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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318409

ABSTRACT

Background: In clinical practice, the striking similarities observed at computed tomography (CT) between the diseases make it difficult to distinguish a COVID-19 pneumonia from a progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD) secondary to Systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of the present study was to identify the main CT features that may help distinguishing SSc-ILD from COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: This multicentric study included 22 international readers divided in the radiologist group (RAD) and non-radiologist group (nRAD). A total of 99 patients, 52 with COVID-19 and 47 with SSc-ILD, were included in the study.Findings: Fibrosis inside focal ground glass opacities (GGO) in the upper lobes;fibrosis in the lower lobe GGO;reticulations in lower lobes (especially if bilateral and symmetrical or associated with signs of fibrosis) were the CT features most frequently associated with SSc-ILD. The CT features most frequently associated with COVID- 19 pneumonia were: consolidation (CONS) in the lower lobes, CONS with peripheral (both central/peripheral or patchy distributions), anterior and posterior CONS and rounded-shaped GGOs in the lower lobes. After multivariate analysis, the presence of CONS in the lower lobes (p <0.0001) and signs of fibrosis in GGO in the lower lobes (p <0.0001) remained independently associated with COVID-19 pneumonia or SSc-ILD, respectively. A predictive score weas created which resulted positively associated with the COVID-19 diagnosis (96.1% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity).Interpretation: The CT differential diagnosis between COVID-19 pneumonia and SSc-ILD is possible through the combination our score and the radiologic expertise. If an overlap of both diseases is suspected, the presence of consolidation in the lower lobes may suggest a COVID-19 pneumonia while the presence of fibrosis inside GGO may indicate a SSc-ILD.Funding: No Funding were received for this study.Declaration of Interests: SC reports personal fees from NOVARTIS-SANOFI-LILLY-CELTHER-PFIZER-JANSSEN;MK reports grants and personal fees from Boehringer-Ingelheim, personal fees from Corbus, grants and personal fees from Chugai, grants and personal fees from Ono Pharmeceuticals, personal fees from Tanabe-Mitsubishi, personal fees from Astellas, personal fees from Gilead, personal fees from Mochida;ST reports personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, personal fees from Roche, outside the submitted work;GS reports personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim;CB reports personal fees from Actelion, personal fees from Eli Lilly, grants from European Scleroderma Trial and Research (EUSTAR) group, grants from New Horizon Fellowship, grants from Foundation for Research in Rheumatology (FOREUM), grants from Fondazione Italiana per la Ricerca sull'Artrite (FIRA);CV reports grants and personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, grants and personal fees from F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd.;FL reports lectures fee from Roche and from Boehringer- Ingelheim;CPD reports grants and personal fees from GSK, personal fees from Boerhinger Ingelheim, grants from Servier, grants and personal fees from Inventiva, grants and personal fees from Arxx Therapeutics, personal fees from Corbus, personal fees from Sanofi, personal fees from Roche;FL reports grants and personal fees from GSK, personal fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, personal fees from Orion Pharma, personal fees from AstraZeneca, grants from MSD, personal fees from HIKMA, personal fees from Trudell International, grants and personal fees from Chiesi Farmaceutici, personal fees from Novartis Pharma;MH reports personal fees from Speaking fees from Actelion, Eli lilly and Pfizer;D K reports personal fees from Actelion, grants and personal fees from Bayer, grants and personal fees from Boehringer Ingelhem, personal fees from CSL Behring, grants and personal fees from Horizon, grants from Pfizer, personal fees from Corbus, grants and personal fees from BMS, outside the submitted work;and Dr Khanna is the Chief Medical officer of Eicos Sciences Inc and has s ock options. All the mentioned authors declared previous feed outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This retrospective, observational, multicentric, international study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Florence Careggi hospital (protocol number 17104_oss).

3.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 61(4): 1600-1609, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328934

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the main CT features that may help in distinguishing a progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD) secondary to SSc from COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This multicentric study included 22 international readers grouped into a radiologist group (RADs) and a non-radiologist group (nRADs). A total of 99 patients, 52 with COVID-19 and 47 with SSc-ILD, were included in the study. RESULTS: Fibrosis inside focal ground-glass opacities (GGOs) in the upper lobes; fibrosis in the lower lobe GGOs; reticulations in lower lobes (especially if bilateral and symmetrical or associated with signs of fibrosis) were the CT features most frequently associated with SSc-ILD. The CT features most frequently associated with COVID- 19 pneumonia were: consolidation (CONS) in the lower lobes, CONS with peripheral (both central/peripheral or patchy distributions), anterior and posterior CONS and rounded-shaped GGOs in the lower lobes. After multivariate analysis, the presence of CONs in the lower lobes (P < 0.0001) and signs of fibrosis in GGOs in the lower lobes (P < 0.0001) remained independently associated with COVID-19 pneumonia and SSc-ILD, respectively. A predictive score was created that was positively associated with COVID-19 diagnosis (96.1% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity). CONCLUSION: CT diagnosis differentiating between COVID-19 pneumonia and SSc-ILD is possible through a combination of the proposed score and radiologic expertise. The presence of consolidation in the lower lobes may suggest COVID-19 pneumonia, while the presence of fibrosis inside GGOs may indicate SSc-ILD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Scleroderma, Systemic , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Testing , Fibrosis , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Scleroderma, Systemic/complications , Scleroderma, Systemic/diagnostic imaging , Scleroderma, Systemic/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 37(1): e3354, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059440

ABSTRACT

AIMS: COVID-19 is especially severe for elderly subjects with cardiometabolic and respiratory comorbidities. Neck circumference (NC) has been shown to be strongly related to cardiometabolic and respiratory illnesses even after adjustment for body mass index (BMI). We performed a prospective study to investigate the potential of NC to predict the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in adult COVID-19 inpatients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively and consecutively enrolled COVID-19 adult patients admitted to dedicated medical wards of two Italian hospitals from 25 March to 7 April 2020. On admission, clinical, biochemical and anthropometric data, including BMI and NC were collected. As primary outcome measure, the maximum respiratory support received was evaluated. Follow-up time was 30 days from hospital admission. RESULTS: We enrolled 132 subjects (55.0-75.8 years, 32% female). During the study period, 26 (19.7%) patients underwent IMV. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, after adjusting for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension and COPD, NC resulted independently and significantly associated with IMV risk (adjusted OR 1.260-per 1 cm increase 95% CI:1.120-1.417; P < .001), with a stronger association in the subgroup with BMI ≤30 Kg/m2 (adjusted OR 1.526; 95% CI:1.243-1.874; P < .001). NC showed a good discrimination power in predicting patients requiring IMV (AUC 0.783; 95% CI:0.684-0.882; P < .001). In particular, NC > 40.5 cm (>37.5 for females and >42.5 for males) showed a higher and earlier IMV risk compared to subjects with lower NC (Log-rank test: P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: NC is an easy to measure parameter able to predict the need for IMV in adult COVID-19 inpatients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Neck/pathology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Survival Rate
5.
Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis ; 12: 1759720X20953356, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-852872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mortality rate in patients infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be related to the presence of comorbidities like diabetes, cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. On the contrary, few data exist on the impact of CoronaVirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) on patients with rheumatic disorders, namely in those having pulmonary involvement and treated with immunosuppressive agents. The present survey is aimed at knowing the impact of COVID-19 in a cohort of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Telephone interviews were carried out during the COVID-19 outbreak in patients with SSc followed in a Rheumatic Disease Unit in Italy. Patients were asked for confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, symptoms suggestive of COVID-19, and modification of their therapy. RESULTS: A total number of 526 patients with SSc were contacted and interviewed. Of them, 270 and 256 had limited cutaneous and diffuse cutaneous SSc, respectively. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) was present in 45% of patients and most of them (68.2%) were treated with immunosuppressive therapy. Only two patients were hospitalized for COVID-19-related pneumonia, and one of them died despite invasive ventilator support. An additional 11 patients reported flu-like symptoms compatible with a mild form of COVID-19. Nobody modified the therapy during the COVID-19 outbreak. CONCLUSION: Despite the large prevalence of ILD and immunosuppressive therapies, which can be considered risk factors for the occurrence and severity of incidental viral infections, the impact of COVID-19, in terms of mortality rate and morbidity, does not appear particularly severe in this large cohort of patients with SSc. Possible mechanisms influencing this figure are discussed.

6.
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease ; 5(3):147, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-762602

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) and gastrointestinal symptoms showed increased values of fecal calprotectin (FC). Additionally, bowel abnormalities were a common finding during abdominal imaging of individuals with COVID-19 despite being asymptomatic. The current pilot study aims at evaluating FC concentrations in patients without gastrointestinal symptoms. Methods: we enrolled 25 consecutive inpatients with COVID-19 pneumonia, who were admitted without gastrointestinal symptoms and a previous history of inflammatory bowel disease. Results: At admission, 21 patients showed increased FC with median values of 116 (87.5;243.5) mg/kg despite absent gastrointestinal symptoms. We found a strong positive correlation between FC and D-Dimer (r = 0.745, p <0.0001). Two patients developed bowel perforation. Conclusion: our findings may change the current understanding of COVID-19 intestinal-related disease pathogenesis, shedding new light on the potential role of thrombosis and the consequent hypoxic intestinal damage.

7.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(9)2020 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725472

ABSTRACT

This study aims to assess the peripheral blood cell count "signature" of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to discriminate promptly between COronaVIrus Disease 19 (COVID-19) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We designed a retrospective case-control study, enrolling 525 patients (283 COVID-19 and 242 with CAP). All patients had a fever and at least one of the following signs: cough, chest pain, or dyspnea. We excluded patients treated with immunosuppressants, steroids, or affected by diseases known to modify blood cell count. COVID-19 patients showed a significant reduction in white blood cells (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils) and platelets. We studied these parameters univariately, combined the significant ones in a multivariate model (AUROC 0.86, Nagelkerke PSEUDO-R2 0.5, Hosmer-Lemeshow p-value 0.9) and examined its discriminative performance in an internally-randomized validation cohort (AUROC 0.84). The cut-off selected according to Youden's Index (-0.13) showed a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 72% in the training cohort, and a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 73% in the validation cohort. In addition, we determined the probability of having COVID-19 pneumonia for each Model for possible Early COvid-19 Recognition (MECOR) Score value. In conclusion, our model could provide a simple, rapid, and cheap tool for prompt COVID-19 diagnostic triage in patients with CAP. The actual effectiveness should be evaluated in further, prospective studies also involving COVID-19 patients with negative nasopharyngeal swabs.

8.
Microorganisms ; 8(7)2020 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635090

ABSTRACT

The role of immunosuppression in SARS-CoV-2-related disease (COVID-19) is a matter of debate. We here describe the course and the outcome of COVID-19 in a cohort of patients undergoing treatment with calcineurin inhibitors. In this monocentric cohort study, data were collected from the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy up to April 28th 2020. Patients were followed at our hospital for solid organ transplantation or systemic rheumatic disorders (RMDs) and were on calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based therapy. Selected patients were referred from the North of Italy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical course of COVID-19 in this setting. We evaluated 385 consecutive patients (220 males, 57%; median age 61 years, IQR 48-69); 331 (86%) received solid organ transplantation and 54 (14%) had a RMD. CNIs were the only immunosuppressant administered in 47 patients (12%). We identified 14 (4%) COVID-19 patients, all transplanted, mainly presenting with fever (86%) and diarrhea (71%). Twelve patients were hospitalized and two of them died, both with severe comorbidities. No patients developed acute respiratory distress syndrome or infectious complications. The surviving 10 patients are now fully recovered. The clinical course of COVID-19 patients on CNIs is generally mild, and the risk of superinfection seems low.

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