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Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S350-S351, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601905


Background Patients affected by COVID-19 pneumonia who present severe symptoms with manifest hypoxemia and cytokine storm have a high mortality rate, which is why therapies focused on reducing inflammation and improving lung function have been used, one of them being jakinibs through of the blocking of the JAK tracks. Methods Patients who presented data of severe pneumonia due to COVID-19 with data of severe hypoxemia and cytokine storm were selected, from June to August 2020, to whom the SaO2/FiO2 ratio is measured at the beginning, intermediate and end of treatment, as well as D dimer and serum ferritin. Comorbidity and drugs taken previously are analyzed. The patients being cared for at home. Results We included data from 30 patients, 8 (27%) women and 22 (73%) men, with a median age of 58.5 (46.5 - 68.0) years. 23 patients (77%) had comorbidities, the most frequent being arterial hypertension (43%), followed by obesity (30%), type 2 diabetes mellitus (27%), among others. In the laboratory, the medians of D-Dimer 982 ng/mL, Ferritin 1,375 ng/mL and C-Reactive Protein 10.0 mg/dL. Regarding the use of previous medications, we found that 29 (97%) patients had treatment with some medication, the most frequent: azithromycin (77%), ivermectin (53%) and dexamethasone (47%). The median number of medications received was 3. The initial pulse oximetry (SaO2) measurement with room air had a median of 80.5% and the median SaO2/FiO2 (SAFI) was 134;Regarding the type of SIRA, 90% had moderate SIRA and 10% had severe SIRA. The median day of evolution on which baricitinib was started was 10 days, all received 4 mg/day, and the median days of treatment with baricitinib was 14.0 days. At follow-up, SaO2 at 7 days had a median of 93.0% and the median SAFI at 7 days was 310.0;the median SaO2 at 14 days was 95.0% and the median SAFI at 14 days was 452.0. In comparative analysis, baseline SaO2/SAFI was significantly lower compared to 7 and 14 days (p = 0.001 for both comparisons). The outcomes, 27 (90%) patients improved and there were 3 (10%) who died. Demographic Variables Respiratory Variables Results on SAFI and SaO2 Conclusion Baricitinib therapy in these patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who present with severe hypoxemia and cytokine storm presented good results by improving clinical status and pulmonary failure, with patients being cared for at home and avoiding mechanical ventilation. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21266871


Comprehensive data on transmission mitigation behaviors and both SARS-CoV-2 infection and serostatus are needed from large, community-based cohorts to identify COVID-19 risk factors and the impact of public health measures. From July 2020-March 2021, approximately 5,500 adults from the East Bay Area, California were followed over three data collection rounds to investigate the association between geographic and demographic characteristics and transmission mitigation behavior with SARS-CoV-2 prevalence. We estimated the populated-adjusted prevalence of antibodies from SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 vaccination, and self-reported COVID-19 test positivity. Population-adjusted SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was low, increasing from 1.03% (95% CI: 0.50-1.96) in Round 1 (July-September 2020), to 1.37% (95% CI: 0.75-2.39) in Round 2 (October-December 2020), to 2.18% (95% CI: 1.48-3.17) in Round 3 (February-March 2021). Population-adjusted seroprevalence of COVID-19 vaccination was 21.64% (95% CI: 19.20-24.34) in Round 3, with Whites having 4.35% (95% CI: 0.35-8.32) higher COVID-19 vaccine seroprevalence than non-Whites. No evidence for an association between transmission mitigation behavior and seroprevalence was observed. Despite >99% of participants reporting wearing masks, non-Whites, lower-income, and lower-educated individuals had the highest SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and lowest vaccination seroprevalence. Results demonstrate that more effective policies are needed to address these disparities and inequities.

Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21266786


Serological surveillance studies of infectious diseases provide population-level estimates of infection and antibody prevalence, generating crucial insight into population-level immunity, risk factors leading to infection, and effectiveness of public health measures. These studies traditionally rely on detection of pathogen-specific antibodies in samples derived from venipuncture, an expensive and logistically challenging aspect of serological surveillance. During the COVID-19 pandemic, guidelines implemented to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection made collection of venous blood logistically difficult at a time when SARS-CoV-2 serosurveillance was urgently needed. Dried blood spots (DBS) have generated interest as an alternative to venous blood for SARS-CoV-2 serological applications due to their stability, low cost, and ease of collection; DBS samples can be self-generated via fingerprick by community members and mailed at ambient temperatures. Here, we detail the development of four DBS-based SARS-CoV-2 serological methods and demonstrate their implementation in a large serological survey of community members from 12 cities in the East Bay region of the San Francisco metropolitan area using at- home DBS collection. We find that DBS perform similarly to plasma/serum in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and commercial SARS-CoV-2 serological assays. In addition, we show that DBS samples can reliably detect antibody responses months post-infection and track antibody kinetics after vaccination. Implementation of DBS enabled collection of valuable serological data from our study population to investigate changes in seroprevalence over an eight-month period. Our work makes a strong argument for the implementation of DBS in serological studies, not just for SARS-CoV-2, but any situation where phlebotomy is inaccessible.

Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21250963


ImportanceEssential workers in agriculture and food production have been severely affected by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. ObjectiveTo identify risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 shedding and antibody response in farmworkers in California. DesignThis cross-sectional study collected survey data and determined current SARS-CoV-2 shedding and seropositivity among 1,107 farmworkers in Californias Salinas Valley from 16 July to 30 November 2020. SettingFarmworkers receiving transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) tests for SARS-CoV-2 infection at federally qualified community clinics and community sites were invited to participate in our study. ParticipantsIndividuals were eligible if they were not pregnant, [≥]18 years old, had conducted farm work since the pandemic started, and were proficient in English or Spanish. ExposuresSociodemographic, household, community, and workplace characteristics. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s)Current (as indicated by TMA positivity) and historical (as indicated by IgG seropositivity) SARS-CoV-2 infection. ResultsMost farmworkers enrolled in the study were born in Mexico, had primary school or lower levels of educational attainment, and were overweight or obese. Current SARS-CoV-2 shedding was associated in multivariable analyses with attained only primary or lower educational levels (RR=1.32; 95% CI: 0.99-1.76), speaking an indigenous language at home (RR=1.30; 0.97-1.73), working in the fields (RR=1.60; 1.03-2.50), and exposure to known or suspected COVID-19 case at home (RR=2.98; 2.06-4.32) or in the workplace (RR=1.59; 1.18-2.14). Antibody detection was associated with residential exposures including living in crowded housing (RR=1.23; 0.98-1.53), with children (RR=1.40; 1.1-1.76) or unrelated roommates (RR=1.40; 1.19-1.64), and with a known or suspected COVID-19 case (RR=1.59; 1.13-2.24). Those who were obese (RR=1.65; 1.01-2.70) or diabetic (RR=1.31; 0.98-1.75) were also more likely to be seropositive. Farmworkers who lived in rural areas other than Greenfield (RR=0.58; 0.47-0.71), worked indoors (RR=0.68; 0.61-0.77), or whose employer provided them with information on how to protect themselves at work (RR=0.59; 0.40-0.86) had lower risk of prior infection. Conclusions and RelevanceOur findings suggest both residential and workplace exposures are contributing to SARS-CoV-2 infection among farmworkers in California. Urgent distribution of COVID-19 vaccines is warranted given this populations increased risk of infection and the essential nature of their work.

Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20248894


As essential personnel, United States farmworkers have continued working in-person throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. We undertook prospective surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infection and antibody prevalence among farmworkers in Californias Salinas Valley from 15 June to 30 November, 2020. Over this period, we observed 22.1% (1514/6864) positivity for current SARS-CoV-2 by nucleic acid detection among farmworkers tested at federally-qualified migrant and community health clinics, as compared to 17.2% (1255/7305) among other adults from the same communities (risk ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-1.37). In a nested study enrolling 1,115 farmworkers, prevalence of current infection was 27.7% among farmworkers reporting [≥]1 potential COVID-19 symptom, and 7.2% among farmworkers without symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 4.17; 2.86-6.09). Prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies increased from 10.5% (6.0-18.4%) between 16 July-31 August to 21.2% (16.6-27.4%) between 1-30 November. The high observed prevalence of infection among farmworkers underscores the need for vaccination and other preventive interventions.