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1.
Pathog Glob Health ; 117(5): 476-484, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236771

ABSTRACT

The cycle threshold (Ct) in quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is inversely correlated to the amount of viral nucleic acid or viral load and can be regarded as an indicator of infectivity. We examined the association of socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive cases with PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values at the time of diagnosis. SARS-CoV-2 cases reported between 12 October 2020 and 24 January 2021 in Regensburg were analyzed employing bivariate and multivariable methods. We included 3,029 SARS-CoV-2 cases (31% asymptomatic at diagnosis) and analyzed the association of case characteristics with Ct values in 2,606 cases. Among symptomatic patients, cough (38.0%), rhinitis (32.4%), headache (32.0), and fever/chills (29.9%) were the most frequent complaints. Ct values ≤20 were more frequent in symptomatic cases (20.9% vs. 11.3%), whereas Ct values >30 were more common in asymptomatic cases (32.6% vs. 18.0%). Ct values >20 and ≤30 were most common in symptomatic and asymptomatic cases (48.0% vs 40.7%). We observed lower median Ct values of E and N gene in symptomatic cases. In a random forest model, the total number of symptoms, respiratory symptoms, and age were most strongly associated with low Ct values. In conclusion, certain symptoms and age were associated with lower Ct values. Ct values can be used as a pragmatic approach in estimating infectivity at the first notification of a case and, thus, in guiding containment measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Viral Load , COVID-19 Testing
2.
Infection ; 2023 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318877

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has highlighted the importance of viable infection surveillance and the relevant infrastructure. From a German perspective, an integral part of this infrastructure, genomic pathogen sequencing, was at best fragmentary and stretched to its limits due to the lack or inefficient use of equipment, human resources, data management and coordination. The experience in other countries has shown that the rate of sequenced positive samples and linkage of genomic and epidemiological data (person, place, time) represent important factors for a successful application of genomic pathogen surveillance. Planning, establishing and consistently supporting adequate structures for genomic pathogen surveillance will be crucial to identify and combat future pandemics as well as other challenges in infectious diseases such as multi-drug resistant bacteria and healthcare-associated infections. Therefore, the authors propose a multifaceted and coordinated process for the definition of procedural, legal and technical standards for comprehensive genomic pathogen surveillance in Germany, covering the areas of genomic sequencing, data collection and data linkage, as well as target pathogens. A comparative analysis of the structures established in Germany and in other countries is applied. This proposal aims to better tackle epi- and pandemics to come and take action from the "lessons learned" from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

5.
Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz ; 66(4): 443-449, 2023 Apr.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280092

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV­2 pandemic has shown a deficit of essential epidemiological infrastructure, especially with regard to genomic pathogen surveillance in Germany. In order to prepare for future pandemics, the authors consider it urgently necessary to remedy this existing deficit by establishing an efficient infrastructure for genomic pathogen surveillance. Such a network can build on structures, processes, and interactions that have already been initiated regionally and further optimize them. It will be able to respond to current and future challenges with a high degree of adaptability.The aim of this paper is to address the urgency and to outline proposed measures for establishing an efficient, adaptable, and responsive genomic pathogen surveillance network, taking into account external framework conditions and internal standards. The proposed measures are based on global and country-specific best practices and strategy papers. Specific next steps to achieve an integrated genomic pathogen surveillance include linking epidemiological data with pathogen genomic data; sharing and coordinating existing resources; making surveillance data available to relevant decision-makers, the public health service, and the scientific community; and engaging all stakeholders. The establishment of a genomic pathogen surveillance network is essential for the continuous, stable, active surveillance of the infection situation in Germany, both during pandemic phases and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Germany/epidemiology , Genomics
6.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280502, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214802

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with COVID-19 and severe acute respiratory failure may require veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO). Yet, this procedure is resource-intensive and high mortality rates have been reported. Thus, predictors for identifying patients who will benefit from VV ECMO would be helpful. METHODS: This retrospective study included 129 patients with COVID-19 and severe acute respiratory failure, who had received VV ECMO at the University Medical Center Regensburg, Germany, between 1 March 2020 and 31 December 2021. Patient-specific factors and relevant intensive-care parameters at the time of the decision to start VV ECMO were investigated regarding their value as predictors of patient survival. In addition, the intensive-care course of the first 10 days of VV ECMO was compared between survivors and patients who had died in the intensive care unit. RESULTS: The most important parameters for predicting outcome were patient age and platelet count, which differed significantly between survivors and non-survivors (age: 52.6±8.1 vs. 57.4±10.1 years, p<0.001; platelet count before VV ECMO: 321.3±132.2 vs. 262.0±121.0 /nL, p = 0.006; average on day 10: 199.2±88.0 vs. 147.1±57.9 /nL, p = 0.002). A linear regression model derived from parameters collected before the start of VV ECMO only included age and platelet count. Patients were divided into two groups by using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis: group 1: 78% of patients, mortality 26%; group 2: 22% of patients, mortality 75%. A second linear regression model included average blood pH, minimum paO2, and average pump flow on day 10 of VV ECMO in addition to age and platelet count. The ROC curve resulted in two cut-off values and thus in three groups: group 1: 25% of patients, mortality 93%; group 2: 45% of patients, mortality 31%; group 3: 30% of patients, mortality 0%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
7.
Infection ; 2023 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2209583

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused substantial mortality worldwide. We investigated clinical and demographic features of COVID-19-related deaths that occurred between March 2020 and January 2022 in Regensburg, Germany. METHODS: We compared data across four consecutive time periods: March 2020 to September 2020 (period 1), October 2020 to February 2021 (period 2), March 2021 to August 2021 (period 3), and September 2021 to January 2022 (period 4). RESULTS: Overall, 405 deaths in relation to COVID-19 were reported. The raw case fatality ratio (CFR) was 0.92. In periods 1 to 4, the CFRs were 1.70%, 2.67%, 1.06%, and 0.36%. The age-specific CFR and mortality were highest in persons aged ≥ 80 years in period 2 while mortality in younger cases increased with time. The median age at death was 84 years and it varied slightly across periods. Around 50% of cases of death were previously hospitalized. In all time periods, the cause of death was mostly attributed to COVID-19. Over the four periods, we did not find significant changes in the distribution of sex and risk factors for severe disease. The most frequent risk factor was cardio-circulatory disease. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the CFR decreased over time, most prominently for period 4. Mortality was considerable and younger cases were increasingly at risk.

9.
J Infect Dis ; 227(2): 306, 2023 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2189169
10.
Infection ; 50(6): 1475-1481, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2129444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The immune response to COVID-19-vaccination differs between naïve vaccinees and those who were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. Longitudinal quantitative and qualitative serological differences in these two distinct immunological subgroups in response to vaccination are currently not well studied. METHODS: We investigate a cohort of SARS-CoV-2-naïve and COVID-19-convalescent individuals immediately after vaccination and 6 months later. We use different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) variants and a surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) to measure IgG serum titers, IgA serum reactivity, IgG serum avidity and neutralization capacity by ACE2 receptor competition. RESULTS: Anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody titers decline over time in dually vaccinated COVID-19 naïves whereas titers in single dose vaccinated COVID-19 convalescents are higher and more durable. Similarly, antibody avidity is considerably higher among boosted COVID-19 convalescent subjects as compared to dually vaccinated COVID-19-naïve subjects. Furthermore, sera from boosted convalescents inhibited the binding of spike-protein to ACE2 more efficiently than sera from dually vaccinated COVID-19-naïve subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term humoral immunity differs substantially between dually vaccinated SARS-CoV-2-naïve and COVID-19-convalescent individuals. Booster vaccination after COVID-19 induces a more durable humoral immune response in terms of magnitude and quality as compared to two-dose vaccination in a SARS-CoV-2-naïve background.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
11.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275181, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079742

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Glycyrrhizin, an active component of liquorice root extract, exhibits antiviral and immunomodulatory properties by direct inhibition of the pro-inflammatory alarmin HMGB1 (High-mobility group box 1). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the role of liquorice intake on the viral entry receptor ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) and the immunoregulatory HMGB1 in healthy individuals and to explore HMGB1 expression in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or non-COVID-19 in ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome patients). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study enrolled 43 individuals, including hospitalised patients with i) acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to COVID-19 (n = 7) or other underlying causes (n = 12), ii) mild COVID-19 (n = 4) and iii) healthy volunteers (n = 20). Healthy individuals took 50 g of liquorice (containing 3% liquorice root extract) daily for 7 days, while blood samples were collected at baseline and on day 3 and 7. Changes in ACE2 and HMGB1 levels were determined by Western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Additionally, HMGB1 levels were measured in hospitalised COVID-19 patients with mild disease or COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and compared with a non-COVID-19-ARDS group. RESULTS: Liquorice intake significantly reduced after 7 days both cellular membranous ACE2 expression (-51% compared to baseline levels, p = 0.008) and plasma HMGB1 levels (-17% compared to baseline levels, p<0.001) in healthy individuals. Half of the individuals had a reduction in ACE2 levels of at least 30%. HMGB1 levels in patients with mild COVID-19 and ARDS patients with and without COVID-19 were significantly higher compared with those of healthy individuals (+317%, p = 0.002), but they were not different between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS. CONCLUSIONS: Liquorice intake modulates ACE2 and HMGB1 levels in healthy individuals. HMGB1 is enhanced in mild COVID-19 and in ARDS with and without COVID-19, warranting evaluation of HMGB1 as a potential treatment target and glycyrrhizin, which is an active component of liquorice root extract, as a potential treatment in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 respiratory disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Glycyrrhiza , HMGB1 Protein , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Alarmins , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Glycyrrhiza/metabolism , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Humans , Pilot Projects , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy
12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2044046

ABSTRACT

In a previous study, we described a highly significant association between reactogenicity and SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG titers and wild-type neutralization capacity in males after basic vaccination with BNT162b2. The objective of this study was to assess whether this benefit was long lasting and also evident after BNT162b2 booster vaccination. Reactogenicity was classified into three groups: no or minor injection site symptoms, moderate (not further classified) and severe adverse reactions (defined as any symptom(s) resulting in sick leave). We initially compared 76 non-immunocompromised individuals who reported either no or minor injection site symptoms or severe adverse reactions after second vaccination. In total, 65 of them took part in another blood sampling and 47 were evaluated after booster vaccination. 26 weeks after second vaccination, men who reported severe adverse reactions after second vaccination had 1.7-fold higher SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG titers (p = 0.025) and a 2.5-fold better neutralization capacity (p = 0.006) than men with no or only minor injection site symptoms. Again, no association was found in women. Reactogenicity of BNT162b2 booster vaccination was different from second vaccination according to our classification and was no longer associated with SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG titers or wild-type neutralization capacity. To conclude, after BNT162b2 basic vaccination, the association between reactogenicity and humoral immune response in men persisted over time but was no longer detectable after BNT162b2 booster vaccination.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e1063-e1071, 2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017768

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the entry site of respiratory virus infections, the oropharyngeal microbiome has been proposed as a major hub integrating viral and host immune signals. Early studies suggested that infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are associated with changes of the upper and lower airway microbiome, and that specific microbial signatures may predict coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness. However, the results are not conclusive, as critical illness can drastically alter a patient's microbiome through multiple confounders. METHODS: To study oropharyngeal microbiome profiles in SARS-CoV-2 infection, clinical confounders, and prediction models in COVID-19, we performed a multicenter, cross-sectional clinical study analyzing oropharyngeal microbial metagenomes in healthy adults, patients with non-SARS-CoV-2 infections, or with mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 (n = 322 participants). RESULTS: In contrast to mild infections, patients admitted to a hospital with moderate or severe COVID-19 showed dysbiotic microbial configurations, which were significantly pronounced in patients treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, receiving invasive mechanical ventilation, or when sampling was performed during prolonged hospitalization. In contrast, specimens collected early after admission allowed us to segregate microbiome features predictive of hospital COVID-19 mortality utilizing machine learning models. Taxonomic signatures were found to perform better than models utilizing clinical variables with Neisseria and Haemophilus species abundances as most important features. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to the infection per se, several factors shape the oropharyngeal microbiome of severely affected COVID-19 patients and deserve consideration in the interpretation of the role of the microbiome in severe COVID-19. Nevertheless, we were able to extract microbial features that can help to predict clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Adult , Critical Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dysbiosis , Haemophilus , Humans , Neisseria , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Die Innere Medizin ; 63(8):811-812, 2022.
Article in German | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1958027
15.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac203, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922310

ABSTRACT

Background: Reactogenicity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines can result in inability to work. The object of this study was to evaluate health care workers' sick leave after COVID-19 vaccination and to compare it with sick leave due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and quarantine leave. Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional survey was conducted at Regensburg University Medical Center and 10 teaching hospitals in South-East Germany from July 28 to October 15, 2021. Results: Of 2662 participants, 2309 (91.8%) were fully vaccinated without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Sick leave after first/second vaccination occurred in 239 (10.4%) and 539 (23.3%) participants. In multivariable logistic regression, the adjusted odds ratio for sick leave after first/second vaccination compared with BNT162b2 was 2.26/3.72 for mRNA-1237 (95% CI, 1.28-4.01/1.99-6.96) and 27.82/0.48 for ChAdOx1-S (95% CI, 19.12-40.48/0.24-0.96). The actual median sick leave (interquartile range [IQR]) was 1 (0-2) day after any vaccination. Two hundred fifty-one participants (9.4%) reported a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection (median sick leave [IQR] 14 [10-21] days), 353 (13.3%) were quarantined at least once (median quarantine leave [IQR], 14 [10-14] days). Sick leave due to SARS-CoV-2 infection (4642 days) and quarantine leave (4710 days) accounted for 7.7 times more loss of workforce than actual sick leave after first and second vaccination (1216 days) in all fully vaccinated participants. Conclusions: Sick leave after COVID-19 vaccination is frequent and is associated with the vaccine applied. COVID-19 vaccination should reduce the much higher proportion of loss of workforce due to SARS-CoV-2 infection and quarantine.

16.
EJHaem ; 1(1): 376-383, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898850

ABSTRACT

The clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varies from mild symptoms to acute respiratory distress syndrome, hyperinflammation, and coagulation disorder. The hematopoietic system plays a critical role in the observed hyperinflammation, particularly in severely ill patients. We conducted a prospective diagnostic study performing a blood differential analyzing morphologic changes in peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 associated morphologic changes were defined in a training cohort and subsequently validated in a second cohort (n = 45). Morphologic aberrations were further analyzed by electron microscopy (EM) and flow cytometry of lymphocytes was performed. We included 45 COVID-19 patients in our study (median age 58 years; 82% on intensive care unit). The blood differential showed a specific pattern of pronounced multi-lineage aberrations in lymphocytes (80%) and monocytes (91%) of patients. Overall, 84%, 98%, and 98% exhibited aberrations in granulopoiesis, erythropoiesis, and thrombopoiesis, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed the ultrastructural equivalents of the observed changes and confirmed the multi-lineage aberrations already seen by light microscopy. The morphologic pattern caused by COVID-19 is characteristic and underlines the serious perturbation of the hematopoietic system. We defined a hematologic COVID-19 pattern to facilitate further independent diagnostic analysis and to investigate the impact on the hematologic system during the clinical course of COVID-19 patients.

17.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268734, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a previous study, we had investigated the intensive care course of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the first wave in Germany by calculating models for prognosticating in-hospital death with univariable and multivariable regression analysis. This study analyzed if these models were also applicable to patients with COVID-19 in the second wave. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 98 critical care patients with COVID-19, who had been treated at the University Medical Center Regensburg, Germany, between October 2020 and February 2021. Data collected for each patient included vital signs, dosage of catecholamines, analgosedation, anticoagulation, and antithrombotic medication, diagnostic blood tests, treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), intensive care scores, ventilator therapy, and pulmonary gas exchange. Using these data, expected mortality was calculated by means of the originally developed mathematical models, thereby testing the models for their applicability to patients in the second wave. RESULTS: Mortality in the second-wave cohort did not significantly differ from that in the first-wave cohort (41.8% vs. 32.2%, p = 0.151). As in our previous study, individual parameters such as pH of blood or mean arterial pressure (MAP) differed significantly between survivors and non-survivors. In contrast to our previous study, however, survivors and non-survivors in this study showed significant or even highly significant differences in pulmonary gas exchange and ventilator therapy (e.g. mean and minimum values for oxygen saturation and partial pressure of oxygen, mean values for the fraction of inspired oxygen, positive expiratory pressure, tidal volume, and oxygenation ratio). ECMO therapy was more frequently administered than in the first-wave cohort. Calculations of expected mortality by means of the originally developed univariable and multivariable models showed that the use of simple cut-off values for pH, MAP, troponin, or combinations of these parameters resulted in correctly estimated outcome in approximately 75% of patients without ECMO therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, University , Humans , Oxygen , Retrospective Studies
18.
iScience ; 25(4): 104076, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739821

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron is the first pandemic variant of concern exhibiting an abrupt accumulation of mutations particularly in the receptor-binding domain that is a critical target of vaccination induced and therapeutic antibodies. Omicron's mutations did only marginally affect the binding of ACE2, and the two antibodies Sotrovimab and CR3022 but strongly impaired the binding of Casirivimab and Imdevimab. Moreover, as compared with Wuhan, there is reduced serum reactivity and a pronounced loss of competitive surrogate virus neutralization (sVN) against Omicron in naïve vaccinees and in COVID-19 convalescents after infection and subsequent vaccination. Finally, although the booster vaccination response conferred higher titers and better sVN, the effect was nonetheless significantly lower compared with responses against Wuhan. Overall, our data suggest that the antigenicity of Omicrons receptor binding motive has largely changed but antibodies such as Sotrovimab targeting other conserved sites maintain binding and therefore hold potential in prophylaxis and treatment of Omicron-induced COVID-19.

19.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715830

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the adherence to vaccinations, especially pneumococcal vaccinations, in lung cancer patients. METHODS: the study was performed at the University Hospital Regensburg, Germany. All patients with a regular appointment scheduled between 1 December 2020 and 29 April 2021 and who provided informed consent were included. Available medical records, vaccination certificates, and a questionnaire were analyzed. RESULTS: we included 136 lung cancer patients (NSCLC n = 113, 83.1%, SCLC n = 23, 16.9%). A correct pneumococcal vaccination according to national recommendations was performed in 9.4% (12/127) of the patients. A correct vaccination was performed for tetanus in 50.4% (66/131), diphtheria in 34.4% (44/128), poliomyelitis in 25.8% (33/128), tick-borne encephalitis in 40.7% (24/59), hepatitis A in 45.5% (7/11), hepatitis B in 38.5% (5/13), shingles in 3.0% (3/101), measles in 50.0% (3/6), pertussis in 47.7% (62/130), influenza in 54.4% (74/136), and meningococcal meningitis in 0% (0/2) of the patients. CONCLUSION: adherence to pneumococcal vaccinations, as well as to other vaccinations, is low in lung cancer patients.

20.
J Infect Dis ; 225(2): 190-198, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: From a public health perspective, effective containment strategies for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) should be balanced with individual liberties. METHODS: We collected 79 respiratory samples from 59 patients monitored in an outpatient center or in the intensive care unit of the University Hospital Regensburg. We analyzed viral load by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, viral antigen by point-of-care assay, time since onset of symptoms, and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in the context of virus isolation from respiratory specimens. RESULTS: The odds ratio for virus isolation increased 1.9-fold for each log10 level of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and 7.4-fold with detection of viral antigen, while it decreased 6.3-fold beyond 10 days of symptoms and 20.0-fold with the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The latter was confirmed for B.1.1.7 strains. The positive predictive value for virus isolation was 60.0% for viral loads >107 RNA copies/mL and 50.0% for the presence of viral antigen. Symptom onset before 10 days and seroconversion predicted lack of infectivity with negative predictive values of 93.8% and 96.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support quarantining patients with high viral load and detection of viral antigen and lifting restrictive measures with increasing time to symptom onset and seroconversion. Delay of antibody formation may prolong infectivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion , Viral Load , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Antigens, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Public Health , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
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