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1.
Public Health ; 205: 157-163, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734903

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In Germany, deaths of SARS-CoV-2-positive persons are reported as 'death related to SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19' to the Robert Koch Institute, Germany's main infectious disease institution. In 177 COVID-19-associated deaths reported in Regensburg, Germany, from October 2020 to January 2021, we investigated how deaths following SARS-CoV-2 infection were reported and whether cases with a death attributed to SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 death [CD]) differed from cases with a reported death from other causes (non-COVID-19 death [NCD]). STUDY DESIGN: This was an observational retrospective cohort study. METHODS: We analysed descriptive data on the numbers of cases, deaths, age, sex, symptoms and hospitalizations. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) and performed Chi-squared/Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test for comparison of medians. RESULTS: Deaths attributed to COVID-19 occurred primarily in elderly patients. The mortality rate and the case fatality ratio (CFR) increased with age. The median age and the prevalence of risk factors were similar between CD and NCD. Respiratory symptoms and pneumonia at the time of diagnosis were associated with death reported as CD. The odds of CD attribution in cases hospitalized because of COVID-19 were 6-fold higher than the odds of NCD (OR: 6.00; 95% CI: 1.32 to 27.22). CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory symptoms/pneumonia at the time of diagnosis and hospitalization due to COVID-19 were associated with attributing a death to COVID-19. Numbers of COVID deaths need to be interpreted with caution. Criteria that facilitate attributing the cause of death among SARS-CoV-2 cases more uniformly could make these figures more comparable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Aged , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Anaesthesist ; 70(Suppl 1): 19-29, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574765

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019 a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread around the world resulting in an acute respiratory illness pandemic. The immense challenges for clinicians and hospitals as well as the strain on many healthcare systems has been unprecedented.The majority of patients present with mild symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, 5-8% become critically ill and require intensive care treatment. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure with severe dyspnea and an increased respiratory rate (>30/min) usually leads to intensive care unit (ICU) admission. At this point bilateral pulmonary infiltrates are typically seen. Patients often develop a severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).So far, remdesivir and dexamethasone have shown clinical effectiveness in severe COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. The main goal of supportive treatment is to ascertain adequate oxygenation. Invasive mechanical ventilation and repeated prone positioning are key elements in treating severely hypoxemic COVID-19 patients.Strict adherence to basic infection control measures (including hand hygiene) and correct use of personal protection equipment (PPE) are essential in the care of patients. Procedures that lead to formation of aerosols should be carried out with utmost precaution and preparation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Viruses ; 13(4):10, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208670

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA is detected by reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) from respiratory specimens. This study compares throat washings (TW), nasopharyngeal swabs (NS) and oropharyngeal swabs (OS). A total of 102 samples from 34 adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were analysed by RT-qPCR with absolute quantification. The median concentrations and diagnostic sensitivities were 5.8x104 copies/mL, 85% (NS), 1.4x104, 79% (OS) and 4.3x103, 85% (TW). Concentration differences were significant between NS and TW (P = 0.019). Saliva (SA) was available from 21 patients (median 3.4x103). OS and TW can be considered for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics, although with slightly lower concentrations.

5.
Gastroenterologe ; : 1-7, 2020 Oct 29.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-904749

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a beta coronavirus, which first appeared in 2019 and rapidly spread causing a worldwide pandemic. Here we present a nonsystematic review of the current knowledge on its epidemiological features. The SARS-CoV­2 replicates mainly in the upper and lower respiratory tract and is mainly transmitted by droplets and aerosols from asymptomatic and symptomatic infected subjects. The estimate for the basic reproduction number (R0) is between 2 and 3 and the median incubation period is 6 days (range 2-14 days). Similar to the related coronaviruses SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), superspreading events play an important role in spreading the disease. The majority of infections run an uncomplicated course but 5-10% of those infected develop pneumonia or a systemic inflammation leading to hospitalization, respiratory and potentially multiorgan failure. The most important risk factors for a complicated disease course are age, hypertension, diabetes, chronic cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases and immunodeficiency. The current infection fatality rate over all age groups is between 0.5% and 1% and the rate rises after the sixth decade of life. Nosocomial transmission and infections in medical personnel have been reported. A drastic reduction of social contacts has been implemented in many countries with outbreaks of SARS-CoV­2, leading to rapid reductions in R0. Most interventions have used bundles and which of the measures have been more effective is still unknown. Using mathematical models an incidence of 0.4%-1.8% can be estimated for the first wave in Germany.

9.
Internist (Berl) ; 61(8): 776-781, 2020 Aug.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610053

ABSTRACT

The transmission dynamics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan and Hubei Province differ considerably from those in the rest of China. In Hubei province SARS-CoV­2 led to a dramatic outbreak. Intensive control measures (travel restrictions, isolation of cases, quarantine of contacts and others) led to the control of the outbreak. Despite travel restrictions SARS-CoV­2 was detected in other provinces in the following weeks. Consistent and intensive identification and isolation of infected persons ("containment") was able to prevent an outbreak outside Hubei province, providing an example for the control of SARS-CoV­2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel
10.
Internist (Berl) ; 61(8): 782-788, 2020 Aug.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610052

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a new ß­Coronavirus that was first detected in 2019 in Wuhan, China. In the ensuing months it has been transmitted worldwide. Here the authors present the current knowledge on the epidemiology of this virus. SARS-CoV­2 replicates mainly in the upper and lower respiratory tract and is primarily transmitted by droplets from asymptomatic and symptomatic infected subjects. The estimate for the basic reproduction number (R) is currently between 2 and 3, while the incubation period is 6 (median, range 2-14) days. Although most infections are uncomplicated, 5-10% of cases develop pneumonia, which can lead to hospitalization, respiratory failure and multiorgan failure. Risk factors for a complicated disease course include age, hypertension, chronic cardiovascular and pulmonary disease and immunodeficiency. The overall case fatality rate is 1.4%, with the rate rising in the sixth decade of life. Nosocomial and infections in medical personnel have been reported. Drastic reductions in social contact have been implemented in many countries with outbreaks of SARS-CoV­2, leading to rapid reductions in R. Which of the measures have been effective is still unknown.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Basic Reproduction Number , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , China , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
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