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1.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275181, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079742

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Glycyrrhizin, an active component of liquorice root extract, exhibits antiviral and immunomodulatory properties by direct inhibition of the pro-inflammatory alarmin HMGB1 (High-mobility group box 1). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the role of liquorice intake on the viral entry receptor ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) and the immunoregulatory HMGB1 in healthy individuals and to explore HMGB1 expression in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or non-COVID-19 in ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome patients). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study enrolled 43 individuals, including hospitalised patients with i) acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to COVID-19 (n = 7) or other underlying causes (n = 12), ii) mild COVID-19 (n = 4) and iii) healthy volunteers (n = 20). Healthy individuals took 50 g of liquorice (containing 3% liquorice root extract) daily for 7 days, while blood samples were collected at baseline and on day 3 and 7. Changes in ACE2 and HMGB1 levels were determined by Western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Additionally, HMGB1 levels were measured in hospitalised COVID-19 patients with mild disease or COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and compared with a non-COVID-19-ARDS group. RESULTS: Liquorice intake significantly reduced after 7 days both cellular membranous ACE2 expression (-51% compared to baseline levels, p = 0.008) and plasma HMGB1 levels (-17% compared to baseline levels, p<0.001) in healthy individuals. Half of the individuals had a reduction in ACE2 levels of at least 30%. HMGB1 levels in patients with mild COVID-19 and ARDS patients with and without COVID-19 were significantly higher compared with those of healthy individuals (+317%, p = 0.002), but they were not different between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS. CONCLUSIONS: Liquorice intake modulates ACE2 and HMGB1 levels in healthy individuals. HMGB1 is enhanced in mild COVID-19 and in ARDS with and without COVID-19, warranting evaluation of HMGB1 as a potential treatment target and glycyrrhizin, which is an active component of liquorice root extract, as a potential treatment in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 respiratory disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Glycyrrhiza , HMGB1 Protein , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Alarmins , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glycyrrhiza/metabolism , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Humans , Pilot Projects , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2044046

ABSTRACT

In a previous study, we described a highly significant association between reactogenicity and SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG titers and wild-type neutralization capacity in males after basic vaccination with BNT162b2. The objective of this study was to assess whether this benefit was long lasting and also evident after BNT162b2 booster vaccination. Reactogenicity was classified into three groups: no or minor injection site symptoms, moderate (not further classified) and severe adverse reactions (defined as any symptom(s) resulting in sick leave). We initially compared 76 non-immunocompromised individuals who reported either no or minor injection site symptoms or severe adverse reactions after second vaccination. In total, 65 of them took part in another blood sampling and 47 were evaluated after booster vaccination. 26 weeks after second vaccination, men who reported severe adverse reactions after second vaccination had 1.7-fold higher SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG titers (p = 0.025) and a 2.5-fold better neutralization capacity (p = 0.006) than men with no or only minor injection site symptoms. Again, no association was found in women. Reactogenicity of BNT162b2 booster vaccination was different from second vaccination according to our classification and was no longer associated with SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG titers or wild-type neutralization capacity. To conclude, after BNT162b2 basic vaccination, the association between reactogenicity and humoral immune response in men persisted over time but was no longer detectable after BNT162b2 booster vaccination.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017768

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the entry site of respiratory virus infections, the oropharyngeal microbiome has been proposed as a major hub integrating viral and host immune signals. Early studies suggested that infections with Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are associated with changes of the upper and lower airway microbiome, and that specific microbial signatures may predict COVID-19 illness. However, the results are not conclusive, as critical illness can drastically alter a patient's microbiome through multiple confounders. METHODS: To study oropharyngeal microbiome profiles in SARS-CoV-2 infection, clinical confounders, and prediction models in COVID-19, we performed a multi-center, cross-sectional clinical study analyzing oropharyngeal microbial metagenomes in healthy adults, patients with non-SARS-CoV-2 infections, or with mild, moderate and severe COVID-19 (n=322 participants). RESULTS: In contrast to mild infections, patients admitted to a hospital with moderate or severe COVID-19 showed dysbiotic microbial configurations, which were significantly pronounced in patients treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, receiving invasive mechanical ventilation, or when sampling was performed during prolonged hospitalization. In contrast, specimens collected early after admission allowed us to segregate microbiome features predictive of hospital COVID-19 mortality utilizing machine learning models. Taxonomic signatures were found to perform better than models utilizing clinical variables with Neisseria and Haemophilus species abundances as most important features. CONCLUSION: In addition to the infection per se, several factors shape the oropharyngeal microbiome of severely affected COVID-19 patients and deserve consideration in the interpretation of the role of the microbiome in severe COVID-19. Nevertheless, we were able to extract microbial features that can help to predict clinical outcomes.

4.
Inn Med (Heidelb) ; 63(8): 811-812, 2022 Aug.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971661
6.
Die Innere Medizin ; 63(8):811-812, 2022.
Article in German | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1958027
7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(7): ofac203, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922310

ABSTRACT

Background: Reactogenicity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines can result in inability to work. The object of this study was to evaluate health care workers' sick leave after COVID-19 vaccination and to compare it with sick leave due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and quarantine leave. Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional survey was conducted at Regensburg University Medical Center and 10 teaching hospitals in South-East Germany from July 28 to October 15, 2021. Results: Of 2662 participants, 2309 (91.8%) were fully vaccinated without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Sick leave after first/second vaccination occurred in 239 (10.4%) and 539 (23.3%) participants. In multivariable logistic regression, the adjusted odds ratio for sick leave after first/second vaccination compared with BNT162b2 was 2.26/3.72 for mRNA-1237 (95% CI, 1.28-4.01/1.99-6.96) and 27.82/0.48 for ChAdOx1-S (95% CI, 19.12-40.48/0.24-0.96). The actual median sick leave (interquartile range [IQR]) was 1 (0-2) day after any vaccination. Two hundred fifty-one participants (9.4%) reported a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection (median sick leave [IQR] 14 [10-21] days), 353 (13.3%) were quarantined at least once (median quarantine leave [IQR], 14 [10-14] days). Sick leave due to SARS-CoV-2 infection (4642 days) and quarantine leave (4710 days) accounted for 7.7 times more loss of workforce than actual sick leave after first and second vaccination (1216 days) in all fully vaccinated participants. Conclusions: Sick leave after COVID-19 vaccination is frequent and is associated with the vaccine applied. COVID-19 vaccination should reduce the much higher proportion of loss of workforce due to SARS-CoV-2 infection and quarantine.

8.
EJHaem ; 1(1): 376-383, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898850

ABSTRACT

The clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varies from mild symptoms to acute respiratory distress syndrome, hyperinflammation, and coagulation disorder. The hematopoietic system plays a critical role in the observed hyperinflammation, particularly in severely ill patients. We conducted a prospective diagnostic study performing a blood differential analyzing morphologic changes in peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 associated morphologic changes were defined in a training cohort and subsequently validated in a second cohort (n = 45). Morphologic aberrations were further analyzed by electron microscopy (EM) and flow cytometry of lymphocytes was performed. We included 45 COVID-19 patients in our study (median age 58 years; 82% on intensive care unit). The blood differential showed a specific pattern of pronounced multi-lineage aberrations in lymphocytes (80%) and monocytes (91%) of patients. Overall, 84%, 98%, and 98% exhibited aberrations in granulopoiesis, erythropoiesis, and thrombopoiesis, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed the ultrastructural equivalents of the observed changes and confirmed the multi-lineage aberrations already seen by light microscopy. The morphologic pattern caused by COVID-19 is characteristic and underlines the serious perturbation of the hematopoietic system. We defined a hematologic COVID-19 pattern to facilitate further independent diagnostic analysis and to investigate the impact on the hematologic system during the clinical course of COVID-19 patients.

9.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268734, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a previous study, we had investigated the intensive care course of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the first wave in Germany by calculating models for prognosticating in-hospital death with univariable and multivariable regression analysis. This study analyzed if these models were also applicable to patients with COVID-19 in the second wave. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 98 critical care patients with COVID-19, who had been treated at the University Medical Center Regensburg, Germany, between October 2020 and February 2021. Data collected for each patient included vital signs, dosage of catecholamines, analgosedation, anticoagulation, and antithrombotic medication, diagnostic blood tests, treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), intensive care scores, ventilator therapy, and pulmonary gas exchange. Using these data, expected mortality was calculated by means of the originally developed mathematical models, thereby testing the models for their applicability to patients in the second wave. RESULTS: Mortality in the second-wave cohort did not significantly differ from that in the first-wave cohort (41.8% vs. 32.2%, p = 0.151). As in our previous study, individual parameters such as pH of blood or mean arterial pressure (MAP) differed significantly between survivors and non-survivors. In contrast to our previous study, however, survivors and non-survivors in this study showed significant or even highly significant differences in pulmonary gas exchange and ventilator therapy (e.g. mean and minimum values for oxygen saturation and partial pressure of oxygen, mean values for the fraction of inspired oxygen, positive expiratory pressure, tidal volume, and oxygenation ratio). ECMO therapy was more frequently administered than in the first-wave cohort. Calculations of expected mortality by means of the originally developed univariable and multivariable models showed that the use of simple cut-off values for pH, MAP, troponin, or combinations of these parameters resulted in correctly estimated outcome in approximately 75% of patients without ECMO therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, University , Humans , Oxygen , Retrospective Studies
11.
Infection ; 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783016

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The immune response to COVID-19-vaccination differs between naïve vaccinees and those who were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. Longitudinal quantitative and qualitative serological differences in these two distinct immunological subgroups in response to vaccination are currently not well studied. METHODS: We investigate a cohort of SARS-CoV-2-naïve and COVID-19-convalescent individuals immediately after vaccination and 6 months later. We use different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) variants and a surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) to measure IgG serum titers, IgA serum reactivity, IgG serum avidity and neutralization capacity by ACE2 receptor competition. RESULTS: Anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody titers decline over time in dually vaccinated COVID-19 naïves whereas titers in single dose vaccinated COVID-19 convalescents are higher and more durable. Similarly, antibody avidity is considerably higher among boosted COVID-19 convalescent subjects as compared to dually vaccinated COVID-19-naïve subjects. Furthermore, sera from boosted convalescents inhibited the binding of spike-protein to ACE2 more efficiently than sera from dually vaccinated COVID-19-naïve subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term humoral immunity differs substantially between dually vaccinated SARS-CoV-2-naïve and COVID-19-convalescent individuals. Booster vaccination after COVID-19 induces a more durable humoral immune response in terms of magnitude and quality as compared to two-dose vaccination in a SARS-CoV-2-naïve background.

12.
iScience ; 25(4): 104076, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739821

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron is the first pandemic variant of concern exhibiting an abrupt accumulation of mutations particularly in the receptor-binding domain that is a critical target of vaccination induced and therapeutic antibodies. Omicron's mutations did only marginally affect the binding of ACE2, and the two antibodies Sotrovimab and CR3022 but strongly impaired the binding of Casirivimab and Imdevimab. Moreover, as compared with Wuhan, there is reduced serum reactivity and a pronounced loss of competitive surrogate virus neutralization (sVN) against Omicron in naïve vaccinees and in COVID-19 convalescents after infection and subsequent vaccination. Finally, although the booster vaccination response conferred higher titers and better sVN, the effect was nonetheless significantly lower compared with responses against Wuhan. Overall, our data suggest that the antigenicity of Omicrons receptor binding motive has largely changed but antibodies such as Sotrovimab targeting other conserved sites maintain binding and therefore hold potential in prophylaxis and treatment of Omicron-induced COVID-19.

13.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715830

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the adherence to vaccinations, especially pneumococcal vaccinations, in lung cancer patients. METHODS: the study was performed at the University Hospital Regensburg, Germany. All patients with a regular appointment scheduled between 1 December 2020 and 29 April 2021 and who provided informed consent were included. Available medical records, vaccination certificates, and a questionnaire were analyzed. RESULTS: we included 136 lung cancer patients (NSCLC n = 113, 83.1%, SCLC n = 23, 16.9%). A correct pneumococcal vaccination according to national recommendations was performed in 9.4% (12/127) of the patients. A correct vaccination was performed for tetanus in 50.4% (66/131), diphtheria in 34.4% (44/128), poliomyelitis in 25.8% (33/128), tick-borne encephalitis in 40.7% (24/59), hepatitis A in 45.5% (7/11), hepatitis B in 38.5% (5/13), shingles in 3.0% (3/101), measles in 50.0% (3/6), pertussis in 47.7% (62/130), influenza in 54.4% (74/136), and meningococcal meningitis in 0% (0/2) of the patients. CONCLUSION: adherence to pneumococcal vaccinations, as well as to other vaccinations, is low in lung cancer patients.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314840

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a new syndrome caused by the recently emerged SARS-CoV-2. We collected clinical and epidemiologic data in an almost complete cohort of SARS-CoV-2 positive individuals from Regensburg, Germany, from March 2020 to May 2020. Methods: : Retrospective cohort of consecutive COVID-19 cases recorded between March 7, 2020 and May 24, 2020 as part of an infection control investigation program, with prospective follow-up interviews gathering information on type and duration of symptoms and COVID-19 risk factors until June 26, 2020. Results: : Of 1,089 total cases, 1,084 (99.6%) cases were included. The incidence during the time period was 315.4/100,000, lower than in the superordinate government district Oberpfalz (468,5/100,000) and the overall state of Bavaria (359.7/100,000). The case fatality rate was 2.1%. Among fatal cases, the mean age was 74.4 years and 87% presented with known risk factors, most commonly chronic heart disease, chronic lung disease, kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus. 897 cases (82,7%) showed at least one symptom, most frequently cough (45%) and fever (41%). Further, 18% of cases suffered from odour/taste disorder. 17% of total cases reported no symptoms. The median duration of general illness was 10 days. During follow-up, 8,9% of 419 interviewed cases reported at least one symptom lasting at least 6 weeks, and fatigue was the most frequent persistent symptom. Discussion: We report data on type and duration of symptoms, and clinical severity of nearly all (99,5%) patients with SARS-CoV-2 recorded from March 2020 to May 2020 in Regensburg. A broad range of symptoms and symptom duration was seen, some of them lasting several weeks. The case fatality rate was 2.1%. Asymptomatic cases may be underrepresented due to the nature of the study.

15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314156

ABSTRACT

Background: Data of critically ill COVID-19 patients are being evaluated worldwide, not only to understand the various aspects of this disease and to refine treatment strategies but also to improve clinical decision-making. For the last aspect in particular, predictors of a lethal course of disease would be highly relevant. Methods: : In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed the first 59 adult critically ill Covid-19 patients treated in one of the intensive care units of the University Medical Center Regensburg, Germany. Using uni- and multivariable regression models, we extracted a set of parameters that allowed predictions of in-hospital mortality. Results: : Blood pH value, mean arterial pressure, base excess, troponin, and procalcitonin were identified as highly significant predictors (p < 0.001) of in-hospital mortality. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, the pH value and the mean arterial pressure turned out to be the most influential predictors and thus predisposing factors for a lethal course. Conclusions: : We developed a formula that enables the easy calculation of the probability of a fatal outcome in COVID-19 intensive care patients. Currently a follow-up study with a larger group of patients is in progress to re-evaluate the established predictors.

16.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307867

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the resulting COVID-19 illness vary from asymptomatic disease, mild upper respiratory tract infection, pneumonia 1 , to a life-threatening multi-organ failure with case fatality rates ranging from 0.27–13.4% 2,3 . Despite increasing knowledge of the clinical and immunological features underlying COVID-19 1,4−6 , biological variables explaining the course of infection and its severity remain elusive. At the entry site of SARS-CoV2, the oropharyngeal microbiome represents a hub integrating viral and immune signals at the start of the infection 7–10 . To evaluate the role of the oropharyngeal microbiome in COVID-19, we performed a multi-center, cross-sectional clinical study analyzing the oropharyngeal microbial metagenomes in healthy adults, patients with non-SARS-CoV-2 infections, or with mild, moderate and severe COVID-19 encompassing a total of 345 participants. Significantly reduced microbiome diversity and high dysbiosis were observed in hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19, which was further associated with a loss of microbial genes and metabolic pathways. In this cohort, diversity measures were also associated with need for intensive care treatments as major clinical parameters in COVID-19. We further applied random forest machine learning to unravel microbial features for segregating clinical outcomes in hospitalized cases, and observed oropharyngeal microbiome abundances of Haemophilus or Streptococcu s species as most important features. These findings provide insights into the role of the oropharyngeal microbiome in SARS-CoV-2 infection, and may suggest new biomarkers for COVID-19 severity.

17.
J Infect Dis ; 225(2): 190-198, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: From a public health perspective, effective containment strategies for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) should be balanced with individual liberties. METHODS: We collected 79 respiratory samples from 59 patients monitored in an outpatient center or in the intensive care unit of the University Hospital Regensburg. We analyzed viral load by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, viral antigen by point-of-care assay, time since onset of symptoms, and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in the context of virus isolation from respiratory specimens. RESULTS: The odds ratio for virus isolation increased 1.9-fold for each log10 level of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and 7.4-fold with detection of viral antigen, while it decreased 6.3-fold beyond 10 days of symptoms and 20.0-fold with the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The latter was confirmed for B.1.1.7 strains. The positive predictive value for virus isolation was 60.0% for viral loads >107 RNA copies/mL and 50.0% for the presence of viral antigen. Symptom onset before 10 days and seroconversion predicted lack of infectivity with negative predictive values of 93.8% and 96.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support quarantining patients with high viral load and detection of viral antigen and lifting restrictive measures with increasing time to symptom onset and seroconversion. Delay of antibody formation may prolong infectivity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion , Viral Load , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Antigens, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Public Health , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
18.
iScience ; 25(2): 103694, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591609

ABSTRACT

Heterologous SARS-CoV-2 vaccine approaches with a second mRNA-based vaccine have been favored in the recommendations of many countries over homologous vector-based ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination after reports of thromboembolic events and lower efficacy of this regimen. In the middle of 2021, the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant of concern (VoC) has become predominant in many countries worldwide. Data addressing the neutralization capacity of a heterologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/mRNA-based vaccination approach against the Delta VoC in comparison to the widely used homologous mRNA-based vaccine regimen are limited. Here, we compare serological immune responses of a cohort of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/BNT162b2-vaccinated participants with those of BNT162b2/BNT162b2 vaccinated ones and show that neutralization capacity against the Delta VoC is significantly increased in sera of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/BNT162b2-vaccinated participants. This overall effect can be attributed to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/BNT162b2-vaccinated women, especially those with more severe adverse effects leading to sick leave following second immunization.

19.
Virchows Arch ; 479(1): 97-108, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574264

ABSTRACT

Between April and June 2020, i.e., during the first wave of pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), 55 patients underwent long-term treatment in the intensive care unit at the University Hospital of Regensburg. Most of them were transferred from smaller hospitals, often due to the need for an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation system. Autopsy was performed in 8/17 COVID-19-proven patients after long-term treatment (mean: 33.6 days). Autopsy revealed that the typical pathological changes occurring during the early stages of the disease (e.g., thrombosis, endothelitis, capillaritis) are less prevalent at this stage, while severe diffuse alveolar damage and especially coinfection with different fungal species were the most conspicuous finding. In addition, signs of macrophage activation syndrome was detected in 7 of 8 patients. Thus, fungal infections were a leading cause of death in our cohort of severely ill patients and may alter clinical management of patients, particularly in long-term periods of treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Coinfection , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Lung/microbiology , Multiple Organ Failure/microbiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cause of Death , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lung Diseases, Fungal/mortality , Lung Diseases, Fungal/pathology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/microbiology , Macrophage Activation Syndrome/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Multiple Organ Failure/pathology , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
20.
J Clin Invest ; 131(22)2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518200

ABSTRACT

Metabolic pathways regulate immune responses and disrupted metabolism leads to immune dysfunction and disease. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is driven by imbalanced immune responses, yet the role of immunometabolism in COVID-19 pathogenesis remains unclear. By investigating 87 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, 6 critically ill non-COVID-19 patients, and 47 uninfected controls, we found an immunometabolic dysregulation in patients with progressed COVID-19. Specifically, T cells, monocytes, and granulocytes exhibited increased mitochondrial mass, yet only T cells accumulated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), were metabolically quiescent, and showed a disrupted mitochondrial architecture. During recovery, T cell ROS decreased to match the uninfected controls. Transcriptionally, T cells from severe/critical COVID-19 patients showed an induction of ROS-responsive genes as well as genes related to mitochondrial function and the basigin network. Basigin (CD147) ligands cyclophilin A and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein triggered ROS production in T cells in vitro. In line with this, only PCR-positive patients showed increased ROS levels. Dexamethasone treatment resulted in a downregulation of ROS in vitro and T cells from dexamethasone-treated patients exhibited low ROS and basigin levels. This was reflected by changes in the transcriptional landscape. Our findings provide evidence of an immunometabolic dysregulation in COVID-19 that can be mitigated by dexamethasone treatment.


Subject(s)
Basigin/physiology , COVID-19/immunology , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Adult , COVID-19/metabolism , Cyclophilin A/physiology , Fatty Acids/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mitochondria/pathology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
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