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1.
Mult Scler ; : 13524585231176174, 2023 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232521

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the general population, maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is associated with worse maternal outcomes; however, only one study so far has evaluated COVID-19 clinical outcomes in pregnant and postpartum women with multiple sclerosis, showing no higher risk for poor COVID-19 outcomes in these patients. OBJECTIVE: In this multicenter study, we aimed to evaluate COVID-19 clinical outcomes in pregnant patients with multiple sclerosis. METHODS: We recruited 85 pregnant patients with multiple sclerosis who contracted COVID-19 after conception and were prospectively followed-up in Italian and Turkish Centers, in the period 2020-2022. A control group of 1354 women was extracted from the database of the Multiple Sclerosis and COVID-19 (MuSC-19). Univariate and subsequent logistic regression models were fitted to search for risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 course (at least one outcome among hospitalization, intensive care unit [ICU] admission and death). RESULTS: In the multivariable analysis, independent predictors of severe COVID-19 were age, body mass index ⩾ 30, treatment with anti-CD20 and recent use of methylprednisolone. Vaccination before infection was a protective factor. Vaccination before infection was a protective factor. Pregnancy was not a risk nor a protective factor for severe COVID-19 course. CONCLUSION: Our data show no significant increase of severe COVID-19 outcomes in patients with multiple sclerosis who contracted the infection during pregnancy.

2.
Eur J Neurol ; 30(8): 2357-2364, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although two doses of COVID-19 vaccine elicited a protective humoral response in most persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS), a significant group of them treated with immunosuppressive disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) showed less efficient responses. METHODS: This prospective multicenter observational study evaluates differences in immune response after a third vaccine dose in pwMS. RESULTS: Four hundred seventy-three pwMS were analyzed. Compared to untreated patients, there was a 50-fold decrease (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.3-100.0, p < 0.001) in serum SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels in those on rituximab, a 20-fold decrease (95% CI = 8.3-50.0, p < 0.001) in those on ocrelizumab, and a 2.3-fold decrease (95% CI = 1.2-4.6, p = 0.015) in those on fingolimod. As compared to the antibody levels after the second vaccine dose, patients on the anti-CD20 drugs rituximab and ocrelizumab showed a 2.3-fold lower gain (95% CI = 1.4-3.8, p = 0.001), whereas those on fingolimod showed a 1.7-fold higher gain (95% CI = 1.1-2.7, p = 0.012), compared to patients treated with other DMTs. CONCLUSIONS: All pwMS increased their serum SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels after the third vaccine dose. The mean antibody values of patients treated with ocrelizumab/rituximab remained well below the empirical "protective threshold" for risk of infection identified in the CovaXiMS study (>659 binding antibody units/mL), whereas for patients treated with fingolimod this value was significantly closer to the cutoff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antibody Formation , Fingolimod Hydrochloride , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Rituximab/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination
3.
Ann Neurol ; 89(4): 780-789, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272603

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to assess the impact of immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapies on the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). METHODS: We retrospectively collected data of PwMS with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. All the patients had complete follow-up to death or recovery. Severe COVID-19 was defined by a 3-level variable: mild disease not requiring hospitalization versus pneumonia or hospitalization versus intensive care unit (ICU) admission or death. We evaluated baseline characteristics and MS therapies associated with severe COVID-19 by multivariate and propensity score (PS)-weighted ordinal logistic models. Sensitivity analyses were run to confirm the results. RESULTS: Of 844 PwMS with suspected (n = 565) or confirmed (n = 279) COVID-19, 13 (1.54%) died; 11 of them were in a progressive MS phase, and 8 were without any therapy. Thirty-eight (4.5%) were admitted to an ICU; 99 (11.7%) had radiologically documented pneumonia; 96 (11.4%) were hospitalized. After adjusting for region, age, sex, progressive MS course, Expanded Disability Status Scale, disease duration, body mass index, comorbidities, and recent methylprednisolone use, therapy with an anti-CD20 agent (ocrelizumab or rituximab) was significantly associated (odds ratio [OR] = 2.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18-4.74, p = 0.015) with increased risk of severe COVID-19. Recent use (<1 month) of methylprednisolone was also associated with a worse outcome (OR = 5.24, 95% CI = 2.20-12.53, p = 0.001). Results were confirmed by the PS-weighted analysis and by all the sensitivity analyses. INTERPRETATION: This study showed an acceptable level of safety of therapies with a broad array of mechanisms of action. However, some specific elements of risk emerged. These will need to be considered while the COVID-19 pandemic persists. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:780-789.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Dimethyl Fumarate/therapeutic use , Female , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Interferons/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Natalizumab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
4.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(2): 535-542, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Some studies have shown that air pollution, often assessed by thin particulate matter with diameter below 2.5 µg/m3 (PM2.5), may contribute to severe COVID-19 courses, as well as play a role in the onset and evolution of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the impact of air pollution on COVID-19 has never been explored specifically amongst patients with MS (PwMS). This retrospective observational study aims to explore associations between PM2.5 and COVID-19 severity amongst PwMS. METHODS: Data were retrieved from an Italian web-based platform (MuSC-19) which includes PwMS with COVID-19. PM2.5 2016-2018 average concentrations were provided by the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service. Italian patients inserted in the platform from 15 January 2020 to 9 April 2021 with a COVID-19 positive test were included. Ordered logistic regression models were used to study associations between PM2.5 and COVID-19 severity. RESULTS: In all, 1087 patients, of whom 13% required hospitalization and 2% were admitted to an intensive care unit or died, were included. Based on the multivariate analysis, higher concentrations of PM2.5 increased the risk of worse COVID-19 course (odds ratio 1.90; p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Even if several other factors explain the unfavourable course of COVID-19 in PwMS, the role of air pollutants must be considered and further investigated.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Neurol ; 13: 909197, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252183

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients frequently engage in rehabilitation to ameliorate symptoms. During the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, access to rehabilitation programs has been markedly limited, consequently, telerehabilitation gained popularity. In this prospective, open-label, and pilot study, we aimed to investigate feasibility, safety, and efficacy of telerehabilitation in mild-to-moderate PD patients. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three PD patients, with Hoehn and Yahr stage <3, without gait disturbances or dementia and capable of using the televisit platform, were recruited for a 5-week telerehabilitation program, consisting of 1 remote visit with a therapist and a minimum of two sessions of >30-min of self-conducted exercises per week. Patients received video tutorials of exercises and were asked to keep a diary of sessions. At baseline (T0), at the end of the intervention (T1), and 1 month after the end of treatment (T2), patients were remotely assessed with MDS-UPDRS part I-III, PDQ-39, Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and Frontal Assessment Battery scales, respectively. Acceptable compliance to the program was defined as >60% matching of frequency and duration of sessions, whereas optimal compliance was set at >80% matching. Results: The dropout rate was 0%. Over 85% of patients reached acceptable adherence cut-off and around 70% reached optimal one. No adverse events were reported during sessions. The repeated measure analysis of variance (rANOVA) showed a significant effect of factor "time" for MDS-UPDRS-III (p < 0.0001) with a mean reduction of 4.217 points between T0 and T1 and return to baseline at T2. No significant effect was found for other outcome measures. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that telerehabilitation is safe, feasible, and effective on motor symptoms in mild-to-moderate PD patients.

6.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 12(3): e1434, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280635

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The very rapidly approved mRNA-based vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, including Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2, are effective in protecting from severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in immunocompetent population. However, establishing the duration and identifying correlates of vaccine-induced protection will be crucial to optimise future immunisation strategies. Here, we studied in healthy vaccine recipients and people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS), undergoing different therapies, the regulation of innate immune response by mRNA vaccination in order to correlate it with the magnitude of vaccine-induced protective humoral responses. Methods: Healthy subjects (n = 20) and matched pwMS (n = 22) were longitudinally sampled before and after mRNA vaccination. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-associated type I and II interferon (IFN)-inducible gene expression, serum innate cytokine/chemokine profile as well as binding and neutralising anti-SARS-COV-2 antibodies (Abs) were measured. Results: We identified an early immune module composed of the IFN-inducible genes Mx1, OAS1 and IRF1, the serum cytokines IL-15, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ and the chemokines IP-10, MCP-1 and MIG, induced 1 day post second and third BNT162b2 vaccine doses, strongly correlating with magnitude of humoral response to vaccination in healthy and MS vaccinees. Moreover, induction of the early immune module was dramatically affected in pwMS treated with fingolimod and ocrelizumab, both groups unable to induce a protective humoral response to COVID-19 vaccine. Conclusion: Overall, this study suggests that the vaccine-induced early regulation of innate immunity is mediated by IFN signalling, impacts on the magnitude of adaptive responses and it might be indicative of vaccine-induced humoral protection.

7.
Front Neurol ; 13: 1018785, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199045

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccinations provided the most effective tool to fight the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. It is now well established that COVID-19 vaccines are safe for the general population; however, some cases of rare adverse events following immunization have been described, including CNS Inflammatory Demyelinating Events (CIDEs). Although observational studies are showing that these events are rare and vaccines' benefits highly outweigh the risks, collecting and characterizing post-COVID-19 vaccine CIDEs might be relevant to single out potential risk factors and suggest possible underlying mechanisms. Methods: Here we describe six CIDEs, including two acute transverse myelitis (ATM), three multiple sclerosis (MS), and one neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), occurring between 8 and 35 days from a COVID-19 vaccine. Moreover, we performed a systematic literature search of post-COVID-19 vaccines CIDEs, including ATM, ADEM, MS, and NMOSD/MOGAD, published worldwide between December 2020 and December 2021, during 1 year of the vaccination campaign. Clinical/MRI and CSF/serum characteristics were extracted from reviewed studies and pooled-analyzed. Results: Forty-nine studies were included in the systematic review, reporting a total amount of 85 CIDEs. Considering our additional six cases, 91 CIDEs were summarized, including 24 ATM, 11 ADEM, 47 MS, and nine NMOSD/MOGAD. Overall, CIDEs occurred after both mRNA (n = 46), adenoviral-vectored (n = 37), and inactivated vaccines (n = 8). Adenoviral-vectored vaccines accounted for the majority of ADEM (55%) and NMOSD/MOGAD (56%), while mRNA vaccines were more frequent in MS new diagnoses (87%) and relapses (56%). Age was heterogeneous (19-88) and the female sex was prevalent. Time from vaccine to symptoms onset was notably variable: ADEM and NMOSD/MOGAD had a longer median time of onset (12.5 and 10 days) compared to ATM and MS (6 and 7 days) and further timing differences were observed between events following different vaccine types, with ATM and MS after mRNA-vaccines occurring earlier than those following adenoviral-vectored ones. Conclusion: Both the prevalence of vaccine types for certain CIDEs and the heterogeneity in time of onset suggest that different mechanisms-with distinct dynamic/kinetic-might underly these events. While epidemiological studies have assessed the safety of COVID-19 vaccines, descriptions and pooled analyses of sporadic cases may still be valuable to gain insights into CIDE's pathophysiology.

8.
Mult Scler ; 28(13): 2106-2111, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079315

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) treated with anti-CD20 or fingolimod showed a reduced humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. OBJECTIVE: In this study we aimed to monitor the risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection in pwMS on different disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). METHODS: Data on the number of vaccinated patients and the number of patients with a breakthrough infection were retrospectively collected in 27 Italian MS centers. We estimated the rate of breakthrough infections and of infection requiring hospitalization per DMT. RESULTS: 19,641 vaccinated pwMS were included in the database. After a median follow-up of 8 months, we observed 137 breakthrough infections. Compared with other DMTs, the rate of breakthrough infections was significantly higher on ocrelizumab (0.57% vs 2.00%, risk ratio (RR) = 3.55, 95% CI = 2.74-4.58, p < 0.001) and fingolimod (0.58% vs 1.62%, RR = 2.65, 95% CI = 1.75-4.00, p < 0.001), while there were no significant differences in any other DMT group. In the ocrelizumab group the hospitalization rate was 16.7% versus 19.4% in the pre-vaccination era (RR = 0.86, p = 0.74) and it was 3.9% in all the other DMT groups versus 11.9% in the pre-vaccination period (RR = 0.33, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections is higher in patients treated with ocrelizumab and fingolimod, and the rate of severe infections was significantly reduced in all the DMTs excluding ocrelizumab.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 68: 104243, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many studies investigated the association between air pollution and Covid-19 severity but the only study focusing on patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) exclusively evaluated exposure to PM2.5. We aim to study, in a sample of MS patients, the impact of long-term exposure to PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 on Covid-19 severity, described as occurrence of pneumonia. METHODS: A 1:2 ratio case-control study was designed, differentiating cases and controls based on Covid-19 pneumonia. Associations between pollutants and outcome were studied using logistic regression. Weighted quantile sum (WQS) logistic regression was used to identify the individual contribution of each pollutant within the mixture; Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) penalized regression was performed to confirm the variable selection from WQS. All the analyses were adjusted for confounders selected a priori. RESULTS: Of the 615 eligible patients, 491 patients provided detailed place of exposure and were included in the principal analysis. Higher concentrations of air pollutants were associated with increased odds of developing Covid-19 pneumonia (PM2.5: 3rd vs 1st tercile OR(95% CI)=2.26(1.29;3.96); PM10: 3rd vs 1st tercile OR(95% CI)=2.12(1.22;3.68); NO2: 3rd vs 1st tercile OR(95% CI)=2.12(1.21;3.69)). Pollutants were highly correlated with each other; WQS index was associated to an increased risk of pneumonia (ß=0.44; p-value=0.004) and the main contributors to this association were NO2 (41%) and PM2.5 (34%). Consistently, Lasso method selected PM2.5 and NO2. CONCLUSIONS: Higher long-term exposure to PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 increased the odds of Covid-19 pneumonia among MS patients and the most dangerous pollutants were NO2 and PM2.5.

10.
Mult Scler ; 28(12): 1937-1943, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Development of long-lasting anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) T-cell responses in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) treated with ocrelizumab is questioned. OBJECTIVE: Investigate antiviral T-cell responses after infection with SARS-CoV-2 in ocrelizumab-treated pwMS. Control groups included ocrelizumab-treated pwMS without SARS-CoV-2 infection, and non-MS individuals with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools and T-cell reactivity was assessed by ELISPOT for interferon (IFN)-γ detection, and by multiparametric fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analyses for assessment and characterization of T-cell activation. RESULTS: ELISPOT assay against the spike and the N protein of SARS-CoV-2 displayed specific T-cell reactivity in 28/29 (96%) pwMS treated with ocrelizumab and infected by SARS-CoV-2, similar to infected persons without MS. This reactivity was present 1 year after infection and independent from the time of ocrelizumab infusion. FACS analysis following stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools showed the presence of activation-induced markers (AIMs) in both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in 96% and 92% of these individuals, respectively. Within naïve AIM+ CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, we detected T memory stem cells, suggesting the acquisition of long-term memory. CONCLUSIONS: B-cell depletion using ocrelizumab does not impair the development of long-lasting anti-SARS-CoV-2 T-cell responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antiviral Agents , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Interferons , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Peptides , RNA, Viral , Stem Cells
11.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 20(10): 1811-1815, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029871

ABSTRACT

COVID 19 pandemic and mass vaccination campaigns have revealed the situation of the most vulnerable patients. In this work, we focused our attention to patients who have Multiple Sclerosis (MS), particularly in treatment with cladribine tablets, trying to understand if and when it is possible to administer the vaccine successfully. In light of the novel topic, we studied the existing literature and analysed experiences with previous vaccinations, such as influenza and VZV, as well as data from countries where vaccination campaigns had already begun. Overall, we have taken into account the mechanism of action, the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic of cladribine, and the changes in the immune system after its administration, together with the preliminary data about the humoral response to influenza, VZV, and SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in cladribine treated patients. In conclusion, data showed that the use of cladribine tablets seems to permit flexibility regarding vaccination timing and we suggest that vaccination in those patients should be safe and effective. The current COVID 19 pandemic has re-ignited the interest in vaccines and vaccination procedures. The importance of including fragile individuals has increased as a result of mass vaccination. Millions of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) around the world are debating whether they can safely receive their vaccine shot with the same efficacy despite receiving immune-modulating or immune-suppressive treatments. In the absence of conclusive empirical data, we will review and discuss the available evidence and the reasonable conclusions for one specific treatment, namely cladribine tablets (Mavenclad).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Multiple Sclerosis , Cladribine/adverse effects , Cladribine/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/chemically induced , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tablets , Vaccination
12.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(12): 3728-3736, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019251

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinical outcomes of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been thoroughly investigated, but a further analysis on main signs and symptoms and their risk factors still needs attention. The objective of this study was to group together and describe based on similarity the most common signs and symptoms of COVID-19 in MS patients and identify all factors associated with their manifestation. METHOD: Logistic and linear regression models were run to recognize factors associated with each pooled group of symptoms and their total number. RESULTS: From March 2020 to November 2021, data were collected from 1354 MS patients with confirmed infection of COVID-19. Ageusia and anosmia was less frequent in older people (odds ratio [OR] 0.98; p = 0.005) and more in smoker patients (OR 1.39; p = 0.049). Smoke was also associated with an incremental number of symptoms (OR 1.24; p = 0.031), substance abuse (drugs or alcohol), conjunctivitis and rash (OR 5.20; p = 0.042) and the presence of at least one comorbidity with shortness of breath, tachycardia or chest pain (OR 1.24; p = 0.008). Some disease-modifying therapies were associated with greater frequencies of certain COVID-19 symptoms (association between anti-CD20 therapies and increment in the number of concomitant symptoms: OR 1.29; p = 0.05). Differences in frequencies between the three waves were found for flu-like symptoms (G1, p = 0.024), joint or muscle pain (G2, p = 0.013) and ageusia and anosmia (G5, p < 0.001). All cases should be referred to variants up to Delta. CONCLUSION: Several factors along with the choice of specific therapeutic approaches might have a different impact on the occurrence of some COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Aged , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Anosmia , Multiple Sclerosis/complications
13.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is unclear how multiple sclerosis (MS) affects the severity of COVID-19. The aim of this study is to compare COVID-19-related outcomes collected in an Italian cohort of patients with MS with the outcomes expected in the age- and sex-matched Italian population. METHODS: Hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death after COVID-19 diagnosis of 1,362 patients with MS were compared with the age- and sex-matched Italian population in a retrospective observational case-cohort study with population-based control. The observed vs the expected events were compared in the whole MS cohort and in different subgroups (higher risk: Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score > 3 or at least 1 comorbidity, lower risk: EDSS score ≤ 3 and no comorbidities) by the χ2 test, and the risk excess was quantified by risk ratios (RRs). RESULTS: The risk of severe events was about twice the risk in the age- and sex-matched Italian population: RR = 2.12 for hospitalization (p < 0.001), RR = 2.19 for ICU admission (p < 0.001), and RR = 2.43 for death (p < 0.001). The excess of risk was confined to the higher-risk group (n = 553). In lower-risk patients (n = 809), the rate of events was close to that of the Italian age- and sex-matched population (RR = 1.12 for hospitalization, RR = 1.52 for ICU admission, and RR = 1.19 for death). In the lower-risk group, an increased hospitalization risk was detected in patients on anti-CD20 (RR = 3.03, p = 0.005), whereas a decrease was detected in patients on interferon (0 observed vs 4 expected events, p = 0.04). DISCUSSION: Overall, the MS cohort had a risk of severe events that is twice the risk than the age- and sex-matched Italian population. This excess of risk is mainly explained by the EDSS score and comorbidities, whereas a residual increase of hospitalization risk was observed in patients on anti-CD20 therapies and a decrease in people on interferon.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Frontiers in neurology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1918549

ABSTRACT

Introduction Parkinson's disease (PD) patients frequently engage in rehabilitation to ameliorate symptoms. During the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, access to rehabilitation programs has been markedly limited, consequently, telerehabilitation gained popularity. In this prospective, open-label, and pilot study, we aimed to investigate feasibility, safety, and efficacy of telerehabilitation in mild-to-moderate PD patients. Materials and Methods Twenty-three PD patients, with Hoehn and Yahr stage <3, without gait disturbances or dementia and capable of using the televisit platform, were recruited for a 5-week telerehabilitation program, consisting of 1 remote visit with a therapist and a minimum of two sessions of >30-min of self-conducted exercises per week. Patients received video tutorials of exercises and were asked to keep a diary of sessions. At baseline (T0), at the end of the intervention (T1), and 1 month after the end of treatment (T2), patients were remotely assessed with MDS-UPDRS part I-III, PDQ-39, Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and Frontal Assessment Battery scales, respectively. Acceptable compliance to the program was defined as >60% matching of frequency and duration of sessions, whereas optimal compliance was set at >80% matching. Results The dropout rate was 0%. Over 85% of patients reached acceptable adherence cut-off and around 70% reached optimal one. No adverse events were reported during sessions. The repeated measure analysis of variance (rANOVA) showed a significant effect of factor “time” for MDS-UPDRS-III (p < 0.0001) with a mean reduction of 4.217 points between T0 and T1 and return to baseline at T2. No significant effect was found for other outcome measures. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that telerehabilitation is safe, feasible, and effective on motor symptoms in mild-to-moderate PD patients.

15.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 63: 103909, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many risk factors for the development of severe forms of Covid-19 have been identified, some applying to the general population and others specific to Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. However, a score for quantifying the individual risk of severe Covid-19 in patients with MS is not available. The aim of this study was to construct such score and to evaluate its performance. METHODS: Data on patients with MS infected with Covid-19 in Italy, Turkey and South America were extracted from the Musc-19 platform. After imputation of missing values, data were separated into training data set (70%) and validation data set (30%). Univariable logistic regression models were performed in the training dataset to identify the main risk factors to be included in the multivariable logistic regression analyses. To select the most relevant variables we applied three different approaches: (1) multivariable stepwise, (2) Lasso regression, (3) Bayesian model averaging. Three scores were defined as the linear combination of the coefficients estimated in the models multiplied by the corresponding value of the variables and higher scores were associated to higher risk of severe Covid-19 course. The performances of the three scores were compared in the validation dataset based on the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and an optimal cut-off was calculated in the training dataset for the score with the best performance. The probability of showing a severe Covid-19 course was calculated based on the score with the best performance. RESULTS: 3852 patients were included in the study (2696 in the training dataset and 1156 in the validation data set). 17% of the patients required hospitalization and risk factors for severe Covid-19 course were older age, male sex, living in Turkey or South America instead of living in Italy, presence of comorbidities, progressive MS, longer disease duration, higher Expanded Disability Status Scale, Methylprednisolone use and anti-CD20 treatment. The score with the best performance was the one derived using the Lasso selection approach (AUC= 0.72) and it was built with the following variables: age, sex, country, BMI, presence of comorbidities, EDSS, methylprednisolone use, treatment. An excel spreadsheet to calculate the score and the probability of severe Covid-19 is available at the following link: https://osf.io/ac47u/?view_only=691814d57b564a34b3596e4fcdcf8580. CONCLUSIONS: The originality of this study consists in building a useful tool to quantify the individual risk for Covid-19 severity based on patient's characteristics. Due to the modest predictive ability and to the need of external validation, this tool is not ready for being fully used in clinical practice to make important decisions or interventions. However, it can be used as an additional instrument to identify high-risk patients and persuade them to take important measures to prevent Covid-19 infection (i.e. getting vaccinated against Covid-19, adhering to social distancing, and using of personal protection equipment).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Methylprednisolone , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment
16.
Mult Scler ; 28(7): 1151-1154, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861988

ABSTRACT

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), clinically defined by an acute polyfocal neurological syndrome usually with monophasic course. ADEM often occurs after infections, but 5%-10% of cases are preceded by vaccinations. Several cases of ADEM have been described after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, whereas no case has been reported after adenovirus-vectored or mRNA COVID-19 vaccine administration. Here we describe a case of ADEM presenting 2 weeks after receiving the first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. Patient clinical/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) status spontaneously improved and rapidly resolved with corticosteroids. A 4-month follow-up showed complete recovery and no relapses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/adverse effects , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/chemically induced , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/diagnostic imaging , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin ; 8(2): 20552173221099181, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822147

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has reinforced the importance of research for the health of our society and highlighted the need for stakeholders of the health research and care continuum to form a collaborative and interdependent ecosystem. Objective: With the world still reeling from waves of the COVID-19 pandemic and adapting to the vaccine rollout at widely different rates, the International Progressive MS Alliance (hereafter Alliance) organized a meeting (April 2021) to consider how the Covid-19 pandemic impacts the health and well-being of people with progressive Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Methods: We invited the Alliance stakeholders and experts to present what they have learned about SARS-CoV-2 infection and progressive MS and to define future scientific priorities. Results: The meeting highlighted three priorities for additional focus: (1) the impact of Disease Modifying Therapies (DMTs) on the risk of COVID-19 and on the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in people with progressive MS; (2) the long-term impact of COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccines on the biology of progressive MS; and (3) the impact on well-being of people with progressive MS. Conclusion: This paper's calls to action could represent a path toward a shared research agenda. Multi-stakeholder and long-term investigations will be required to drive and evolve such an agenda.

18.
EBioMedicine ; 80: 104042, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this study we aimed to monitor the risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with MS (pwMS) under different DMTs and to identify correlates of reduced protection. METHODS: This is a prospective Italian multicenter cohort study, long-term clinical follow-up of the CovaXiMS (Covid-19 vaccine in Multiple Sclerosis) study. 1855 pwMS scheduled for SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination were enrolled and followed up to a mean time of 10 months. The cumulative incidence of breakthrough Covid-19 cases in pwMS was calculated before and after December 2021, to separate the Delta from the Omicron waves and to account for the advent of the third vaccine dose. FINDINGS: 1705 pwMS received 2 m-RNA vaccine doses, 21/28 days apart. Of them, 1508 (88.5%) had blood assessment 4 weeks after the second vaccine dose and 1154/1266 (92%) received the third dose after a mean interval of 210 days (range 90-342 days) after the second dose. During follow-up, 131 breakthrough Covid-19 infections (33 during the Delta and 98 during the Omicron wave) were observed. The probability to be infected during the Delta wave was associated with SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels measured after 4 weeks from the second vaccine dose (HR=0.57, p < 0.001); the protective role of antibodies was preserved over the whole follow up (HR=0.57, 95%CI=0.43-0.75, p < 0.001), with a significant reduction (HR=1.40, 95%CI=1.01-1.94, p=0.04) for the Omicron cases. The third dose significantly reduced the risk of infection (HR=0.44, 95%CI=0.21-0.90,p=0.025) during the Omicron wave. INTERPRETATION: The risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections is mainly associated with reduced levels of the virus-specific humoral immune response. FUNDING: Supported by FISM - Fondazione Italiana Sclerosi Multipla - cod. 2021/Special-Multi/001 and financed or co-financed with the '5 per mille' public funding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24467, 2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596771

ABSTRACT

Mobility restrictions are successfully used to contain the diffusion of epidemics. In this work we explore their effect on the epidemic growth by investigating an extension of the Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) model in which individual mobility is taken into account. In the model individual agents move on a chessboard with a Lévy walk and, within each square, epidemic spreading follows the standard SIR model. These simple rules allow to reproduce the sub-exponential growth of the epidemic evolution observed during the Covid-19 epidemic waves in several countries and which cannot be captured by the standard SIR model. We show that we can tune the slowing-down of the epidemic spreading by changing the dynamics of the agents from Lévy to Brownian and we investigate how the interplay among different containment strategies mitigate the epidemic spreading. Finally we demonstrate that we can reproduce the epidemic evolution of the first and second COVID-19 waves in Italy using only 3 parameters, i.e , the infection rate, the removing rate, and the mobility in the country. We provide an estimate of the peak reduction due to imposed mobility restrictions, i. e., the so-called flattening the curve effect. Although based on few ingredients, the model captures the kinetic of the epidemic waves, returning mobility values that are consistent with a lock-down intervention during the first wave and milder limitations, associated to a weaker peak reduction, during the second wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Movement , COVID-19/virology , Epidemics , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 755333, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468345

ABSTRACT

Current knowledge on Multiple Sclerosis (MS) etiopathogenesis encompasses complex interactions between the host's genetic background and several environmental factors that result in dysimmunity against the central nervous system. An old-aged association exists between MS and viral infections, capable of triggering and sustaining neuroinflammation through direct and indirect mechanisms. The novel Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has a remarkable, and still not fully understood, impact on the immune system: the occurrence and severity of both acute COVID-19 and post-infectious chronic illness (long COVID-19) largely depends on the host's response to the infection, that echoes several aspects of MS pathobiology. Furthermore, other MS-associated viruses, such as the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs), may enhance a mechanistic interplay with the novel Coronavirus, with the potential to interfere in MS natural history. Studies on COVID-19 in people with MS have helped clinicians in adjusting therapeutic strategies during the pandemic; similar efforts are being made for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaigns. In this Review, we look over 18 months of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic from the perspective of MS: we dissect neuroinflammatory and demyelinating mechanisms associated with COVID-19, summarize pathophysiological crossroads between MS and SARS-CoV-2 infection, and discuss present evidence on COVID-19 and its vaccination in people with MS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis/virology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination
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