduction of serum antibodies does not diminish the force and duration of the immune protection induced by vaccination. The vaccine does not induce sterilizing immunity. Infection after vaccination may be caused by the lack of local preventive immunity because of the absence of mucosal IgA.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cryopreservation , Female , Health Personnel , Healthy Volunteers , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Lactation , Male , Middle Aged , Mucous Membrane/immunology , Patient Safety , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
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