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1.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1762664

ABSTRACT

The increasing prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 variants has raised concerns regarding possible decreases in vaccine effectiveness. Here, neutralizing antibody titers elicited by mRNA-based and adenoviral vector-based vaccines against variant pseudotyped viruses were measured. BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273-elicited antibodies showed modest neutralization resistance against Beta, Delta, Delta plus and Lambda variants whereas Ad26.COV2.S-elicited antibodies from a significant fraction of vaccinated individuals had less neutralizing titer (IC50 <50). The data underscore the importance of surveillance for breakthrough infections that result in severe COVID-19 and suggest a potential benefit by second immunization following Ad26.COV2.S to increase protection from current and future variants.

2.
The New Advanced Society ; n/a(n/a):289-305, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1750286

ABSTRACT

Summary Pandemic of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) has put tremendous pressure on the people of different localities, states and countries. In a short span of time, it spread all over the world. This has affected the social life of people by enforcing them to stay at home and keep social distance. Many developed countries were also not able to handle the situation even though all resources were available with them. This chapter discussed about the symptoms of COVID-19, precautionary measures, ways of spreading the Coronavirus, and technologies used to fight COVID-19. This also discussed about the impact of COVID-19 on business, financial market, supply side, demand side and international trade on Indian economy. Objective To determine the impact of MS disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) on the development of cellular and humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods MS patients aged 18-60 were evaluated for anti-nucleocapsid and anti-Spike RBD antibody with electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay;antibody responses to Spike protein, RBD, N-terminal domain with multiepitope bead-based immunoassays (MBI);live virus immunofluorescence-based microneutralization assay;T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 Spike using TruCulture ELISA;and IL-2 and IFN? ELISpot assays. Assay results were compared by DMT class. Spearman correlation and multivariate analyses were performed to examine associations between immunologic responses and infection severity. Results Between 1/6/2021 and 7/21/2021, 389 MS patients were recruited (mean age 40.3?years;74% female;62% non-White). Most common DMTs were ocrelizumab (OCR) - 40%;natalizumab - 17%, Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1P) modulators -12%;and 15% untreated. 177 patients (46%) had laboratory evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection;130 had symptomatic infection, 47 - asymptomatic. Antibody responses were markedly attenuated in OCR compared to other groups (p≤0.0001). T-cell responses (IFN?) were decreased in S1P (p=0.03), increased in natalizumab (p<0.001), and similar in other DMTs, including OCR. Cellular and humoral responses were moderately correlated in both OCR (r=0.45, p=0.0002) and non-OCR (r=0.64, p<0.0001). Immune responses did not differ by race/ethnicity. COVID-19 clinical course was mostly non-severe and similar across DMTs;7% (9/130) were hospitalized. Interpretation DMTs had differential effects on humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Immune responses did not correlate with COVID-19 clinical severity in this relatively young and non-disabled group of MS patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Ann Neurol ; 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739116

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) on the development of cellular and humoral immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: Patients with MS aged 18 to 60 years were evaluated for anti-nucleocapsid and anti-Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody with electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay; antibody responses to Spike protein, RBD, N-terminal domain with multiepitope bead-based immunoassays (MBI); live virus immunofluorescence-based microneutralization assay; T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 Spike using TruCulture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and IL-2 and IFNγ ELISpot assays. Assay results were compared by DMT class. Spearman correlation and multivariate analyses were performed to examine associations between immunologic responses and infection severity. RESULTS: Between January 6, 2021, and July 21, 2021, 389 patients with MS were recruited (mean age 40.3 years; 74% women; 62% non-White). Most common DMTs were ocrelizumab (OCR)-40%; natalizumab -17%, Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1P) modulators -12%; and 15% untreated. One hundred seventy-seven patients (46%) had laboratory evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection; 130 had symptomatic infection, and 47 were asymptomatic. Antibody responses were markedly attenuated in OCR compared with other groups (p ≤0.0001). T-cell responses (IFNγ) were decreased in S1P (p = 0.03), increased in natalizumab (p <0.001), and similar in other DMTs, including OCR. Cellular and humoral responses were moderately correlated in both OCR (r = 0.45, p = 0.0002) and non-OCR (r = 0.64, p <0.0001). Immune responses did not differ by race/ethnicity. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) clinical course was mostly non-severe and similar across DMTs; 7% (9/130) were hospitalized. INTERPRETATION: DMTs had differential effects on humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Immune responses did not correlate with COVID-19 clinical severity in this relatively young and nondisabled group of patients with MS. ANN NEUROL 2022.

4.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(631): eabi8961, 2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685481

ABSTRACT

The use of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines will play the major role in helping to end the pandemic that has killed millions worldwide. COVID-19 vaccines have resulted in robust humoral responses and protective efficacy in human trials, but efficacy trials excluded individuals with a prior diagnosis of COVID-19. As a result, little is known about how immune responses induced by mRNA vaccines differ in individuals who recovered from COVID-19. Here, we evaluated longitudinal immune responses to two-dose BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination in 15 adults who had experienced COVID-19, compared to 21 adults who did not have prior COVID-19. Consistent with prior studies of mRNA vaccines, we observed robust cytotoxic CD8+ T cell responses in both cohorts after the second dose. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2­naive individuals had progressive increases in humoral and antigen-specific antibody-secreting cell (ASC) responses after each dose of vaccine, whereas SARS-CoV-2­experienced individuals demonstrated strong humoral and antigen-specific ASC responses to the first dose but these responses were not further enhanced after the second dose of the vaccine at the time points studied. Together, these data highlight the relevance of immunological history for understanding vaccine immune responses and may have implications for personalizing mRNA vaccination regimens used to prevent COVID-19, including for the deployment of booster shots.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
6.
Cell Rep ; 38(2): 110237, 2022 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588138

ABSTRACT

Recently identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants Mu and C.1.2 have spike proteins with mutations that may confer resistance to natural and vaccine-elicited antibodies. Analysis of neutralizing antibody titers in the sera of vaccinated individuals without previous history of infection and from convalescent individuals show partial resistance of the viruses. In contrast, sera from individuals with a previous history of SARS-CoV-2 infection who were subsequently vaccinated neutralize variants with titers 4- to 11-fold higher, providing a rationale for vaccination of individuals with previous infection. The heavily mutated C.1.2 spike is the most antibody neutralization-resistant spike to date; however, the avidity of C.1.2 spike protein for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is low. This finding suggests that the virus evolved to escape the humoral response but has a decrease in fitness, suggesting that it may cause milder disease or be less transmissible. It may be difficult for the spike protein to evolve to escape neutralizing antibodies while maintaining high affinity for ACE2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , A549 Cells , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Neutralization Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods
7.
iScience ; 24(11): 103341, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474648

ABSTRACT

Highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants identified in India and designated B.1.617, Kappa (B.1.617.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), B.1.618, and B.1.36.29 contain spike mutations L452R, T478K, E484K, E484Q, and N440K located within the spike receptor-binding domain and thus could contribute to increased transmissibility and potentially allow re-infection or cause resistance to vaccine-elicited antibody. To address these issues, we used lentiviruses pseudotyped by variant spikes to measure their neutralization by convalescent sera, vaccine-elicited and Regeneron therapeutic antibodies, and ACE2 affinity. Convalescent sera and vaccine-elicited antibodies neutralized viruses with Delta spike with 2- to 5-fold decrease in titer in different donors. Regeneron antibody cocktail neutralized virus with the Delta spike with a 2.6-fold decrease in titer. Neutralization resistance to serum antibodies and monoclonal antibodies was mediated by L452R mutation. These relatively modest decreases in antibody neutralization titer for viruses with variant spike proteins suggest that current vaccines will remain protective against the family of Delta variants.

8.
mBio ; 12(4): e0138621, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327615

ABSTRACT

DNA sequence analysis recently identified the novel SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.526 that is spreading at an alarming rate in the New York City area. Two versions of the variant were identified, both with the prevalent D614G mutation in the spike protein, together with four novel point mutations and with an E484K or S477N mutation in the receptor-binding domain, raising concerns of possible resistance to vaccine-elicited and therapeutic antibodies. We report that convalescent-phase sera and vaccine-elicited antibodies retain full neutralizing titer against the S477N B.1.526 variant and neutralize the E484K version with a modest 3.5-fold decrease in titer compared to D614G. The E484K version was neutralized with a 12-fold decrease in titer by the REGN10933 monoclonal antibody, but the combination cocktail with REGN10987 was fully active. The findings suggest that current vaccines and Regeneron therapeutic monoclonal antibodies will remain protective against the B.1.526 variants. The findings further support the value of widespread vaccination. IMPORTANCE A novel SARS-CoV-2 variant termed B.1.526 was recently identified in New York City and has been found to be spreading at an alarming rate. The variant has mutations in its spike protein that might allow it to escape neutralization by vaccine-elicited antibodies and might cause monoclonal antibody therapy for COVID-19 to be less successful. We report here that these fears are not substantiated; convalescent-phase sera and vaccine-elicited antibodies neutralized the B.1.526 variant. One of the Regeneron therapeutic monoclonal antibodies was less effective against the B.1.526 (E484K) variant but the two-antibody combination cocktail was fully active. The findings should assuage concerns that current vaccines will be ineffective against the B.1.526 (E484K) variant and suggest the importance of continued widespread vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Cell Line , HEK293 Cells , Humans , New York City , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
9.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(593)2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255516

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a public health threat for which preventive and therapeutic agents are urgently needed. Neutralizing antibodies are a key class of therapeutics that may bridge widespread vaccination campaigns and offer a treatment solution in populations less responsive to vaccination. Here, we report that high-throughput microfluidic screening of antigen-specific B cells led to the identification of LY-CoV555 (also known as bamlanivimab), a potent anti-spike neutralizing antibody from a hospitalized, convalescent patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Biochemical, structural, and functional characterization of LY-CoV555 revealed high-affinity binding to the receptor-binding domain, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 binding inhibition, and potent neutralizing activity. A pharmacokinetic study of LY-CoV555 conducted in cynomolgus monkeys demonstrated a mean half-life of 13 days and a clearance of 0.22 ml hour-1 kg-1, consistent with a typical human therapeutic antibody. In a rhesus macaque challenge model, prophylactic doses as low as 2.5 mg/kg reduced viral replication in the upper and lower respiratory tract in samples collected through study day 6 after viral inoculation. This antibody has entered clinical testing and is being evaluated across a spectrum of COVID-19 indications, including prevention and treatment.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
10.
mBio ; 12(3): e0069621, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249476

ABSTRACT

The increasing prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants with spike protein mutations raises concerns that antibodies elicited by natural infection or vaccination and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies will become less effective. We show that convalescent-phase sera neutralize pseudotyped viruses with the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, B.1.1.248, COH.20G/677H, 20A.EU2, and mink cluster 5 spike proteins with only a minor loss in titer. Similarly, antibodies elicited by Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccination neutralized B.1.351 and B.1.1.248 with only a 3-fold decrease in titer, an effect attributable to E484K. Analysis of the Regeneron monoclonal antibodies REGN10933 and REGN10987 showed that REGN10933 has lost neutralizing activity against the B.1.351 and B.1.1.248 pseudotyped viruses, and the cocktail is 9- to 15-fold decreased in titer. These findings suggest that antibodies elicited by natural infection and by the Pfizer vaccine will maintain protection against the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and B.1.1.248 variants but that monoclonal antibody therapy may be less effective for patients infected with B.1.351 or B.1.1.248 SARS-CoV-2. IMPORTANCE The rapid evolution of SARS-CoV-2 variants has raised concerns with regard to their potential to escape from vaccine-elicited antibodies and anti-spike protein monoclonal antibodies. We report here on an analysis of sera from recovered patients and vaccinated individuals and on neutralization by Regeneron therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Overall, the variants were neutralized nearly as well as the wild-type pseudotyped virus. The B.1.351 variant was somewhat resistant to vaccine-elicited antibodies but was still readily neutralized. One of the two Regeneron therapeutic monoclonal antibodies seems to have lost most of its activity against the B.1.351 variant, raising concerns that the combination therapy might be less effective for some patients. The findings should alleviate concerns that vaccines will become ineffective but suggest the importance of continued surveillance for potential new variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cell Line , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
11.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(593)2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169861

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a public health threat for which preventive and therapeutic agents are urgently needed. Neutralizing antibodies are a key class of therapeutics that may bridge widespread vaccination campaigns and offer a treatment solution in populations less responsive to vaccination. Here, we report that high-throughput microfluidic screening of antigen-specific B cells led to the identification of LY-CoV555 (also known as bamlanivimab), a potent anti-spike neutralizing antibody from a hospitalized, convalescent patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Biochemical, structural, and functional characterization of LY-CoV555 revealed high-affinity binding to the receptor-binding domain, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 binding inhibition, and potent neutralizing activity. A pharmacokinetic study of LY-CoV555 conducted in cynomolgus monkeys demonstrated a mean half-life of 13 days and a clearance of 0.22 ml hour-1 kg-1, consistent with a typical human therapeutic antibody. In a rhesus macaque challenge model, prophylactic doses as low as 2.5 mg/kg reduced viral replication in the upper and lower respiratory tract in samples collected through study day 6 after viral inoculation. This antibody has entered clinical testing and is being evaluated across a spectrum of COVID-19 indications, including prevention and treatment.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5538, 2021 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125909

ABSTRACT

Understanding antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 is indispensable for the development of containment measures to overcome the current COVID-19 pandemic. Recent studies showed that serum from convalescent patients can display variable neutralization capacities. Still, it remains unclear whether there are specific signatures that can be used to predict neutralization. Here, we performed a detailed analysis of sera from a cohort of 101 recovered healthcare workers and we addressed their SARS-CoV-2 antibody response by ELISA against SARS-CoV-2 Spike receptor binding domain and nucleoprotein. Both ELISA methods detected sustained levels of serum IgG against both antigens. Yet, the majority of individuals from our cohort generated antibodies with low neutralization capacity and only 6% showed high neutralizing titers against both authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus and the Spike pseudotyped virus. Interestingly, higher neutralizing sera correlate with detection of -IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies against both antigens, while individuals with positive IgG alone showed poor neutralization response. These results suggest that having a broader repertoire of antibodies may contribute to more potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Altogether, our work provides a cross sectional snapshot of the SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody response in recovered healthcare workers and provides preliminary evidence that possessing multiple antibody isotypes can play an important role in predicting SARS-CoV-2 neutralization.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Neutralization Tests/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serum/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
13.
Genome Res ; 30(12): 1781-1788, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889658

ABSTRACT

Effective public response to a pandemic relies upon accurate measurement of the extent and dynamics of an outbreak. Viral genome sequencing has emerged as a powerful approach to link seemingly unrelated cases, and large-scale sequencing surveillance can inform on critical epidemiological parameters. Here, we report the analysis of 864 SARS-CoV-2 sequences from cases in the New York City metropolitan area during the COVID-19 outbreak in spring 2020. The majority of cases had no recent travel history or known exposure, and genetically linked cases were spread throughout the region. Comparison to global viral sequences showed that early transmission was most linked to cases from Europe. Our data are consistent with numerous seeds from multiple sources and a prolonged period of unrecognized community spreading. This work highlights the complementary role of genomic surveillance in addition to traditional epidemiological indicators.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Genome, Viral , Pandemics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , New York City
14.
medRxiv ; 2020 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-828498

ABSTRACT

Effective public response to a pandemic relies upon accurate measurement of the extent and dynamics of an outbreak. Viral genome sequencing has emerged as a powerful approach to link seemingly unrelated cases, and large-scale sequencing surveillance can inform on critical epidemiological parameters. Here, we report the analysis of 864 SARS-CoV-2 sequences from cases in the New York City metropolitan area during the COVID-19 outbreak in Spring 2020. The majority of cases had no recent travel history or known exposure, and genetically linked cases were spread throughout the region. Comparison to global viral sequences showed that early transmission was most linked to cases from Europe. Our data are consistent with numerous seeds from multiple sources and a prolonged period of unrecognized community spreading. This work highlights the complementary role of genomic surveillance in addition to traditional epidemiological indicators.

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